A variety of roles were played by women in post-classical warfare. James Illston says "the field of medieval gender studies is a growing one, and nowhere is this expansion more evident than the recent increase in studies which address the roles of medieval women in times of war....this change in research has been invaluable." He provides a 20-page bibliography of dozens of recent scholarly books and articles, most of them connected to the crusades.
625: Hind al-Hunnud is among fifteen women accompanying troops in a battle near Medina, singing songs to inspire warriors. She exults over the body of the man who killed her father, chews his liver, and makes jewelry from his skin and nails.
10th-century: According to legend, Saint Theodora of Vasta, in Arcadia of Peloponnesus, joined the army of Byzantine Empire in her father's stead dressed as a man, to spare her father from conscription, and had no brother who could take his place: when refusing to marry a woman who claimed to have been made pregnant by her, she is executed, resulting in the discovery of the biological gender of her corpse, and her status as a saint for the sacrifice she made for her father.
912–922: Reign of Æthelflæd, queen of Mercia. She commanded armies, fortified towns, and defeated the Danes. She also defeated the Welsh and forced them to pay tribute to her.
1087: Matilda of Tuscany personally leads a military expedition to Rome in an attempt to install Pope Victor, but the strength of the imperial counterattack soon convinced the pope to retire from the city.
1130: Female Chinese general Liang Hongyu, wife of general Han Shizhong of the Song Dynasty, blocks the advance of the Jin army with her husband. Her drumming invigorated the Song army and rallied them to defeat the Jin.
1147: Fannu, an Almoravid princess, participate in the defense of the Almoravid dynasty capital's fortress in Marrakech dressed as a man during the conquest of the Almohad jihad.
1150: The Swedish nobleman Jon Jarl are killed by Baltic pirates who attacks his estate Askenös after his return from the First Swedish Crusade, after which his widow, the Lady of Askanäs (her name is not preserved), flee to Hundhammar, gather an army and return to kill the murderers of her spouse.
Late 12th-century: Umadevi, consort of King Veera Ballala II, commanded Mysore armies against the rival Chalukyas on at least two occasions, allowing Bellala to concentrate on administrative matters and thus significantly contributing to the Hoysalas' conquest of the Chalkyua at Kalyani (near present-day Bidar).
1258: Doquz Khatun accompanies her husband Hulagu on campaigns. At the Sack of Baghdad in 1258, the Mongols massacred tens of thousands of inhabitants, but by the order of Doquz, the Christians were spared.
1261–1289: Reign of Indian queen Rudrama Devi. She leads her troops in battle, and may have been killed in battle in 1289.
1335: The Scots defeat a company led by the Count of Namur. Amongst the Count's casualties was a female lancer who had killed her opponent, Richard Shaw, at the same moment that he had killed her. Her gender was only discovered when the bodies were being stripped of their armor at the end of the engagement. "The chronicler Bower seems to have been at least as impressed by the rarity of two mounted soldiers simultaneously transfixing one another with their lances as with the fact that one of them was a woman."
1338: Agnes Randolph successfully defends her castle against a siege by England's earl of Salisbury.
1389: Frisian regent Foelke Kampana leads armies to assist her spouse Ocko Kenisna tom Brok, chief of Auricherland: after finding him dead on the battlefield, she returns to Aurich, and upon finding it taken by an enemy during her absence, she retakes it by military force.
1429: Joan of Arc asserts that God has sent her to drive the English out of France, and is given a position in the French Royal army. She is supported by Yolande of Aragon, mother of Queen Marie d'Anjou (wife of King Charles VII).
^James Michael Illston, "'An Entirely Masculine Activity'? Women and War in the High and Late Middle Ages Reconsidered," (Thesis, Department of History, University of Canterbury, 2009) p. 1
^Folktales and Fairy Tales: Traditions and Texts from around the World, 2nd edition. edited by Anne E. Duggan Ph.D., Donald Haase Ph.D., Helen J. Callow p.674
^Hayward, John (1857). The Book of Religions: Comprising the Views, Creeds, Sentiments, Or Opinions of all the Principal Sects in the World, Particularly of All Christian Denominations in Europe and America to which are added Church and Missionary Statistics together with Biographical Sketches. Boston: Sanborn, Carter, Bazin and Company. p. 428.
^Peterson, Barbara Bennett, editor in chief; He Hong Fei; Wang Jiu; Han Tie; Zhang Guangyu; Associate editors (2000). Notable Women of China: Shang Dynasty to the Early Twentieth Century. M.E. Sharpe Inc., New York. p. 177. ISBN978-0-7656-0504-7.
^Olsen, Kirstin (1994). Chronology of women's history. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 31. ISBN978-0-313-28803-6.
^For God's Sake By Jane Caro, Antony Loewenstein, Simon Smart, Rachel Woodlock
^Leila Ahmed, Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate (Yale University Press, 1992) p.71
^Hale, Sarah Josepha Buell (1853). Woman's Record: Or, Sketches of All Distinguished Women, from "The Beginning Till A.D. 1850, Arranged in Four Eras, with Selections from Female Writers of Every Age. Harper Brothers. p. 120.
^Historical Dictionary of Women in the Middle East and North Africa By Ghada Talhami, p.287
^Regan, Geoffrey (2000). The Brassey's book of military blunders. Brassey's Inc, Dulles, Virginia. p. 68. ISBN1-57488-252-X.
^Said Nafisi, Babak Khorramdin Delāvar-e-Azarbaijan (Babak Khorramdin, the braveheart of Azerbaijan), Tabesh Publishers, Tehran 1955, pg 57
^Bury,J.B. (1922). Cambridge Medieval History. Macmillan. Vol. III, p. 58; Blair, John; J. Willoughby Rosse (1856). Blair's Chronological Tables, Revised and Enlarged: Comprehending the Chronology and History of the World from the Earliest Times to the Russian Treaty of Peace, April 1856. H.G. Bohn, York Street, Convent Garden, London. p. 300.
^Hellēnikē Archaiometrikē Hetaireia. Symposium, Giór̄gos Fakoréllis̄, Nikos Zacharias, Kiki Polikreti: Proceedings of the 4th Symposium of the Hellenic Society for Archaeometry: National Hellenic Research Foundation, Athens, 28–31 May 2003, Archaeopress, 2008
^King, William C. (1902). Woman; Her Position, Influence, and Achievement Throughout the Civilized World. Her Biography and History. The King-Richardson co., Springfield, Massachusetts. p. 177.
^Campbell, James M.; R. E. Enthoven (1904). Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Volume I, Part II, History of the Konkan Dahkan and Southern Maratha Country. Govt. Central Press, Bombay, India. p. 435.
^„Ólöf ríka á Skarði. Sunnudagsblað Tímans, 28. júní 1964."
^The British Monarchy For Dummies By Philip Wilkinson, p.358
^Waters, Clara Erskine Clement (1886). Stories of Art and Artists. Ticknor and company. pp. 86–87.
^The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information, eleventh edition, volume XII. Cambridge, England, at the University Press, New York 35 West 32nd street. 1910. p. 793.
Blythe, James M. "Women in the Military: Scholastic Arguments and Medieval Images of Female Warriors," History of Political Thought (2001), v.22 pp. 242–69.
Edgington, Susan B. and Sarah Lambert, eds. Gendering the Crusades (2002), 13 scholarly articles
Hacker, Barton C. "Women and Military Institutions in Early Modern Europe: A Reconnaissance," Signs (1981), v6 pp. 643–71.
Hay, David. "Canon Laws Regarding Female Military Commanders up to the Time of Gratian: Some Texts and their Historical Contexts", in A Great Effusion of Blood'? Interpreting Medieval Violence, eds. Mark D. Meyerson, et al. (University of Toronto Press, 2004), pp. 287–313.
Hay, David. The Military Leadership of Matilda of Canossa, 1046-1115 (Manchester University Press, 2008).
Hingley, Richard, and Unwin, Christina. Boudica: Iron Age Warrior Queen (2006).
Illston, James Michael. 'An Entirely Masculine Activity'? Women and War in the High and Late Middle Ages Reconsidered (MA thesis, University of Canterbury, 2009) full text online, with detailed review of the literature
Lourie, E. "Black women warriors in the Muslim army besieging Valencia and the Cid's victory: A problem of interpretation," Traditio, 55 (2000), 181–209
McLaughlin, Megan. "The Woman Warrior: Gender, Warfare and Society in Medieval Europe," Women's Studies 17 (1990), pp. 193–209.
Maier, C.T. "The roles of women in the crusade movement: a survey" Journal of medieval history (2004). 30#1 pp 61–82
Nicholson, Helen. "Women on the Third Crusade," Journal of Medieval History 23 (1997), pp. 335–49.
Solterer, Helen. "Figures of Female Militancy in Medieval France," Signs 16 (1991), pp. 522–49.