Timeline of women in science

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“A Female Scientist”, in Women’s Illustrated, Japan, 1939
Teresa K. Attwood, Professor of Bioinformatics

This is a timeline of women in science, spanning from ancient history up to the 21st century. While the timeline primarily focuses on women involved with natural sciences such as astronomy, biology, chemistry and physics, it also includes women from the social sciences (e.g. sociology, psychology) and the formal sciences (e.g. mathematics, computer science), as well as notable science educators and medical scientists. The chronological events listed in the timeline relate to both scientific achievements and gender equality within the sciences.

Ancient history[edit]

The Tapputi Belatekallim tablet
  • c. 2700 BCE: In Ancient Egypt, Merit-Ptah practised medicine in the pharaoh's court.[1]
  • 2000 BC: Aganice, Queen-doctor of Egypt promoted a botanical expedition searching for officinal plants.[2]
  • 1200 BCE: The Mesopotamian perfume-maker Tapputi-Belatekallim was referenced in the text of a cuneiform tablet. She is often considered the world's first recorded chemist.[3]
  • 500 BC Theano (philosopher), mathematician
  • c.150 BCE: Aglaonice became the first female astronomer to be recorded in Ancient Greece.[4][5]
  • 1st century BCE: A woman known only as Fang became the earliest recorded Chinese woman alchemist. She is credited with "the discovery of how to turn mercury into silver" – possibly the chemical process of boiling off mercury in order to extract pure silver residue from ores.[6]
  • 1st century CE: Mary the Jewess was among the world's first alchemists.[7]
  • c. 300–350 CE: Greek mathematician Pandrosion develops a numerical approximation for cube roots.[8]
  • c. 355–415 CE: Greek astronomer, mathematician and philosopher Hypatia became renowned as a respected teacher and commentator on the sciences.[9]
  • 3rd century CE: Cleopatra the Alchemist, an early figure in chemistry and practical alchemy, is credited as inventing the alembic.[10]

Middle Ages[edit]

Hildegard of Bingen and her nuns

16th century[edit]

Danish scientist Sophia Brahe
  • 1561: Italian alchemist Isabella Cortese published her popular book The Secrets of Lady Isabella Cortese. The work included recipes for medicines, distilled oils and cosmetics, and was the only book published by a female alchemist in the 16th century.[20]
  • 1572: Italian botanist Loredana Marcello died from the plague – but not before developing several effective palliative formulas for plague sufferers, which were used by many physicians.[21][22]
  • 1572: Danish scientist Sophia Brahe (1556–1643) assisted her brother Tycho Brahe with his astronomical observations.[23]
  • 1590: After her husband's death, Caterina Vitale took over his position as chief pharmacist to the Order of St John, becoming the first woman chemist and pharmacist in Malta.[24][25]

17th century[edit]

German-Polish astronomer Elisabetha Koopman Hevelius
German entomologist Maria Sibylla Merian
  • 1609: French midwife Louyse Bourgeois became the first woman to write a book on childbirth practices.[26]
  • 1642: Martine Bertereau, the first recorded woman mineralogist, was imprisoned in France on suspicion of witchcraft. Bertereau had published two written works on the science of mining and metallurgy before being arrested.[6]
  • 1650: Silesian astronomer Maria Cunitz published Urania Propitia, a work that both simplified and substantially improved Johannes Kepler's mathematical methods for locating planets. The book was published in both Latin and German, an unconventional decision that made the scientific text more accessible for non-university educated readers.[27]
  • 1656: French chemist and alchemist Marie Meurdrac published her book La Chymie Charitable et Facile, en Faveur des Dames (Useful and Easy Chemistry, for the Benefit of Ladies).[28]
  • 1668: After separating from her husband, French polymath Marguerite de la Sablière established a popular salon in Paris. Scientists and scholars from different countries visited the salon regularly to discuss ideas and share knowledge, and Sablière studied physics, astronomy and natural history with her guests.[29]
  • 1680: French astronomer Jeanne Dumée published a summary of arguments supporting the Copernican theory of heliocentrism. She wrote "between the brain of a woman and that of a man there is no difference".[30]
  • 1685: Frisian poet and archaeologist Titia Brongersma supervised the first excavation of a dolmen in Borger, Netherlands. The excavation produced new evidence that the stone structures were graves constructed by prehistoric humans – rather than structures built by giants, which had been the prior common belief.[31]
  • 1690: German-Polish astronomer Elisabetha Koopman Hevelius, widow of Johannes Hevelius, whom she had assisted with his observations (and, probably, computations) for over twenty years, published in his name Prodromus Astronomiae, the largest and most accurate star catalog to that date.[32]
  • 1693 – 1698: German astronomer and illustrator Maria Clara Eimmart created more than 350 detailed drawings of the moon phases.[33]
  • 1699: German entomologist Maria Sibylla Merian, the first scientist to document the life cycle of insects for the public, embarked on a scientific expedition to Suriname, South America. She subsequently published Metamorphosis insectorum Surinamensium, a groundbreaking illustrated work on South American plants, animals and insects.[34]

18th century[edit]

Italian physicist Laura Bassi
French polymath Émilie du Châtelet
Swedish agronomist Eva Ekeblad
  • 1702: Pioneering English entomologist Eleanor Glanville captured a butterfly specimen in Lincolnshire which was subsequently named the Glanville fritillary in her honour. Her extensive butterfly collection impressed fellow entomologist William Vernon, who called Glanville's work "the noblest collection of butterflies, all English, which has sham'd us". Her butterfly specimens became part of early collections in the Natural History Museum.[35][36]
  • 1702: German astronomer Maria Kirch became the first woman to discover a comet.[37]
  • c. 1702 – 1744: In Montreal, Canada, French botanist Catherine Jérémie collected plant specimens and studied their properties, sending the specimens and her detailed notes back to scientists in France.[38]
  • 1732: At the age of 20, Italian physicist Laura Bassi became the first female member of the Bologna Academy of Sciences. One month later, she publicly defended her academic theses and received a PhD. Bassi was awarded an honorary position as professor of physics at the University of Bologna. She was the first female physics professor in the world.[39]
  • 1738: French polymath Émilie du Châtelet became the first woman to have a paper published by the Paris Academy, following a contest on the nature of fire.[40]
  • 1740: French polymath Émilie du Châtelet published Institutions de Physique (Foundations of Physics), providing a metaphysical basis for Newtonian physics.[41]
  • 1748: Swedish agronomist Eva Ekeblad became the first woman member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Two years earlier, she had developed a new process of using potatoes to make flour and alcohol, which subsequently lessened Sweden's reliance on wheat crops and decreased the risk of famine.[42]
  • 1751: 19-year-old Italian physicist Cristina Roccati received her PhD from the University of Bologna.[43]
  • 1753: Jane Colden, an American, was the only female biologist mentioned by Carl Linnaeus in his masterwork Species Plantarum.[44]
  • 1755: After the death of her husband, Italian anatomist Anna Morandi Manzolini took his place at the University of Bologna, becoming a professor of anatomy and establishing an internationally known laboratory for anatomical research.[45]
  • 1757: French astronomer Nicole-Reine Lepaute worked with mathematicians Alexis Clairaut and Joseph Lalande to calculate the next arrival of Haley's Comet.[46]
  • 1760: American horticulturalist Martha Daniell Logan began corresponding with botanic specialist and collector John Bartram, regularly exchanging seeds, plants and botanical knowledge with him.[47]
  • 1762: French astronomer Nicole-Reine Lepaute calculated the time and percentage of a solar eclipse that had been predicted to occur in two years time. She created a map to show the phases, and published a table of her calculations in the 1763 edition of Connaissance des Temps.[46]
  • 1766: French chemist Geneviève Thiroux d'Arconville published her study on putrefaction. The book presented her observations from more than 300 experiments over the span of five years, during which she attempted to discover factors necessary for the preservation of beef, eggs, and other foods. Her work was recommended for royal privilege by fellow chemist Pierre-Joseph Macquer.[48]
  • 1776: At the University of Bologna, Italian physicist Laura Bassi became the first woman appointed as chair of physics at a university.[39]
  • 1776: Christine Kirch received a respectable salary of 400 Thaler for calendar-making, see also her sister Margaretha Kirch
  • 1782 – 1791: French chemist and mineralogist Claudine Picardet translated more than 800 pages of Swedish, German, English and Italian scientific papers into French, enabling French scientists to better discuss and utilize international research in chemistry, mineralogy and astronomy.[49]
  • c. 1787 – 1797: Self-taught Chinese astronomer Wang Zhenyi published at least twelve books and multiple articles on astronomy and mathematics. Using a lamp, a mirror and a table, she once created a famous scientific exhibit designed to accurately simulate a lunar eclipse.[50][51]
  • 1789: French astronomer Louise du Pierry, the first Parisian woman to become an astronomy professor, taught the first astronomy courses specifically open to female students.[52]
  • 1794: Scottish chemist Elizabeth Fulhame invented the concept of catalysis and published a book on her findings.[53]
  • c. 1796 – 1820: During the reign of the Jiaqing Emperor, astronomer Huang Lü became the first Chinese woman to work with optics and photographic images. She developed a telescope that could take simple photographic images using photosensitive paper.[50]
  • 1797: English science writer and schoolmistress Margaret Bryan published A Compendious System of Astronomy, including an engraving of herself and her two daughters. She dedicated the book to her students.[54]

Early 19th century[edit]

English palaeontologist Mary Anning
English mathematician and computer programmer Ada Lovelace
American astronomer Maria Mitchell

Late 19th century[edit]

Welsh astronomer Thereza Dillwyn Llewelyn
Russian scientist Sofia Kovalevskaya
American chemist Josephine Silone-Yates
British mathematician Philippa Fawcett
American geologist Florence Bascom

Early 20th century[edit]

1900s[edit]

1910s[edit]

Polish-born physicist and chemist Marie Curie
American astronomer Henrietta Swan Leavitt
German physicist and mathematician Emmy Noether
Canadian geneticist Carrie Derick

1920s[edit]

British-American astronomer Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin
Japanese biologist Kono Yasui

1930s[edit]

French chemist Irène Joliot-Curie
Austrian-Swedish physicist Lise Meitner

1940s[edit]

Actress and inventor Hedy Lamarr
Austrian-American biochemist Gerty Cori
American biochemist Marie Maynard Daly

Late 20th century[edit]

1950s[edit]

British chemist Rosalind Franklin
American computer scientist Grace Hopper
Chinese-American physicist Chien-Shiung Wu
Australian geologist Dorothy Hill

1960s[edit]

British primatologist Jane Goodall
American NASA scientist Katherine Johnson
British astrophysicist Jocelyn Bell Burnell

1970s[edit]

1980s[edit]

Chinese-American virologist Flossie Wong-Staal

1990s[edit]

Lithuanian-Canadian primatologist Birutė Galdikas
Chilean astronomer María Teresa Ruiz

21st century[edit]

Moroccan astronomer Merieme Chadid
Canadian-American computer scientist Maria Klawe
Egyptian geomorphologist Eman Ghoneim
Kenyan ichthyologist Dorothy Wanja Nyingi
Norwegian neuroscientist May-Britt Moser
Canadian physicist Donna Strickland
American chemical engineer Frances Arnold

2000s[edit]

2010s[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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