Timeline of women's suffrage

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Women's suffrage in the world in 1908
Suffrage parade, New York City, May 6, 1912

Women's suffrage – the right of women to vote – has been achieved at various times in countries throughout the world. In many nations, women's suffrage was granted before universal suffrage, in which cases women and men from certain socioeconomic classes or races were still unable to vote. Some countries granted suffrage to both sexes at the same time. This timeline lists years when women's suffrage was enacted. Some countries are listed more than once, as the right was extended to more women according to age, land ownership, etc. In many cases, the first voting took place in a subsequent year.

Some women in the Isle of Man (geographically part of the British Isles but not part of the United Kingdom) gained the right to vote in 1881.[1]

New Zealand was the first self-governing country in the world in which all women had the right to vote in parliamentary elections; from 1893.[2] However women could not stand for election to parliament until 1919, when three women stood (unsuccessfully); see 1919 in New Zealand.

The colony of South Australia allowed women to both vote and stand for election in 1894.[3] In Sweden, conditional women's suffrage was granted during the age of liberty between 1718 and 1772.[4] But it was not until the year 1919 that equality was achieved, where women's votes were valued the same as men's.

The Australian Commonwealth Franchise Act 1902 enabled women to vote at federal elections and also permitted women to stand for election to the Australian Parliament, making the newly-federated country of Australia the first in the modern world to do so, although some states excluded indigenous Australians.

In 1906, the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland, which later became the Republic of Finland, was the first country in the world to give all women and all men both the right to vote and the right to run for office. Finland was also the first country in Europe to give women the right to vote.[5][6] The world's first female members of parliament were elected in Finland the following year.

In Europe, the last jurisdiction to grant women the right to vote was the Swiss canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden (AI), in 1991; AI is the smallest Swiss canton with c. 14,100 inhabitants in 1990.[7] Women in Switzerland obtained the right to vote at federal level in 1971,[8] and at local cantonal level between 1959 and 1972, except for Appenzell in 1989/1990,[9] see Women's suffrage in Switzerland.

In Saudi Arabia women were first allowed to vote in December 2015 in the municipal elections.[10]

For other women's rights, see timeline of women's legal rights (other than voting).

17th century[edit]


18th century[edit]


  •  Sweden: Female taxpaying members of city guilds are allowed to vote in local city elections (rescinded in 1758) and national elections (rescinded in 1772).[4]


  •  Sweden: Female taxpaying property owners of legal majority are allowed to vote in local countryside elections (never rescinded).[4]



19th century[edit]

Portrait of an unknown New Zealand suffragette, Charles Hemus Studio Auckland, c. 1880—the sitter wears a white camellia and has cut off her hair, both symbolic of support for advancing women's rights












  •  Sweden: limited to local elections with votes graded after taxation; universal franchise achieved in 1919,[19] which went into effect at the 1921 elections.
  •  Argentina: limited to local elections, only for literate women in San Juan Province.



  •  Victoria – Australian colony of Victoria: women were unintentionally enfranchised by the Electoral Act (1863), and proceeded to vote in the following year's elections. The Act was amended in 1865 to correct the error.[20]
  •  Kingdom of Bohemia – Austrian Empire: limited to taxpaying women and women in "learned professions" who were allowed to vote by proxy and made eligible for election to the legislative body in 1864.[19]




  • United States – Utah Territory passed a law granting women's suffrage. Utah women citizens voted in municipal elections that spring and a general election on August 1, beating Wyoming women to the polls.[26] The women's suffrage law was later repealed as part of the Edmunds–Tucker Act in 1887.
  • May 10, 1872, New York City: Equal Rights Party nominates Victoria C. Woodhull as their candidate for US President.



  •  Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia: Female taxpayers allowed to vote in local elections (rescinded in 1895).[27]
  •  Isle of Man (self-governing British Crown dependency, with its own parliament and legal system) (limited at first to women "freeholders" and then, a few years later, extended to include women "householders").[28] Universal suffrage / the franchise for all resident men and women was introduced in 1919. All men and women (with a very few exceptions such as clergy) could also stand for election from 1919.[1]



  •  United States: Proposed Constitutional Amendment to extend suffrage and the right to hold office to women (limited to spinsters and widows who owned property).[30]




  •  New Zealand: first self-governing colony in the world in which all women are given the right to vote in parliamentary elections. However, women were barred from standing for election until 1919.[2][32]
  •  Cook Islands (British protectorate) universal suffrage.[33]
  •  Colorado (US state) (first state in the union to enfranchise women by popular vote)[34]



  •  South Australia: South Australian women became the first in the world to stand for election.[35][36][37] This right had been granted the previous year in an act of the South Australian Parliament.




20th century[edit]







The first female MPs in the world were elected in Finland in 1907.
The argument over women's rights in Victoria was lampooned in this Melbourne Punch cartoon of 1887.





  •  California (US state)
  •  Argentina: Julieta Lanteri, doctor and leading feminist activist, votes in the election for the Buenos Aires City Legislature. She had realized that the government did not make specifications regarding gender, and appealed to justice successfully, becoming the first South American woman to vote.
  •  Portugal: Carolina Beatriz Ângelo becomes the first Portuguese woman to vote due to a legal technicality; the law is shortly thereafter altered to specify only literate male citizens over the age of 21 had the right to vote.





This map appeared in the magazine Puck during the Empire State Campaign, a hard-fought referendum on a suffrage amendment to the New York State constitution—the referendum failed in 1915.







  • Albania
  •  Czechoslovakia (the newly adopted constitution guarantees universal suffrage incl. women and the first vote to the National Assembly is held; politically, the women's suffrage is guaranteed already in the Declaration of Independence from 1918, and women vote in local elections in 1919)
  •  Travancore Kingdom, Princely Indian State in the British Empire. It was the first place in India to grant women's suffrage, but did not grant the right to stand in elections.[53]
  •  Jhalawar State 2nd of the princely states in India to grant women enfranchisement.[53]
  •  United States (all remaining states by amendment to federal Constitution). In practice, this meant White women; Black persons, both women and men, were largely disenfranchised by unequal literacy tests in many states until the Civil Rights Act of 1964.


  •  Azerbaijan SSR[54] (Soviet Union)
  •  British Raj, Madras Presidency was the first of the provinces in the British Raj to grant women's suffrage, though there were income and property restrictions and women were not allowed to stand for office.[55]
  •  British Raj, Bombay Presidency became the second of the provinces in British India to grant the right for women to vote with income and property restrictions and an inability to stand in elections.[56]
  • Federal Republic of Central America (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras) established in the 9 September 1921 federal constitution that married or widowed literate women of 21 or more, or single literate women of 25 or more could vote or hold office as long as they met any property requirements.[57] When the Federation fell apart the following year, women lost the right to vote.[58][59]
  •  Sweden The Riksdag takes the second and confirming the decision to amend the Constitution such that equal voting rights are introduced in elections to the Riksdag.






  •  British Raj, Punjab Province became the 7th province in British India to grant limited suffrage without the ability for women to stand in elections.[65]
  •  British Raj was empowered by the British Parliament to amend the voting regulations and allow women to stand for office, if the province in which they resided granted women's suffrage.[55]




  •  British Raj Bihar and Orissa Province became the last of the provinces in British India to grant women's limited suffrage with income and property restrictions.[55]
  •  Ecuador (the right of women to vote is written into the Constitution)
  •  Puerto Rico (literate women given the right to vote. Equal suffrage granted in 1935.)
  •  Romania (limited to local elections only, with restrictions)[66]




  •  Ceylon (Modern day Sri Lanka) (Universal Suffrage)
  •  Chile (limited to municipal level for female owners of real estate under Legislative Decree No. 320)
  •  Portugal (with unequal restrictions regarding level of education)
  •  Spain (universal suffrage)


First women electors of Brazil.
Eighteen female MPs joined the Grand National Assembly of Turkey in 1935.


  •  Chile (limited to municipal level under Law No. 5,357)
  •  Cuba
  •  Portugal (suffrage is expanded)
  •  Tabasco (Mexican state) (limited to regional and congress elections only)
  •  Turkey (parliamentary elections; full voting rights and rights to be elected for any public office including the National Parliament, which resulted in 18 female members of the parliament to stand for office from 18 different provinces in the 1935 National Parliament elections).[68]





  •  El Salvador (with restrictions requiring literacy and a higher age)[73]
  •  Romania (women are granted suffrage on equal terms with men with restrictions on both men and women; in practice the restrictions affected women more than men)[74][75]
  •  South West Africa (white women)[76]




































  •  Bangladesh (suffrage enshrined in constitution adopted after independence) (For pre 1971 rights see British Raj 1935 and East/West Pakistan 1947.)

















21st century[edit]










  •  Afghanistan (restricting previous full right, allowing "temporarily" limited voting rights)[102]

Note: In some countries, both men and women have limited suffrage. For example, in Brunei, which is a sultanate, there are no national elections, and voting exists only on local issues.[103] In the United Arab Emirates the rulers of the seven emirates each select a proportion of voters for the Federal National Council (FNC) that together account for about 12% of Emirati citizens.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Tynwald - Parliament of the Isle of Man - Home". www.tynwald.org.im. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  2. ^ a b "New Zealand women and the vote - Women and the vote | NZHistory, New Zealand history online". nzhistory.govt.nz. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
  3. ^ 1894: Women’s suffrage, South Australia, National Museum of Australia
  4. ^ a b c Karlsson Sjögren, Åsa, Männen, kvinnorna och rösträtten: medborgarskap och representation 1723–1866 [Men, women and suffrage: citizenship and representation 1723–1866], Carlsson, Stockholm, 2006 (in Swedish)
  5. ^ a b Brief history of the Finnish Parliament
  6. ^ a b Centenary of women's full political rights in Finland
  7. ^ "Bilanz der ständigen Wohnbevölkerung nach Kanton, 1991–2016" (XLS) (official site). Neuchâtel, Switzerland: Federal Statistical Office, FSO. 30 August 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  8. ^ Smith, Bonnie G., ed. (2008). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History. Oxford University Press. pp. 171 vol 1. ISBN 9780195148909.
  9. ^ "Women dominate new Swiss cabinet". BBC News. 22 September 2010.
  10. ^ Gorney, Cynthia (12 December 2015). "In a Historic Election, Saudi Women Cast First-Ever Ballots". National Geographic.
  11. ^ Wierdsma Schik, P. (1857). "Akademisch proefschrift over de staatsregtelijke geschiedenis der Staten van Friesland van 1581 tot 1795". Google Books (in Dutch). W. Eekhoff. p. 18. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
  12. ^ Lucien Felli, "La renaissance du Paolisme". M. Bartoli, Pasquale Paoli, père de la patrie corse, Albatros, 1974, p. 29. "Il est un point où le caractère précurseur des institutions paolines est particulièrement accusé, c'est celui du suffrage en ce qu'il était entendu de manière très large. Il prévoyait en effet le vote des femmes qui, à l'époque, ne votaient pas en France."
  13. ^ "Women and the vote: Page 5 – World suffrage timeline". Nzhistory.net.nz. New Zealand History. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
  14. ^ "A Visit to Pitcairn's Island". The Anglo American. Vol. 9. E.L. Garvin & Company. 4 September 1847. They elect a magistrate every twelve months, upon which occasion every man and woman above eighteen is entitled to a vote; and, if married before that age, they are allowed a vote in consequence.
  15. ^ Sai, David Keanu (12 March 1998). "Memorandum—Re: Suffrage of Female Subjects". HawaiianKingdom.org. Honolulu, Hawaii: Acting Council of Regency. Archived from the original on 21 October 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  16. ^ Kauanui, J. Kēhaulani (2018). Paradoxes of Hawaiian Sovereignty: Land, Sex, and the Colonial Politics of State Nationalism. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. p. 190. ISBN 978-0-822-37049-9.
  17. ^ "La Toscana festeggia 70 anni di voto alle donne con Irma, 108 anni - Intoscana.it". www.intoscana.it (in Italian). 25 May 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
  18. ^ M C Mirrow, Latin American Constitutionalism: The Constitution of Cadiz and its legacy
  19. ^ a b c P. Orman Ray: Woman Suffrage in Foreign Countries. The American Political Science Review. Vol. 12, No. 3 (Aug. 1918), pp. 469–474
  20. ^ "Women in Parliament – Parliament of Victoria". Parliament.vic.gov.au. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
  21. ^ a b "Female Suffrage before 1918", The History of the Parliamentary Franchise, House of Commons Library, 1 March 2013, pp. 37–9, retrieved 16 March 2016, by 1900 the number of women registered for the local government franchise in England was over 1 million
  22. ^ a b Heater, Derek (2006). Citizenship in Britain: A History. Edinburgh University Press. p. 136. ISBN 9780748626724.
  23. ^ "Women's rights". The National Archives. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  24. ^ a b "Which Act Gave Women the Right to Vote in Britain?". Synonym. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  25. ^ Rea, Tom. "Right Choice, Wrong Reasons: Wyoming women win the right to vote". wyohistory.org. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  26. ^ "Gaining, Losing, and Winning Back the Vote: The Story of Utah Women's Suffrage". Better Days Curriculum. 9 February 2018. Retrieved 9 November 2020.
  27. ^ Čepulo, Dalibor (2000). "Status and organization of Croatian townships under the Statute on Ordering the Township Municipalities of 1881". Hrvatska Javna Uprava. 2: 83–120.
  28. ^ Myers, Rebecca (28 May 2013). "General History of Women's Suffrage in Britain". The Independent. Archived from the original on 21 June 2022. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  29. ^ "Canada-WomensVote-WomenSuffrage". Faculty.marianopolis.edu. 27 January 1916. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
  30. ^ United States House of Representatives (30 April 1888). House Joint Resolution (H.J. Res.) 159, Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution to Extend the Right to Vote to Widows and Spinsters who are Property Holders. National Archives Catalog. File Unit: Bills and Resolutions Originating in the House of Representatives during the 50th Congress, 1885 - 1887. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  31. ^ "Wee, Small Republics: A Few Examples of Popular Government," Hawaiian Gazette, Nov 1, 1895, p 1
  32. ^ a b c Women's Suffrage
  33. ^ "World suffrage timeline - Women and the vote | NZHistory, New Zealand history online". nzhistory.govt.nz. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
  34. ^ Chapin, Laura (21 August 2010). "Colorado Led the Way on Women's Suffrage". usnews.com. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  35. ^ a b Fenna, Alan; Robbins, Jane; Summers, John (5 September 2013). Government Politics in Australia. Pearson Higher Education AU. pp. 312–. ISBN 978-1-4860-0138-5.
  36. ^ a b Bebel, August (12 November 2014). Woman and Socialism (English ed.). Socialist Literature Company. pp. 196–. GGKEY:PAF3FSJXP21.
  37. ^ a b Maule, Frances; Porritt, Annie Gertrude Webb (1917). Woman Suffrage: History, Arguments, and Results : a Collection of Six Popular Booklets Covering Practically the Entire Field of Suffrage Claims and Evidence : Designed Especially for the Convenience of Suffrage Speakers and Writers and for the Use of Debaters and Libraries. National Woman Suffrage Publishing Company. ISBN 9781340122874.
  38. ^ "Constitution of the State of Utah (Article IV Section 1)". 4 January 1896.
  39. ^ Indigenous Suffrage Timeline, Government of Queensland
  40. ^ Documenting a Democracy, Museum of Australian Democracy, retrieved 13 October 2011
  41. ^ Bourdiol, Julien (1908), Condition internationale des Nouvelles-Hebrides, p 106
  42. ^ Pipes, Richard (1997). The Formation of the Soviet Union: Communism and Nationalism, 1917–1923. Harvard University Press. p. 81. ISBN 9780674309517.
  43. ^ Crimean Tatar National Party (Milli Firka)
  44. ^ Исаков, Александра. "Дан када су први пут гласале жене из Суботице". Politika Online. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
  45. ^ Spasović, Ivana. "Sedam žena poslanicа Velike narodne skupštine 1918. prisajedinjenja Kraljevini Srbiji". Radio-televizija Vojvodine. Retrieved 13 September 2021.
  46. ^ Tadeusz Swietochowski. Russian Azerbaijan, 1905–1920: The Shaping of a National Identity in a Muslim Community. Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-521-52245-5, 978-0-521-52245-8, p. 144
  47. ^ a b Sulkunen, Irma; Nevala-Nurmi, Seija-L eena; Markkola, Pirjo, eds. (2009). Suffrage, Gender and Citizenship: international perspectives on parliamentary reforms. Newcastle upon Tyne, England: Cambridge Scholars. pp. 242–243. ISBN 978-1-4438-0162-1.
  48. ^ See article 4 of the 1918 constitution of the R.S.F.S.R..
  49. ^ Badalyan, Lena (5 December 2018). "Women's Suffrage: The Armenian Formula". Chai Khana. Archived from the original on 1 December 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  50. ^ Harutyunyan, Anahit (8 March 2018). Առաջին խորհրդարանի (1919-1920) երեք կին պատգամավորները. ANI Armenian Research Center (in Armenian). Yerevan: Armenian Research Center for Anteriology. Archived from the original on 4 May 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2019. Three female deputies of the first parliament (1919-1920)
  51. ^ "History this week:Constitutional Developments in British Guiana and Jamaica between 1890 and 1945 (Part 3)". Stabroek News. Georgetown, Guyana. 13 May 2010. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
  52. ^ "Continuation of the Session of the Honourable Legislative Council". The Gleaner. Kingston, Jamaica. 17 May 1919. p. 6. Retrieved 16 February 2019 – via Newspaperarchive.com. open access
  53. ^ a b Bennett, Stanley Reed, ed. (1922). "The Woman Suffrage Movement". The Indian Year Book. London: Coleman & Co., Ltd. pp. 533–536. OCLC 4347383.
  54. ^ a b Lewis, Jone Johnson. "International Woman Suffrage Timeline". About.com. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
  55. ^ a b c d e f g Deivanai, P. (May 2003). Feminist Struggle for Universal Suffrage in India with Special Reference to Tamilnadu 1917 to 1952 (PhD). Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu: Bharathiar University. pp. 128–131. hdl:10603/101938.
  56. ^ Odeyar, S. B. (1989). The Role of Marathi Women in the Struggle for India's Freedom (PhD). Kolhapur, Maharashtra: Shivaji University. pp. 186–187. hdl:10603/140691.
  57. ^ Perry, Edward (February 1922). "Central American Union". The Hispanic American Historical Review. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. 5 (1): 39–42. doi:10.2307/2505979. ISSN 0018-2168. JSTOR 2505979.
  58. ^ Cañas Dinarte, Carlos (7 March 2018). "La manifestación de mujeres del 25 de diciembre de 1922" [The Demonstration of Women on December 25, 1922]. issuu.com (in Spanish). El Salvador. p. 1. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
  59. ^ Leonard, Thomas (2012). "Central American Conference, Washington, 1923". In Leonard, Thomas; Buchenau, Jurgen; Longley, Kyle; Mount, Graeme (eds.). Encyclopedia of U.S. - Latin American Relations. Vol. 1: A-E. Los Angeles, California: SAGE Publications. pp. 156–157. ISBN 978-1-60871-792-7.
  60. ^ "Women Suffrage in Burma". The Woman's Leader. London: Common Cause Publishing Co., Ltd. XIV (20): 153. 16 June 1922. OCLC 5796207. Retrieved 26 November 2019 – via LSE Digital library.
  61. ^ a b c Bennett, Stanley Reed, ed. (1924). "The Woman Suffrage Movement". The Indian Year Book. London: Coleman & Co., Ltd. pp. 409–411. OCLC 4347383.
  62. ^ "Popular Government in Rajkot: Universal Franchise". International Woman Suffrage News. London: International Woman Suffrage Alliance. 17 (9): 156. July 1923. OCLC 41224540. Retrieved 26 November 2019 – via LSE Digital library.
  63. ^ Bennett, Stanley Reed; Low, Francis, eds. (1936). "The Woman Suffrage Movement". The Indian Year Book. London: Coleman & Co., Ltd. pp. 620–622. OCLC 4347383.
  64. ^ Only theoretically, due to the subsequent abolition of these elections due to the establishment of the fascist dictatorship
  65. ^ Pearson, Gail (2006). "9. Tradition, Law and the Female Suffrage Movement in India". In Edwards, Louise; Roces, Mina (eds.). Women's Suffrage in Asia: Gender, Nationalism and Democracy. London, England: Routledge. p. 430. ISBN 978-1-134-32035-6.
  66. ^ Popescu, Camelia. "Lupta pentru dreptul de vot feminin în România interbelică". Historia.ro. Adevărul Holding. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
  67. ^ "This Day in World History: February 6, 1935 – Turkey Holds First Election That Allows Women to Vote". OUP Blog. 6 February 2012.
  68. ^ "This Day in World History: February 6, 1935 – Turkey Holds First Election That Allows Women to Vote". OUP Blog. 6 February 2012.
  69. ^ "Local Government (Extension of Franchise) Act, 1935, Section 2". Irish Statute Book. Retrieved 4 November 2017.; O'Kelly, Seán T. (1 June 1933). "Dáil Éireann debate - Thursday, 1 Jun 1933: Cement (No. 2) Bill, 1933—Money Resolution. - Local Government (Extension of Franchise) Bill, 1933.—Second Stage". Dáil Éireann Debates. Vol.47 No.18 p.21 cc.2301–2303. Retrieved 4 November 2017. The qualifications are to be found in the Representation of the People Act, 1918, and except for an alteration in the qualifying date there has been no change in the law in respect of this franchise.... The Bill extends local government franchise to every person who is a citizen of Saorstát Eireann who has attained the age of 21 years and is not subject to legal incapacity
  70. ^ Fraser, Hugh (1918). "Franchises (women)". The Representation of the people act, 1918 : with explanatory notes. London: Sweet and Maxwell. pp. 73–76.
  71. ^ Rodriguez Ruiz, Blanca; Rubio-Marín, Ruth (2012). The Struggle for Female Suffrage in Europe: Voting to Become Citizens. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill Publishers. p. 329. ISBN 978-90-04-22425-4.
  72. ^ Extended franchise in Samoa Pacific Islands Monthly, November 1938, p52
  73. ^ a b "Situacion de la Mujer rural en El Salvador" (PDF). Retrieved 25 November 2019.
  74. ^ a b "Summary: Rights to Vote in Romania". Archived from the original on 9 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  75. ^ "CONSTITUŢIA: României din 1938". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  76. ^ S. Low (1955) Guide to Southern Africa, p53
  77. ^ "The Evolution of Bermuda's Franchise". Parliamentary Registry Bermuda.
  78. ^ Daskalova, Krassimira (2004). "The Women's Movement in Bulgaria in a Life Story". Women's History Review. Milton Park, England: Taylor and Francis. 13 (1): 94. doi:10.1080/09612020400200384. ISSN 0961-2025.
  79. ^ a b "Publications | International IDEA" (PDF). www.idea.int. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  80. ^ (in Italian) Extension to the women of the right to vote Archived 2008-05-26 at the Wayback Machine
  81. ^ "Women's Suffrage". Ipu.org. 23 May 1997. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
  82. ^ Gregory Hammond, The Women's Suffrage Movement and Feminism in Argentina From Roca to Peron (U of New Mexico Press; 2011)
  83. ^ "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights". www.un.org. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  84. ^ "Culture of Netherlands Antilles - history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social".
  85. ^ "Por plebiscito, se inicia el Frente Nacional y se le reconoce a la mujer el derecho al voto | banrepcultural.org". www.banrepcultural.org. Archived from the original on 4 November 2011.
  86. ^ Wayne, Tiffany K. (29 June 2020). Women's Suffrage: The Complete Guide to the Nineteenth Amendment. ISBN 9781440871993.
  87. ^ Sankey, Margaret D. (17 August 2018). Women and War in the 21st Century: A Country-by-Country Guide. ISBN 9781440857669.
  88. ^ Franceschet, Susan; Krook, Mona Lena; Tan, Netina (26 October 2018). The Palgrave Handbook of Women's Political Rights. ISBN 9781137590749.
  89. ^ "El Voto Feminino en Ecuador, published 6 April 1991, accessed 1 November 2010". Hoy.com.ec. 14 October 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
  90. ^ Antó, Maria; Almeida, nia de Figueiredo Pires de (19 June 2017). "Women Mayors in Portugal: A Case Study in Political Representation and Citizenship". Revista de Sociologia e Política. 26 (68): 27–42. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  91. ^ "Women's Suffrage". archive.ipu.org. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  92. ^ Darwish, Adel (25 October 2002). "Bahrain's women vote for first time". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
  93. ^ "Publications | International IDEA" (PDF). www.idea.int. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  94. ^ "BBC - Radio 4 Woman's Hour - Timeline:When women got the vote". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  95. ^ a b African Women and Children. Apollo Rwormie. 2001. ISBN 9780275962180.
  96. ^ a b "Woman Suffrage Timeline International – Winning the Vote Around the World". Womenshistory.about.com. 25 April 1908. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
  97. ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Women's Rights in the Middle East and North Africa - Qatar". Refworld. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  98. ^ "Qatar". freedomhouse.org. 26 February 2013. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  99. ^ "Kuwait grants women right to vote". CNN. 16 May 2005. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
  100. ^ "Middle East :: United Arab Emirates — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  101. ^ "Women in Saudi Arabia 'to vote and run in elections'". BBC News. London. 25 September 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  102. ^ "Taliban to 'temporarily' adopt monarchy constitution granting women voting rights with riders". India Today. Delhi. 28 September 2021. Retrieved 28 September 2021.
  103. ^ "East Asia/Southeast Asia :: Brunei — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 28 June 2019.

External links[edit]