Timeline of historical geopolitical changes

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This is a timeline of country and capital changes around the world. It includes dates of declarations of independence, changes in country name, changes of capital city or name, and significant changes in territory (viz. land annexation, cession or secession).

 2000s   1900s   1800s   1700s   1600s   1500s   1400s   1300s   1200s   1100s   1000s 
 1st Millennium CE   1st Millennium BCE   2nd Millennium BCE   3rd Millennium BCE   4th Millennium BCE 

Africa Asia Europe Oceania North America South America Antarctica

Maps[edit]

Changes usually include (but are not limited to) the alteration of borders, the creation and fall of states, changes of geographical names, as well as some unusually destructive natural disasters. Through the knowledge of such dates and events, the approximate year and age of a world map could be calculated and estimated.

Not all maps of the world of an age or period will be the same throughout the globe as different mapmakers (or their employers) may have different views on the sovereignty or territorial integrity of the countries of the world or possess different levels of technological and geographical insight, the maps created by them might differ significantly.

Common Era[edit]

21st Century[edit]

2010s[edit]

Year Date Event
2018 April 19 The Kingdom of Swaziland officially changes its name to the Kingdom of Eswatini. Mbabane remains the capital.[1]
February 2 The International Court of Justice (ICJ) cedes a strip of northern Isla Portillos at the mouth of the San Juan River to Costa Rica.[2]
January 1 Belgium and The Netherlands finalize an exchange of territory along the Meuse River.[3]. The agreement, initially signed on November 28, 2016, involves a one-for-two swap of three tiny islands, with the Netherlands gaining 24.7 acres (10.0 ha) of land near Oost-Maarland, so that pene-exclaves caused by the straightening of the Meuse can be fixed. Presqu'ile de L'llal and Presqu'ile d'Eijsden, which were formerly Belgian, were swapped for a former Dutch piece of land, Presqu'ile Petit-Gravier.[4]
2017 February 21 The Nagorno-Karabakh Republic changes its name to the Republic of Artsakh a day after a constitutional referendum takes place. The Republic of Azerbaijan continues to consider Nagorno-Karabakh as part of its sovereign territory, a position shared by the United Nations.[5][6]
January 29 The Islamic Republic of The Gambia changes its name back to the Republic of The Gambia.[7][8]
2016 July 5 The United Nations recognizes the shortened name of Czechia for the Czech Republic.[9]
May 2 The Czech Republic votes to adopt Czechia as its official short-form name in English.[10]
2015 December 16 The International Court of Justice (ICJ) cedes 3 km2 to Costa Rica, resolving the Costa Rica–Nicaragua San Juan River border dispute with Nicaragua.[11]
December 11 The Republic of The Gambia changes its name to the Islamic Republic of The Gambia by presidential decree.[12][13]
November 12 Pakistan formally agrees to lease its Gwadar Port to control of China until 2059.[14]
June 6 India and Bangladesh exchange 162 enclaves along their borders, simplifying the border.[15]
May 8 Niger and Burkina Faso, in continuation with the implementation of the judgement of the International Court of Justice concerning the 2013 Burkina Faso–Niger Frontier Dispute case, agreed to exchange 18 towns over the following year (Burkina Faso to gain 14, Niger to gain four).[16]
March 21 After the 2014–15 Yemeni coup d'état, the capital of Yemen is provisionally moved from Sana'a to Aden.
2014 March 18 The Republic of Crimea was annexed by the Russian Federation as two separate federal entities: the Republic of Crimea and the city of federal significance Sevastopol. Ukraine itself and much of the international community maintain that Crimea is illegally occupied by Russia and legally remains an integral region of Ukraine.[17]
January 27 The maritime dispute between Chile and Peru is resolved.[18]
2013 October 24 The Republic of Cape Verde decrees the official English-language rendering of its name to be the Republic of Cabo Verde,[19] following precedents set by Côte d'Ivoire and Timor-Leste (neither of which use English as an official language).
September 28 The United Federated States of Bangsamoro Republik ceases to exist with the loss of Zamboanga City.[20]
July 27 The United Federated States of Bangsamoro Republik declares independence from the Philippines and claims all of Malaysian Borneo.[21]
April 16 A border dispute between Niger and Burkina Faso is finally resolved, resulting in minor changes to the previously recognized border.
January 7 The Libyan National Congress unofficially changes the name of the country from Libya to the State of Libya, which will be used until a new constitution is adopted.[22]
2012 November 29 The United Nations votes to upgrade Palestine's status from "entity" to "non-member observer state," effectively granting it recognition.[23]
November 19 Judgment of the ICJ about the maritime dispute between Nicaragua and Colombia.[24]
August 20 The Somali Republic changes its name to the Federal Republic of Somalia.
July 12 The State of Azawad capitulates and is taken over by Ansar Dine, an Islamist group aiming for establishing Mali as an Islamist state, effectively being reabsorbed by the Republic of Mali.[25]
May 26 Georgia moves its legislative capital from Tbilisi to Kutaisi. Tbilisi remains the administrative capital.
April 6 Azawad proclaims its independence from the Republic of Mali as the State of Azawad[26] with Timbuktu as its capital.
January 1 The Hungarian Republic changes its name to Hungary.[27]
2011 December 31 Samoa and Tokelau switch to the western side of the International Date Line, skipping December 30 entirely.[28]
October 23 Libya supersedes the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya after its defeat at the Battle of Sirte by the National Transitional Council.
September 1 Due to the loss of Tripoli on August 27, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya moves its capital from Tripoli to Sirte.
August 27 The National Transitional Council takes over Tripoli, moving its capital from Benghazi to Tripoli.
July 9 Southern Sudan gains independence from Sudan as the Republic of South Sudan after a referendum the previous January, with Juba as its capital.
March 31 The French Republic accepts Mayotte in the Comoro Islands as the Department of Mayotte.
February 27 After the Libyan Civil War started on February 15, the National Transitional Council was formed to act as "the political face of the revolution", based in Benghazi.[29]
February 2 The Republic of the Fiji Islands changes its name back to the Republic of Fiji.
January 11 The People's Republic of China has received 1,158 square kilometres (447 sq mi) from Tajikistan after a final ratification of a treaty ceding it[30]
2010 October 21 The Union of Myanmar changes its name to the Republic of the Union of Myanmar.
October 10 The Kingdom of the Netherlands dissolves the Netherlands Antilles and makes Curaçao and Sint Maarten two of its four constituent countries. Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius become special municipalities of the Netherlands.
The former Netherlands Antilles Islands

2000s[edit]

Year Date Event
2009 September 1 The United Kingdom changes the name of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena and Dependencies to Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. Jamestown on Saint Helena remains the capital.
February 7 The Republic of Bolivia changes its name to the Plurinational State of Bolivia. La Paz and Sucre remain the capitals.
2008 August 27 The Russian Federation recognizes the independence of the Republic of South Ossetia and the Republic of Abkhazia from Georgia. Georgia and much of the international community maintain that they are both were illegally occupied by Russia during Russo-Georgian War and legally remain integral regions of Georgia. Their capitals are Tskhinval and Sukhumi, respectively.
May 28 The State of Nepal changes its name to the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal. Kathmandu remains the capital.
February 17 The Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija declares its independence from the Republic of Serbia as the Republic of Kosovo. Priština remains the capital. Serbia maintains that Kosovo remains a part of Serbia.
2007 October 22 The Republic of Montenegro changes its name to Montenegro. Podgorica remains the capital.
February 21 The French Republic separates the Overseas Collectivity of Saint-Barthélemy and the Overseas Collectivity of Saint-Martin from the Overseas Region of Guadeloupe. Gustavia and Marigot are the capitals respectively.
January 15 The Kingdom of Nepal changes its name to the State of Nepal. Kathmandu remains the capital.
2006 October 7 The Republic of Palau moves its capital from Koror to Ngerulmud.
August 14 The Federal Republic of Nigeria transfers sovereignty of Bakassi to the Republic of Cameroon.
June 5 The Republic of Serbia supersedes the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Belgrade remains the capital.
June 3 Montenegro secedes from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro as the Republic of Montenegro. Podgorica remains the capital.
2005 November 6 The Union of Myanmar moves its capital from Yangon to Naypyidaw.
2004 September 1 The Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty administering Antarctica and all lands and waters south of the 60th parallel south establishes its headquarters in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
February 27 The French Republic elevates the Overseas Collectivity of French Polynesia to the Overseas Country of French Polynesia. Papeetē remains the capital.
January 4 The Islamic State of Afghanistan changes its name to the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Kabul remains the capital.
2003 May 26 The Rwandese Republic changes its name to the Republic of Rwanda. Kigali remains the capital.
March 28 The French Republic revises its constitution. New polities include:
February 4 The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia changes its name to the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Belgrade remains the capital.
2002 May 21 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland changes the title of each of its British Dependent Territories to that of a British Overseas Territory. The citizens of each British Overseas Territory gain full British citizenship.
May 20 East Timor gains independence from the Portuguese Republic as the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste. East Timor was occupied by Indonesia in 1975, and was placed under United Nations administration in 1999. Dili remains the capital.
March 10 The Union of the Comoros reabsorbs the de facto independent State of Anjouan and the Democratic Republic of Mohéli. Mutsamudu and Fomboni yield to Moroni as the capital.
February 14 The State of Bahrain changes its name to the Kingdom of Bahrain. Manama remains the capital.
2001 December 23 The Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros changes its name to the Union of the Comoros. Moroni remains the capital.
November 13 The Islamic State of Afghanistan supersedes the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. Kabul remains the capital.
July 1 The "temporarily independent" Puntland State of Somalia adopts a new constitution explicitly identifying itself as part of the Somali Republic. Garowe yields to Mogadishu as the capital.
January Taloqan, the de facto capital of the Islamic State of Afghanistan government, falls to the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. The capital moves to Fayzabad.
2000 July 16 Somalia changes its name to the Somali Republic. Mogadishu remains the capital.
February 6 The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria capitulates and is reabsorbed by the Russian Federation. Ƶovxar-Ġala (Grozny) yields to Moscow as the capital.

20th century[edit]

1990s[edit]

Year Date Event
1999 December 31 The United States of America transfers full ownership of the Panama Canal Zone to the Republic of Panama.
December 20 The Republic of Venezuela changes its name to the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Caracas remains the capital.
The Portuguese Republic transfers sovereignty of Macau to the People's Republic of China as the Macau Special Administrative Region.
June 10 The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo is formed in the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
March 19 The French Republic renames its Territory of New Caledonia as the special collectivity of New Caledonia in preparation for eventual independence. Nouméa remains the capital.
1998 December 24 The Republic of Bougainville is taken over by Papua New Guinea. Buka remains the capital.
August 1 The Puntland State of Somalia declares independence from the Federal Republic of Somalia. Garowe remains the capital.
July 22 The Sovereign Democratic Republic of Fiji supersedes the Republic of the Fiji Islands. Suva remains the capital.
May 6 The Republic of Kazakhstan changes the name of its capital from Aqmola to Astana.
1997 December 10 The Republic of Kazakhstan moves its capital from Almaty to Aqmola.
August 11 The Democratic Republic of Mohéli declares independence from the Union of the Comoros. Fomboni remains the capital.
August 3 The State of Anjouan declares independence from the Union of the Comoros. Mutsamudu remains the capital.
July 4 Independent State of Western Samoa changes its name to the Independent State of Samoa. Apia remains the capital.
July 1 The United Kingdom transfers sovereignty of Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China as the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.
May 25 The capital of the Islamic State of Afghanistan is moved to Taloqan from Mazar-i-Sharif.
May 17 The Republic of Zaire changes its name back to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Kinshasa remains the capital.
The Republic of the Fiji Islands changes its name to the Republic of Fiji. Suva remains the capital.
1996 September 26 The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan is formed, and declares its capital Kabul, captured from the Islamic State of Afghanistan, whose capital moves to Mazar-i-Sharif
The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria changes the name of its capital Grozny to Dzokhar-Ghala.
The United Republic of Tanzania moves its capital from Dar-es-Salaam to Dodoma.
1995 December 14 The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina unite to form Bosnia and Herzegovina. Sarajevo remains the capital.
August 24 The Republic of Georgia is renamed Georgia. Tbilisi remains the capital.
August 22 Ethiopia is renamed the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa remains the capital.
August 7 The Republic of Western Bosnia is taken over by the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
July 26 The Republic of Western Bosnia declares independence from the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
January 1 The International Date Line is moved around Kiribati.
1994 October 21 The Laguna del Desierto, claimed by Chile, is awarded to Argentina by arbitration.
October 1 Palau gains full independence from the United States of America as the Republic of Palau. Koror is the capital.
July 7 The Democratic Republic of Yemen is reunited with Yemen.
May 21 The Democratic Republic of Yemen secedes from Yemen. Aden is the capital.
April 27 The nominally independent republics of Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda and Ciskei are incorporated back into the Republic of South Africa.
March 1 The Republic of South Africa transfers the sovereignty of Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands to the Republic of Namibia.
1993 September 24 The restored Kingdom of Cambodia supersedes the State of Cambodia. Phnom Penh remains the capital.
The Republic of Kazakhstan changes the name of its capital from Alma-Ata to Almaty.
May 24 The State of Eritrea secedes from the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Asmara is the capital.
May 5 The Republic of Kyrgyzstan changes its name to the Kyrgyz Republic. Bishkek remains the capital.
January 1 The Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic gain full independence with the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic (Czechoslovakia). Prague remains the capital of the Czech Republic and Bratislava remains the capital of the Slovakia.
1992 September 22 The Republic of Kosova declares independence from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Pristina is the capital.
September 12 The Democratic Republic of Madagascar changes its name to the Republic of Madagascar. Antananarivo remains the capital.
August 27 The People's Republic of Angola changes its name to the Republic of Angola. Luanda remains the capital.
August 12 The Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina is renamed the Republika Srpska. Srpsko Sarajevo remains the capital.
July 23 The Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia declares its independence from Georgia as the Republic of Abkhazia. Sukhumi remains the capital. Georgia denounces the intervention of the Russian Federation and declares the succession illegal.
May 29 South Ossetia declares independence from Georgia.
April 27 The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia supersedes the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Belgrade remains the capital.
April 6 The Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina secedes from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Sarajevo remains the capital.
March 15 The State of Cambodia is taken over by the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) in order to put the government-in-exile National Government of Cambodia back in power.
March 12 The Chechen Republic is renamed the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria.
February 12 Mongolia supersedes the Mongolian People's Republic. Ulaanbaatar remains the capital.
January 15 The Socialist Republic of Slovenia secedes from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as the Republic of Slovenia. Ljubljana remains the capital.
The Socialist Republic of Croatia secedes from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as the Republic of Croatia . Zagreb remains the capital.
January 12 The Nagorno-Karabakh Republic declares independence from the Republic of Azerbaijan.
1991 December 25 The Russian Federation (Russia) supersedes both the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Moscow remains the capital.
December 16 The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as the Republic of Kazakhstan. Alma-Ata remains the capital until 1997.
December 12 The Federal Republic of Nigeria moves its capital from Lagos to Abuja.
December 8 The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the Republic of Belarus, and Ukraine form the Commonwealth of Independent States as a successor organization to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as Turkmenistan. Ashgabat remains the capital.
The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as the Republic of Uzbekistan. Tashkent remains the capital.
November 28 The South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast declares its independence from Georgia as the Republic of South Ossetia. Tskhinvali is the capital. Georgia denounces the intervention of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and declares the succession illegal.
November 1 The Chechen Republic declares independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Grozny is the capital
September 21 The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as the Republic of Armenia. Yerevan remains the capital.
September 9 The Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as the Republic of Tajikistan. Dushanbe remains the capital.
September 8 The Socialist Republic of Macedonia secedes from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as the Republic of Macedonia. Skopje remains the capital. The Hellenic Republic protests the name of the new nation.
September 6 The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and restores the Republic of Lithuania. Vilnius remains the capital.
September 2 The Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast declares its independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. Stepanakert remains the capital. The Republic of Azerbaijan considers Nagorno-Karabakh as part of its sovereign territory.
August 31 The Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as the Republic of Kyrgyzstan. The capital Frunze is renamed Bishkek.
August 30 The Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as the Republic of Azerbaijan. Baku remains the capital.
August 27 The Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as the Republic of Moldova. Chişinău remains the capital. Moldova claims Transnistria as part of its sovereign territory.
August 25 The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as the Republic of Belarus. Minsk remains the capital.
August 24 The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as Ukraine. Kiev remains the capital.
August 21 The Republic of Latvia (former SSR) secedes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and restores the Republic of Latvia. Riga remains the capital.
August 20 The Republic of Estonia (former SSR) secedes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and restores the Republic of Estonia. Tallinn remains the capital.
August 19 The Gagauz Republic declares independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
June 10 The People's Republic of the Congo is renamed the Republic of the Congo.
May 28 The People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia is renamed Ethiopia. Addis Ababa remains the capital.
May 18 The Republic of Somaliland declares independence from the Federal Republic of Somalia. Hargeisa is the capital. The international community considers Somaliland to be part of Somalia's sovereign territory.[31][32]
April 29 The Republic of Albania supersedes the Socialist People's Republic of Albania. Tirana remains the capital.
April 9 The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as Georgia. Tbilisi remains the capital.
February 26 The State of Kuwait regains its independence. Iraq relinquishes its claim to Kuwait.
1990 December 1 The Republic of Mozambique supersedes the People's Republic of Mozambique. Maputo remains the capital.
November 15 The People's Republic of Bulgaria changes its name to the Republic of Bulgaria. Sofia remains the capital.
October 3 The German Democratic Republic merges into the Federal Republic of Germany. Unified Germany regains full sovereignty and Allied occupation ends. Bonn yields to Berlin as the capital.
September 2 The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (Transnistria) declares its independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Tiraspol remains the capital.
August 28 Iraq annexes the Republic of Kuwait as the Kuwait Governorate.
August 25 The Republic of Abkhazia declares independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Sukhumi is the capital.
August 4 The State of Kuwait changes its name to the Republic of Kuwait. Kuwait City remains the capital.
July 27 The Byelorussian SSR declares independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as the Republic of Belarus. Minsk remains the capital.
July 25 The Republic of Fiji is renamed the Sovereign Democratic Republic of Fiji. Suva remains the capital.
May 22 The Yemen Arab Republic (North Yemen) and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (South Yemen) reunite to form the Republic of Yemen. Aden yields to San'a' as the capital.
May 17 The Republic of Bougainville declares independence from Papua New Guinea. Buka is the capital.
May 8 The Estonian SSR is renamed the Republic of Estonia. Tallinn remains the capital.
May 4 The Latvian SSR is renamed the Republic of Latvia and it declares Soviet rule illegal and declares the restoration period for the independence of Latvia from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Riga remains the capital.
April 23 The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic changes its name to the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic. Prague remains the capital.
March 30 The Estonian SSR declares Soviet rule illegal and declares the restoration period for the independence of Estonia from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Tallinn remains the capital.
March 21 South West Africa gains independence from South Africa as the Republic of Namibia. Windhoek remains the capital.
March 11 The Republic of Chile moves its legislative capital from Santiago to Valparaíso. Santiago remains the administrative capital.
The Lithuanian SSR re-declares full independence as the Republic of Lithuania from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Vilnius remains the capital.
March 1 The People's Republic of Benin changes its name to the Republic of Benin. Porto-Novo remains the capital.
February 3 The government-in-exile Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea becomes the National Government of Cambodia.

1980s[edit]

Year Date Event
1989 December 30 The Polish People's Republic changes its name to the Republic of Poland. Warsaw remains the capital.
December 22 The Socialist Republic of Romania changes its name to Romania. Bucharest remains the capital.
October 23 The Hungarian People's Republic changes its name to the Hungarian Republic. Budapest remains the capital.
September 30 The Republic of Senegal and the Republic of The Gambia secede from the Senegambia Confederation. Dakar remains the capital of Senegal. Banjul is again the capital of The Gambia.
September 26 The Socialist Republic of Vietnam ends its occupation of the State of Cambodia.
June 18 The Union of Burma changes its name to the Union of Myanmar. Yangon remains the capital until 2005.
The Federated States of Micronesia moves its capital from Kolonia to Palikir on Pohnpei.
May 1 The State of Cambodia supersedes the People's Republic of Kampuchea (Cambodia). Phnom Penh remains the capital.
February 15 The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ends its occupation of the Republic of Afghanistan.
1988 November 16 The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic declares sovereignty over the laws of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
November 15 The State of Palestine declares independence from the State of Israel. It claims the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, territories considered to be occupied by Israel in the aftermath of the Six-Day War. East Jerusalem is the proclaimed capital.[33]
September 18 The Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma changes its name to the Union of Burma. Yangon remains the capital.
1987 November 30 The Republic of Afghanistan supersedes the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. Kabul remains the capital.
October 7 The Republic of Fiji supersedes the Dominion of Fiji. Suva remains the capital.
February 22 The People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia supersedes the Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia (Derg). Addis Ababa remains the capital.
January 1 New Zealand becomes a fully, sovereign independent state from the United Kingdom after the passing of the Constitution Act. Wellington remains the capital.
1986 November 4 The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands becomes an insular area of the United States dissolving the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.
November 3 The eastern Caroline Islands gain independence from the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands as the Federated States of Micronesia. Kolonia on Pohnpei is the capital.
October 21 The Marshall Islands gain independence from the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands as the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Majuro is the capital.
April 15 The Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya is renamed the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.
March 3 The Commonwealth of Australia becomes a fully, sovereign independent state from the United Kingdom after the passing of the Australia Act. Canberra remains the capital.
January 1 Aruba leaves the Netherlands Antilles to become one of three constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands following a change of the Charter for the Kingdom. Oranjestad is the capital.
1985 October 12 The Republic of Côte d'Ivoire supersedes the Republic of Ivory Coast. Yamoussoukro remains the capital.
October 10 The Republic of the Sudan supersedes the Democratic Republic of the Sudan. Khartoum remains the capital.
October 3 In the Falkland Islands disputed by Argentina and the United Kingdom, the Falkland Islands Dependencies becomes a separate territory known as South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
1984 November 29 The Beagle conflict between Chile and Argentina is solved. Argentina recognizes Picton, Lennox and Nueva islands as Chilean.
August 15 Bourkina-Fasso changes its name to Burkina Faso. Ouagadougou remains the capital.
August 4 The Republic of Upper Volta changes its name to Bourkina-Fasso. Ouagadougou remains the capital.
February 4 The Republic of Cameroon supersedes the United Republic of Cameroon. Yaoundé remains the capital.
January 1 Brunei gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam). Bandar Seri Begawan remains the capital.
1983 November 15 The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus declares independence from the Republic of Cyprus. North Nicosia is the capital. The international community considers the northern part of the island as Republic of Cyprus territory under Turkish occupation.
September 19 The British Dependent Territory of Saint Christopher and Nevis gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis (also known as the Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis). Basseterre remains the capital.
March 21 The Republic of Ivory Coast moves its capital from Abidjan to Yamoussoukro.
January 1 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland changes the title of each of its Crown Colonies to that of a British Dependent Territory.
1982 August 15 The unrecognized Kingdom of Rwenzururu is taken back by Uganda.
June 22 Democratic Kampuchea becomes exiled from Kampuchea, despite being a widely recognized UN member state, becomes the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea.
June 14 The United Kingdom recaptures the British dependent territory of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) from the Argentine Republic. Britain restores the name of the capital Puerto Argentino to Stanley.
April 29 The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka moves its capital from Colombo to Sri Jayawardenapura-Kotte.
April 17 The Dominion of Canada becomes a fully sovereign, independent state from the United Kingdom and is renamed to Canada after the passing of the Canada Act. Ottawa remains the capital.
April 18 The Republic of Zimbabwe changes many colonial place names including that of its capital from Salisbury to Harare.
April 2 The Argentine Republic seizes the British dependent territory of the Falkland Islands from the United Kingdom. Argentina renames the Islands Islas Malvinas and Stanley the capital Puerto Argentino.
February 1 The Republic of Senegal and the Republic of The Gambia unite to form the Senegambia Confederation. Banjul yields to Dakar as the capital.
1981 December 26 The Saudi-Iraqi neutral zone ceases to exist as the border between Saudi Arabia and Iraq is fixed.
December 4 The Republic of Ciskei is declared independent by the Republic of South Africa.
November 1 Antigua and Barbuda gain independence from the United Kingdom. St. John's remains the capital.
September 21 The Crown Colony of Belize gains independence from the United Kingdom. Belmopan remains the capital.
1980 December 19 The United Kingdom divides the Crown Colony of Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla into the Crown Colony of Saint Christopher and Nevis and the Crown Colony of Anguilla. Basseterre remains the capital of Saint Christopher and Nevis, and The Valley becomes the capital of Anguilla.
July 30 The New Hebrides gain independence from a British-French condominium as the Republic of Vanuatu. Port Vila remains the capital.
Israel passes the Jerusalem Law, expanding its declared capital of Jerusalem to include the annexed East Jerusalem. The United Nations declares the law null and void.
July 28 Peruvian Republic changes its name to the Republic of Peru.
July 24 The Republic of Vemerana is taken back over by the Anglo-French New Hebrides Condominium.
May 27 The Republic of Vemerana declares independence from the Anglo-French New Hebrides Condominium.
May 26 Tafea is taken back over by the Anglo-French New Hebrides Condominium.
April 18 Southern Rhodesia gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of Zimbabwe. Salisbury remains the capital.
February 15 Tafea declares independence from the Anglo-French New Hebrides Condominium.

1970s[edit]

Year Date Event
1979 December 25 The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics occupies the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
December 12 The Republic of Zimbabwe Rhodesia is dissolved as the United Kingdom regains control of Southern Rhodesia. Salisbury remains the capital.
October 27 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines gain independence from the United Kingdom. Kingstown remains the capital.
October 1 The United States of America dissolves the Panama Canal Zone and returns sovereignty to the Republic of Panama. The United States and Panama will jointly operate the Panama Canal until December 31, 1999.
September 20 The Central African Empire changes its name back to the Central African Republic. Bangui remains the capital.
September 13 The Republic of Venda is given independence by South Africa. Thohoyandou is the capital.
July 12 The Gilbert Islands gain independence from the United Kingdom as the Independent and Sovereign Republic of Kiribati. South Tarawa remains the capital.
June 1 The Republic of Zimbabwe Rhodesia (Southern Rhodesia) supersedes the Republic of Rhodesia, although neither are recognized. Salisbury remains the capital.
April 1 Iran changes its name to the Islamic Republic of Iran. Tehran remains the capital.
March 26 Israel agrees to return the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt.
February 22 Saint Lucia gains independence from the United Kingdom. Castries remains the capital.
February 11 The Imperial State of Iran changes its name to Iran. Tehran remains the capital.
January 10 The People's Republic of Kampuchea (Cambodia) supersedes Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia). Phnom Penh remains the capital.
January 7 The Socialist Republic of Vietnam occupies Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia).
1978 December 29 After a transition to democracy, the Spanish State is renamed the Kingdom of Spain. Madrid remains the capital.
November 3 Dominica gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Commonwealth of Dominica. Roseau remains the capital.
October 5 The State of Comoros changes its name to the Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros. Moroni remains the capital.
October 1 Tuvalu gains independence from the United Kingdom. Funafuti remains the capital.
September 7 The Free, Sovereign and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka changes its name to the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. Colombo remains the capital.
July 7 The Solomon Islands gain independence from the United Kingdom. Honiara on Guadalcanal remains the capital.
April 30 The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan supersedes the Republic of Afghanistan. Kabul remains the capital.
1977 December 6 The Republic of Bophuthatswana is declared independent by South Africa. Mmabatho is the capital.
June 27 The French Territory of the Afars and the Issas gains independence from the French Republic as the Republic of Djibouti. The city of Djibouti remains the capital.
March 2 The Libyan Arab Republic changes its name to the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. Tripoli remains the capital.
1976 December 28 The Socialist People's Republic of Albania supersedes the People's Republic of Albania. Tirana remains the capital.
December 4 The Central African Republic changes its name to the Central African Empire. Bangui remains the capital.
October 26 The Republic of Transkei is given independence by South Africa. Mthatha is the capital.
August 7 The Republic of North Solomons is taken by Papua New Guinea.
July 17 The Republic of Indonesia declares that East Timor is the Indonesian Province of Timor Timur.
July 2 The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) and Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam unite to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh City yields to Hanoi as the capital.
July 1 The French Republic elevates its Overseas Territory of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon to the Overseas Department of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon. Saint-Pierre remains the capital.
June 29 The Seychelles become independent from the United Kingdom as the Republic of Seychelles. Victoria remains the capital.
June 24 The Republic of the Philippines reinstates Manila as the capital. Quezon City, the capital from 1948, was incorporated with Manila and 15 surrounding suburbs to form Metro Manila. Baguio is no longer a summer capital.
June 23 In the British Indian Ocean Territory, the islands of Aldabra, Farquhar and Desroches are returned to Seychelles six days before its independence.
March 1 Trinidad and Tobago is renamed the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Port-of-Spain remains the capital.
February 27 The Polisario Front declares the creation of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic in the region known as Western Sahara. Laayoune is the proclaimed capital, while Tifariti serves as the temporary capital. Morocco considers the SADR part of its sovereign territory, while the United Nations considers Spain the administering state.
February 3 The People's Republic of Mozambique changes the name of its capital from Lourenço Marques to Maputo.
1975 December 30 The Malagasy Republic changes its name to the Democratic Republic of Madagascar. Antananarivo remains the capital.
December 7 The Republic of Indonesia invades East Timor.
December 2 Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) supersedes the Kingdom of Laos. Vientiane remains the capital.
November 30 The Republic of Dahomey changes its name to the People's Republic of Benin. Porto-Novo remains the capital.
November 28 The Portuguese colony of East Timor declares its independence from the Portuguese Republic as the Democratic Republic of East Timor. Dili remains the capital. Portugal and most other nations refuse to recognize the new government.
November 25 Suriname (Dutch Guiana) gains full independence from the Kingdom of the Netherlands as the Republic of Suriname. Paramaribo remains the capital.
November 22 The restored Kingdom of Spain supersedes the Spanish State. Madrid remains the capital.
November 11 Due to Angola achieving independence, Angolan Forces invaded the Republic of Cabinda, successfully taking it back.
November 14 The Spanish State relinquishes control of Spanish Sahara. Both the Kingdom of Morocco and the Islamic Republic of Mauritania annex the region, now known as Western Sahara.
November 11 The State of Angola gains independence from the Portuguese Republic as the People's Republic of Angola. Luanda remains the capital.
September 16 The Territory of Papua and New Guinea gains independence from the Commonwealth of Australia as the Independent State of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby remains the capital.
September 1 The Republic of North Solomons declares independence from Australia. Buka is the capital.
August 1 The Republic of Cabinda declares independence from Portugal with little recognition. Cabinda is the capital.
July 12 São Tomé and Príncipe gain independence from the Portuguese Republic as the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe. The city of São Tomé remains the capital.
July 6 The Comoros gain independence from the French Republic as the State of Comoros. Moroni on Grande Comore remains the capital.
July 5 Cabo Verde gains independence from the Portuguese Republic as the Republic of Cape Verde. Praia on Santiago remains the capital.
June 25 Mozambique gains independence from the Portuguese Republic as the People's Republic of Mozambique. Lourenço Marques remains the capital.
May 16 The Kingdom of Sikkim unites with India as the State of Sikkim.
April 30 The Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam supersedes the Republic of Vietnam. The name of the capital is changed from Saigon to Ho Chi Minh City.
The capital of Malawi is moved from Zomba to Lilongwe
April 17 Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia) supersedes the Khmer Republic. Phnom Penh remains the capital.
1974 December 13 The Republic of Malta supersedes the State of Malta. Valletta remains the capital.
October 19 Niue becomes a state in free association with New Zealand, sharing New Zealand citizenship.
September 10 The Republic of Guinea changes its name to the Republic of Guinea-Bissau and moves its capital from Madina do Boe to Bissau. The Portuguese Republic recognizes the independence of the Republic of Guinea-Bissau.
August 16 Turkish army reach the United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus, gaining about 40% of the territory of the island of Cyprus, after the invasion started on 20 July.
June 29 The Tanna Nation is taken back by the Anglo-French New Hebrides Condominium
June 28 The Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia (Derg) supersedes the Ethiopian Empire. Addis Ababa remains the capital.
March 24 The Tanna Nation declares independence from the Anglo-French New Hebrides Condominium
February 22 The Islamic Republic of Pakistan recognizes the independence of the People's Republic of Bangladesh.
February 7 Grenada gains independence from the United Kingdom. St. George's remains the capital.
January 4 The Union of Burma changes its name to the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma. Yangon remains the capital until 2005.
1973 November 19 Uruguay recognizes Martín García Island as Argentine.
September 24 Portuguese Guinea declares its independence from the Portuguese Republic as the Republic of Guinea. Recognition is limited. Madina do Boe is the temporary capital.
July 17 The Republic of Afghanistan supersedes the Kingdom of Afghanistan. Kabul remains the capital.
July 10 The Bahamas gain independence from the United Kingdom as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas. Nassau remains the capital.
July 10 The United Kingdom changes the name of its Crown Colony of British Honduras to the Crown Colony of Belize. Belmopan remains the capital.
June 1 The Kingdom of Greece is renamed the Hellenic Republic
In the Gambia, the capital of Bathurst is renamed Banjul
1972 June 2 The United Republic of Cameroon supersedes the Federal Republic of Cameroon. Yaoundé remains the capital.
May 22 The Dominion of Ceylon changes its name to the Free, Sovereign and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka. Colombo remains the capital until 1982.
May 14 Ryukyu Islands are returned to Japan
February 10 The emirate of Ras al-Khaimah joins the United Arab Emirates. The city of Ras al-Khaimah yields to Abu Dhabi as the capital.
February 10 The Island of Rockall Act 1972 formally incorporated Rockall into the United Kingdom
The capital of Indonesia, Djakarta, is renamed Jakarta
1971 December 2 The Trucial States gain full independence from the United Kingdom as the United Arab Emirates. Abu Dhabi is the capital.
October 27 The Democratic Republic of the Congo changes its name to the Republic of Zaire. Kinshasa remains the capital.
October 25 The Republic of China was replaced in the United Nations by the People's Republic of China.
September 3 Qatar gains full independence from the United Kingdom as the State of Qatar. Doha remains the capital.
September 1 The Arab Republic of Egypt supersedes the United Arab Republic. Cairo remains the capital.
August 16 Bahrain gains full independence from the United Kingdom as the State of Bahrain. Manama remains the capital.
April 19 Sierra Leone is renamed the Republic of Sierra Leone
March 26 The People's Republic of Bangladesh declares its independence from the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Dhaka is the capital.
1970 December 1 The People's Republic of South Yemen changes its name to the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. Aden remains the capital.
October 10 Fiji gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Dominion of Fiji. Suva remains the capital.
August 9 The Sultanate of Muscat and Oman is renamed the Sultanate of Oman
August 1 The United Kingdom moves the capital of the Crown Colony of British Honduras from Belize City to Belmopan.
June 4 The Kingdom of Tonga gains full independence from the United Kingdom. Nukuʻalofa remains the capital.
June 4 The Gambia is renamed the Republic of the Gambia
March 18 The Khmer Republic (Cambodia) supersedes the Kingdom of Cambodia. Phnom Penh is the capital.
March 2 Rhodesia (Southern Rhodesia) unilaterally declares itself the Republic of Rhodesia. Salisbury remains the capital.
March 2 Guyana is renamed the Co-operative Republic of Guyana
January 15 The Republic of Biafra capitulates and is reabsorbed by the military junta controlled Federal Republic of Nigeria. Enugu falls to Lagos.
January 3 The Republic of the Congo is renamed the People's Republic of the Congo

1960s[edit]

Year Date Event
1969 December 18 The Saudi-Kuwaiti neutral zone was divided, and the border between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait was defined
October 21 The Somali Democratic Republic supersedes the Somali Republic. Mogadishu remains the capital.
September 1 After a coup d'état led by Muammar Gaddafi, the Kingdom of Libya becomes the Libyan Arab Republic
May 25 The Democratic Republic of the Sudan supersedes the Republic of the Sudan. Khartoum remains the capital.
March 19 The Republic of Anguilla is taken back by the United Kingdom
January 4 Ifni is ceded to Morocco
1968 November 11 The Republic of Maldives supersedes the Sultanate of Maldives. Male remains the capital.
October 12 Spanish Guinea gains independence from the Spanish State as the Republic of Equatorial Guinea. Malabo remains the capital.
September 6 The Kingdom of Swaziland gains full independence from the United Kingdom. Mbabane is the capital.
June 26 The Allied occupied Bonin-Volcano Islands are given back to Japan
March 12 Mauritius gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of Mauritius. Port Louis remains the capital.
January 31 Nauru gains independence from a United Nations trusteeship jointly administered by the Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom as the Republic of Nauru. Yaren remains the de facto capital.
1967 November 7 South Yemen declares its independence from the United Kingdom as the People's Republic of South Yemen. Aden is the capital.
September 20 The Republic of Benin is taken over by Nigeria
September 19 The Republic of Benin becomes a puppet state that has no recognition from the parent state (Biafra)
September 8 Uganda is renamed the Republic of Uganda
August 17 Biafra takes over the Benin region
August 14 In Pakistan, the capital is moved from Rawalpindi to Islamabad
July 12 The Republic of Anguilla declares independence from the United Kingdom
July 5 French Somaliland is renamed French Territory of the Afars and Issas
June 10 Israel captures the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from the United Arab Republic (Egypt), the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria as a result of the Six-Day War.
May 30 The Republic of Biafra secedes from the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Enugu is the capital.[34]
January 24 The Republic of the United States of Brazil changes its name to the Federative Republic of Brazil. Brasilia remains the capital.
1966 November 30 Barbados gains independence from the United Kingdom. Bridgetown remains the capital.
November 28 The Republic of Burundi supersedes the Kingdom of Burundi. Bujumbura remains the capital.
October 4 The Crown Colony of the Territory of Basutoland gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Kingdom of Lesotho. Maseru remains the capital.
September 30 Bechuanaland gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of Botswana. Gaborone remains the capital.
July 6 Nyasaland gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of Malawi. Lilongwe remains the capital.
June 30 The Democratic Republic of the Congo changes the name of its capital from Léopoldville to Kinshasa.
May 26 The Crown Colony of British Guiana gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Co-operative Republic of Guyana. Georgetown remains the capital.
1965 November 11 The Cabinet of Southern Rhodesia issues its Unilateral Declaration of Independence from the United Kingdom as Rhodesia, which goes unrecognized. Salisbury remains the capital.
November 8 The United Kingdom creates the British Indian Ocean Territory from the Chagos Archipelago in Mauritius and the islands of Aldabra, Farquhar and Desroches from Seychelles, as Mauritius claims the Chagos Archipelago
August 21 The Romanian People's Republic changes its name to Socialist Republic of Romania. Bucharest remains the capital.
August 9 The Republic of Singapore secedes from Malaysia. Singapore remains the capital.
August 4 The Cook Islands becomes a state in free association with New Zealand, sharing citizenship
July 26 The British Protectorate over the Sultanate of Maldives ends. Male remains the capital.
February 18 The Gambia gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of the Gambia. Banjul remains the capital.
1964 December 12 Kenya is renamed Republic of Kenya
November 1 The United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar changes its name to the United Republic of Tanzania. Dar-es-Salaam remains the capital.
October 24 Northern Rhodesia gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of Zambia. Lusaka remains the capital.
September 21 The Crown Colony of Malta gains independence from the United Kingdom as the State of Malta. Valletta remains the capital.
August 1 The Republic of the Congo (Congo-Léopoldville) changes its name to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Léopoldville remains the capital.
July 6 Malawi gains independence from the United Kingdom. Lilongwe remains the capital.
April 26 The Republic of Tanganyika and the Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba unite to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar. Zanzibar City yields to Dar-es-Salaam as the capital.
March 4 The United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus is established in the Republic of Cyprus between Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities.
1963 December 31 Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland is divided into Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia, and Nyasaland
December 15 The Spanish colonies of Fernando Pó and Río Muni merge to form Spanish Guinea
December 12 The Republic of Kenya gains independence from the United Kingdom. Nairobi remains the capital.
December 10 Independence of the Sultanate of Zanzibar from the United Kingdom
October 1 The Federation of Nigeria is renamed the Federal Republic of Nigeria
September 23 The United Suvadive Republic is reunited with the Sultanate of Maldives. Hithadhoo yields to Male as the capital.
September 16 The Federation of Malaya unites with the British colonies of Singapore, Sarawak, and British North Borneo (Sabah) to form Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur remains the capital.
August 31 Independence of the Republic of Singapore from the United Kingdom
June 30 Independence of the Kingdom of Rwenzururu from Uganda with no recognition
May 1 United Nations Temporary Executive Authority in New Guinea is transferred to Indonesia
April 25 The Kingdom of Libya supersedes the United Kingdom of Libya. Tripoli remains the capital.
April 7 The Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia changes its name to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Belgrade remains the capital.
March 3 The disputed area of the Trans-Karakoram Tract is given to China by Pakistan, although India still claims it
January 15 Katanga is taken back by Congo (Léopoldville)
The Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba gains independence from the United Kingdom. Zanzibar City remains the capital.
1962 December 9 Tanganyika is renamed the Republic of Tanganyika
November 21 The disputed area of the Aksai Chin is given to China by Pakistan, although India still claims it
November 14 Eritrea becomes a province of the Ethiopian Empire, losing the autonomy it had under federation
October 9 The Republic of Uganda gains independence from the United Kingdom. Kampala remains the capital.
October 1 Netherlands New Guinea is transferred to United Nations Temporary Executive Authority
September 27 Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen (North Yemen) is overthrown by the Yemen Arab Republic. San'a becomes the capital.
September 26 The capital of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen is moved from Ta'izz to Sana'a
September 25 Algeria becomes the People's Democratic Algerian Republic. Algiers remains the capital.
August 31 The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago gains independence from the United Kingdom. Port of Spain remains the capital.
August 6 The United Kingdom creates the Crown Colony of the Cayman Islands. George Town is the capital.
The Crown Colony of Jamaica gains independence from the United Kingdom. Kingston remains the capital.
July 3 The French overseas department of Algeria gains independence from the French Republic. Algiers remains the capital.
July 1 The Kingdom of Burundi and the Republic of Rwanda become independent from the Kingdom of Belgium. Bujumbura and Kigali are the respective capitals.
May 31 The West Indies Federation is dissolved and member states return to their status as parts of the British West Indies. Chaguaramas yields to London as the capital. Most of the territories involved will become independent by 1983.
The Cayman Islands are split from Jamaica
Barbados, Jamaica, Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla, Trinidad and Tobago, and the Turks and Caicos Islands become their own separate British colonies
The British Leeward Islands are further dissolved into the British colonies of Antigua and Barbuda, Montserrat, and Saint Kitts and Nevis
The British Windward Islands are further dissolved into the British colonies of Dominica, Grenada, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
March 3 The United Kingdom officially gives the territory claimed in Antarctica an entity, the British Antarctic Territory, although this is suspended under the Antarctic Treaty
January 1 The Independent State of Western Samoa gains independence from New Zealand. Apia remains the capital.
1961 December 28 The Syrian Arab Republic secedes from the United Arab Republic, leaving Egypt as the sole member of the federation. Cairo remains the capital of the UAR. Damascus is again the capital of Syria.
December 19 The Republic of India annexes Goa, Daman and Diu from the Portuguese India.
December 9 The Republic of Tanganyika gains independence from the United Kingdom. Dar-es-Salaam remains the capital.
December 1 The Netherlands New Guinea is renamed West Papua
October 1 The southern portion of the British Cameroons gains independence from the United Kingdom and unites with the Republic of Cameroun to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. Yaoundé remains the capital.
September 28 In the United Arab States, Syria leaves the United Arab Republic, returning to the name of the Syrian Arab Republic
September 28 The Free Dadra and Nagar Haveli joins India, as Portugal ceases to claim it
September 28 Portugal cedes São João Baptista de Ajudá to Dahomey
September 28 Portuguese fort São João Baptista de Ajudá (now Ouidah), is annexed by Dahomey
June 23 The Antarctic Treaty System enters force to administer the continent of Antarctica and all lands and waters south of the 60th parallel south.
June 19 The State of Kuwait gains independence from the United Kingdom. Kuwait City remains the capital.
May 31 The Union of South Africa ceases to be a Commonwealth realm and changes its name to the Republic of South Africa. Pretoria, Cape Town and Bloemfontein remain the capitals.
Northern British Cameroon joins Nigeria
April 27 The Republic of Sierra Leone gains independence from the United Kingdom. Freetown remains the capital.
January 14 India annexes Portuguese India, and Portugal keeps claims on it
1960 November 28 The Islamic Republic of Mauritania gains independence from the French Republic. Nouakchott remains the capital.
October 1 The Federation of Nigeria gains independence from the United Kingdom. Lagos remains the capital.
September 22 The Republic of Mali gains independence from the French Republic. Bamako remains the capital.
August 20 The Republic of Senegal gains independence from the French Republic. Dakar remains the capital.
August 17 The Gabonese Republic (Gabon) gains independence from the French Republic. Libreville remains the capital.
August 16 The Republic of Cyprus gains independence from the United Kingdom. Lefkosia (Nicosia) remains the capital. The United Kingdom retains control of Akrotiri and Dhekelia.
August 15 The Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) gains independence from the French Republic. Brazzaville remains the capital.
August 13 The Central African Republic gains independence from the French Republic. Bangui remains the capital.
August 11 The Republic of Chad gains independence from the French Republic. N'Djamena remains the capital.
August 7 The Côte d'Ivoire gains independence from the French Republic. Abidjan remains the capital.
August 5 The Republic of Upper Volta gains independence from the French Republic. Ouagadougou remains the capital.
August 3 The Republic of Niger gains independence from the French Republic. Niamey remains the capital.
August 1 The Republic of Dahomey gains independence from the French Republic. Porto-Novo remains the capital.
The capital of Pakistan is moved from Karachi to Rawalpindi
July 11 The Czechoslovak Republic changes its name to the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. Prague remains the capital.
Independence of the State of Katanga from the Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville) with no recognition
July 1 The Somali Republic (Somalia) is created from a merger of the former colonies of British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland. Mogadishu is the capital.
June 30 The Belgian Congo gains independence from the Kingdom of Belgium as the Republic of the Congo (Congo-Léopoldville). Léopoldville remains the capital.
June 26 The Malagasy Republic (Madagascar) gains independence from the French Republic. Antananarivo remains the capital.
June 20 Independence of French Sudan from France with Senegal as the Mali Federation
April 27 The Togolese Republic (Togo) gains independence from the French Republic. Lomé remains the capital.
April 21 The Republic of the United States of Brazil moves its capital from Rio de Janeiro to Brasília.
January 1 The Republic of Cameroun gains independence from the French Republic. Yaoundé remains the capital.
The British Virgin Islands become a separate colony from the West Indies Federation

1950s[edit]

Year Date Event
1959 July 4 In the West Indies Federation, Turks and Caicos Islands becomes a separate colony from Jamaica
June 30 Fernando Pó and Río Muni are merged to form Spanish Guinea.
April 4 In French Africa, the colonies of Senegal and Soudan merge to form the Mali Federation.
January 3 The United Suvadive Republic secedes from the Sultanate of Maldives. Hithadhoo is the capital.
1958 October 15 The Malagasy Republic (Madagascar) gains autonomy within the French Community. Antananarivo is the capital.
October 2 The Republic of Guinea gains independence from the French Republic. Conakry is the capital.
July 14 The Republic of Iraq and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan are created from the dissolution of the Arab Federation of Iraq and Jordan. Baghdad remains the capital of Iraq. Amman is again the capital of Jordan.
February 22 The Egyptian Republic and the Syrian Arab Republic unite to form the United Arab Republic. Damascus yields to Cairo as the capital.
February 14 The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan unite to form the Arab Federation of Iraq and Jordan. Amman yields to Baghdad as the capital.
January 3 The United Kingdom establishes the West Indies Federation as a federation of most of the British West Indies, excluding the British Virgin Islands and the Bahamas. The de jure capital is Chaguaramas on Trinidad and the de facto capital is Port of Spain on Trinidad.
1957 August 31 The Federation of Malaya gains independence from the United Kingdom. Kuala Lumpur is the capital.
March 6 The Republic of Ghana gains independence from the United Kingdom. Accra is the capital.
1956 June 18 The Egyptian Republic declares its complete independence from the United Kingdom. Cairo remains the capital.
March 23 Pakistan adopts a new constitution and changes its name to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Karachi remains the capital.
March 20 The Tunisian Republic gains independence from the French Republic. Tunis is the capital.
March 2 The Kingdom of Morocco gains independence from the French Republic. Rabat is the capital.
January 1 The Republic of Sudan gains independence from the United Kingdom. Khartoum is the capital. Egypt relinquishes its claim to Sudan.
1955 The Kingdom of Bhutan makes Thimphu the sole capital.
May 15 The Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich) regains its independence. Allied occupation ends. Vienna (German: Wien) is the capital.
1954 December 20 The French Republic recognizes the independence of the Kingdom of Cambodia. Phnom Penh remains the capital.
December 15 The Kingdom of the Netherlands makes the Netherlands Territory of Curaçao one of its three constituent countries as the Netherlands Antilles. Willemstad on Curaçao remains the capital.
The Kingdom of the Netherlands makes the Netherlands Territory of Surinam one of its three constituent countries as Suriname. Paramaribo remains the capital.
August 11 The Republic of India annexes Dadra and Nagar Haveli from the Portuguese India.
March 7 The Sultanate of Maldives supersedes the Republic of Maldives. Male remains the capital.
July 20 The French Republic recognizes the independence of Vietnam divided between the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) and the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). Hanoi and Saigon are the respective capitals.
1953 November 9 The Kingdom of Cambodia declares its independence from the French Republic. Phnom Penh is the capital.
July 27 The Korean Armistice Agreement is signed, establishing the Korean Demilitarized Zone along the border between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea).
October 22 The Kingdom of Laos (Laos) gains independence from the French Republic. Vientiane is the capital.
June 13 The Egyptian Republic supersedes the Kingdom of Egypt. Cairo remains the capital.
January 1 The Republic of Maldives supersedes the Sultanate of Maldives. Male remains the capital.
1952 July 25 The Territory of Puerto Rico becomes the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico upon ratification of the Constitution of Puerto Rico, choosing free association with the United States of America. San Juan remains the capital.
July 22 The Republic of Poland changes its name to the Polish People's Republic. Warsaw remains the capital.
1951 December 24 The United Kingdom of Libya gains independence from a United Nations trusteeship, previously having been divided into the independent Emirate of Cyrenaica, British-administered Tripolitania and the French Military Territory of Fezzan-Ghadames. Tripoli is the capital.
February 15 The Republic of Poland and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics exchange territory along their common border.
1950 August 17 The Republic of the United States of Indonesia becomes a unitary state and changes its name back to Republic of Indonesia. Jakarta remains the capital
January 26 The India adopts a republican constitution and changes its name to the Republic of India. New Delhi remains the capital.
1958[edit]
1957[edit]
1956[edit]
1955[edit]
1954[edit]
1953[edit]
1952[edit]
1951[edit]
1950[edit]

1940s[edit]

Year Date Event
1949 December 27 The Republic of Indonesia becomes a federation as the Republic of the United States of Indonesia and its independence is formally recognised by the Netherlands. The capital returns to Jakarta from Yogyakarta.
December 8 The government of the Republic of China leaves Mainland China for Taiwan where Taipei becomes the de facto capital.
December 5 The State of Israel declares Jerusalem its official capital. Tel Aviv continues to serve as the de facto capital.
November 21 The British administered protectorates of the Emirate of Cyrenaica, the occuptied territory of Tripolitania, and the French occupied territory of Fezzan merge to form a jointly administered Libya.
November 6 The Australian administered Territory of New Guinea and the Territory of Papua merge to form the Territory of Papua and New Guinea.
October 7 The German Democratic Republic (East Germany) is established in occupied eastern Germany. East Berlin is the capital.
October 1 Mao Zedong proclaims the People's Republic of China. Beijing is the capital.
September 7 The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) is established in occupied western Germany. Bonn is the capital.
August 20 The Hungarian People's Republic supersedes the Hungarian Republic. Budapest remains the capital.
May 11 The Kingdom of Siam changes its name back to the Kingdom of Thailand. Bangkok remains the capital.
March 31 The Dominion of Newfoundland joins Canada as the Province of Newfoundland following the Newfoundland referendums. St. John's yields to Ottawa as the capital.
March 10 Israel captures half of the land allotted to an Arab state under the Partition Plan, Jordan occupies the West Bank, and Egypt occupies the Gaza Strip as a result of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.
March 1 The Emirate of Cyrenaica is created from part of the British Military Administration of Libya. The capital is Benghazi.
1948 September 9 Korea is divided between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea). Pyongyang and Seoul are the respective capitals.
July 17 The Republic of the Philippines moves its capital from Manila to Quezon City.
May 14 The State of Israel is established upon the termination of the British Mandate for Palestine. Tel Aviv is the capital.[35]
February 4 The Crown Colony of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Dominion of Ceylon. Colombo remains the capital until 1982.
January 4 The Union of Burma gains independence from the United Kingdom. Yangon (British Rangoon) is the capital until 2005.
The Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen (North Yemen) moves its capital from Sana'a to Taiz.
1947 December 30 The Romanian People's Republic supersedes the Kingdom of Romania. Bucharest remains the capital.
December 26 Sovereignty over the Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands is transferred from the United Kingdom to Australia.
October 27 The princely state of Jammu and Kashmir is divided between India and Pakistan.[36]
August 15 The Dominion of India gains independence from the United Kingdom. New Delhi is the capital.
August 14 The Dominion of Pakistan gains independence from the United Kingdom. Karachi is the capital.
February 10 The Italian Republic cedes its concession in Tientsin to the Republic of China.
1946 September 15 The People's Republic of Bulgaria supersedes the Tsardom of Bulgaria. Sofia is the capital.
July 4 The Republic of the Philippines gains independence from the United States of America. Manila is the capital until 1948.
May 25 The Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan gains independence from a British League of Nations Mandate. Amman is the capital.
March 19 The French Republic elevates its colonies of Algeria and Réunion to overseas departments.
The French Republic elevates its colonies of Guadeloupe and Martinique to overseas departments.
The French Republic elevates its colony of Guyane (French Guiana) to an overseas department.
February 1 The Hungarian Republic supersedes the Hungarian Kingdom. Budapest remains the capital.
January 11 The People's Republic of Albania supersedes the Democratic Government of Albania. Tirana remains the capital.
January 4 The Republic of Indonesia moves its capital from Jakarta to Yogyakarta.
1945 December 2 The Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia supersedes the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Belgrade remains the capital.
September 8 The Kingdom of Thailand changes its name back to the Kingdom of Siam. Bangkok remains the capital.
September 2 The Democratic Republic of Vietnam declares its independence from the French Republic. Hanoi is the capital.
The Empire of Japan surrenders to Allied Forces.
August 17 The Republic of Indonesia declares its independence from the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Jakarta is the capital.
August 15 Korea gains independence from the Empire of Japan. Seoul is the capital.
May 8 The Greater German Empire surrenders to Allied Forces.
April 27 The second Republic of Austria is established in occupied Austria. Vienna is the capital. The independence is recognised by the Allied Forces.
1944 June 17 The Kingdom of Iceland ends its personal union with the Kingdom of Denmark and becomes a republic. Reykjavík remains the capital.
1943 November 22 The Lebanese Republic (Lebanon) gains independence from the French Republic. Beirut is the capital.
January The French Military Territory of Fezzan-Ghadames is created when Free French forces from Chad invade southern Italian Libya. Sabha is the capital.
1942 November The British Military Administration of Libya begins when British forces invade Cyrenaica from Egypt.
1949[edit]
1948[edit]
1947[edit]
1946[edit]
1945[edit]
World map of colonisation in 1945.
1944[edit]
1943[edit]
1942[edit]
The Axis-controlled territory in Europe at the time of its maximal expansion (1941–42).
1941[edit]
1940[edit]

1930s[edit]

Year Date Event
1939 December 1 The Finnish Democratic Republic is created after the invasion of Finland by the Soviet Union. Terijoki is the de facto capital.
October 12 The General Government for the Occupied Polish Territories is created after the invasion of the Republic of Poland by the Greater German Empire.
October 6 The former territory of the Republic of Poland is partitioned between the Greater German Empire and the Soviet Union.
September 28 The Republic of Poland falls as a government, entering military occupation by the Greater German Empire.
September 2 The Free City of Danzig is annexed by the Greater German Empire. Danzig yields to Berlin as the capital.
July 10 The third German Empire changes its name to the Greater German Empire. Berlin remains as the capital.
June 23 The Kingdom of Siam changes its name to the Kingdom of Thailand. Bangkok remains the capital.
April 1 The Spanish State supersedes the Second Spanish Republic. Madrid remains the capital.
1938 March 13 The third German Empire absorbs the Federal State of Austria in Anschluss. Vienna yields to Berlin as the capital.
1937 The United Kingdom establishes the Crown Colony of Aden. The city of Aden becomes the capital.
December 29 The Irish Free State changes its name to Ireland. Dublin remains the capital.
1936 The former colony of Curaçao and Dependencies is renamed the Territory of Curaçao following the implementation of several laws resulting from the 1922 abolition of colonies in the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Willemstad on Curaçao remains the capital.
1935 Reza Shah Pahlavi changes the name of Imperial State of Persia to the Imperial State of Iran. Tehran remains the capital.
1934 October 7 The Catalan State is disestablished and is reabsorbed into the Spanish Republic. Barcelona yields to Madrid as the capital.
October 6 The Catalan State proclaims itself independent of the Spanish Republic. Barcelona is the capital.
March 1 The State of Manchuria is renamed the Great Empire of Manchuria. Hsinking remains the capital.
January 1 Italy creates Italian Libya with the merger of the colonies of Tripolitania, Cyrenaica, and Fezzan. The capital is Tripoli.
1933 March 23 The third German Empire supersedes the Weimar Republic. Berlin remains the capital.
1932 October 3 The Iraqi Kingdom (Iraq) gains independence from the United Kingdom. Baghdad is the capital.
September 13 The Socialist Republic of Chile changes its name back to the Republic of Chile. Santiago remains the capital.
June 4 The Republic of Chile changes its name to the Socialist Republic of Chile. Santiago remains the capital.
1931 December 11 By the Statute of Westminster 1931, Canada gains full control over its foreign policy and thus independence from the United Kingdom. Ottawa remains the capital.
April 14 The Second Spanish Republic supersedes the Monarchy of Spain. Madrid remains the capital.
1939[edit]
1938[edit]
1937[edit]
1936[edit]
1935[edit]
1934[edit]
1933[edit]
1932[edit]
1931[edit]

1920s[edit]

Year Date Event
1929 October 3 The Kingdom of Yugoslavia supersedes the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Belgrade remains the capital.
June 7 Vatican City gains independence from the Kingdom of Italy. Vatican City itself is the capital.
1928 December 29 The Republic of China establishes Nanking as its official capital, later codified in the 1947 Chinese Constitution.
September 1 The Kingdom of Albania supersedes the Republic of Albania. Tirana remains the capital.
1927 May 9 The Commonwealth of Australia moves its capital from Melbourne to Canberra.
April 12 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland changes its name to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. London remains the capital.
1926 June 9 Afghanistan becomes the Kingdom of Afghanistan. Kabul remains the capital.
The Kingdom of Belgium moves the capital of its colony of the Congo from Boma to Leopoldville.
1925 July 1 The Republic of China relocates its provisional capital from Nanking to Canton.
January 22 The Republic of Albania supersedes the Principality of Albania. Tirana remains the capital.
January 1 The Kingdom of Norway changes the name of its capital from Kristiania to Oslo.
1924 November 26 The Mongolian People's Republic is established. Ulan Bator is the capital.
1923 October 29 The Republic of Turkey is established following the fall of the Ottoman Empire. Ankara is the capital.
1922 December 30 The Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic unite to form the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Tbilisi, Kharkov, and Smolensk yield to Moscow as the capital.
December 8 Northern Ireland secedes from the Irish Free State to again form a region of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
December 6 The Irish Free State is constituted as an independent dominion formed through the secession of the island of Ireland from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Dublin is the capital.
November 17 The Ottoman Empire is dissolved. Its territories are mostly made protectorates of the victorious Allies of World War I.
March 12 The Socialist Conciliar Republic of Georgia, Azerbaijani Socialist Conciliar Republic, and the Armenian Socialist Conciliar Republic unite to form the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic. Baku and Yerevan yield to Tbilisi as the capital.
February 28 The Kingdom of Egypt gains independence from the United Kingdom. Cairo is the capital.
1921 November 22 The United Kingdom recognizes the independence of Afghanistan. Kabul remains the capital.
February 25 The Socialist Conciliar Republic of Georgia supersedes the Democratic Republic of Georgia. Tbilisi remains the capital until 1922.
1920 November 29 The Armenian Socialist Conciliar Republic supersedes the Democratic Republic of Armenia. Yerevan remains the capital until 1922.
April 28 The Azerbaijani Socialist Conciliar Republic supersedes the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. Baku remains the capital until 1922.
February 29 The Hungarian Kingdom supersedes the Hungarian Republic. Budapest remains the capital.
Map of Europe from the 1920s
1929[edit]
1927[edit]
1926[edit]
1925[edit]
  • December 6 - Britain adjusts the Egyptian border in favor of Italian Libya, giving it the Jarabub and Kufra oases.
  • June 29 - Britain transfers control of northern Jubaland to Italy, becoming the Italian colony of Oltre Giuba.
1922[edit]
1921[edit]
  • October 13 — Treaty of Kars:
    • Turkey relinquishes claims to Armenia
    • Turkey gains the area around Kars and southern Achara
  • October 13 — Niger established as a separate colony
  • October 12 — Upper Silesia divided between Poland and Germany
  • September 18 - Short-lived and unrecognized Rif Republic declared in Spanish Morocco.
  • August 14 - Tuvan People's Republic established as a Soviet satellite state.
  • June 1 — France reorganizes French West Africa, colony of Mauritania established
  • March 18 — Peace of Riga - new borders between Poland and Soviet Russia, Soviet Ukraine and Soviet Belarus defined.
1920[edit]

1910s[edit]

Year Date Event
1919 August 14 The Weimar Republic supersedes the second German Empire. Berlin remains the capital.
August 8 Afghanistan declares its independence from the United Kingdom. Kabul is the capital.
The Hungarian Republic supersedes the Hungarian People's Republic. Budapest remains the capital.
August 2 The Hungarian People's Republic supersedes the Hungarian Soviet Republic. Budapest remains the capital.
March 21 The Hungarian Soviet Republic supersedes the Hungarian People's Republic. Budapest remains the capital.
March 1 Oriental State of Uruguay changes its name to Oriental Republic of Uruguay. Montevideo remains the capital.
February 27 The Lithuanian-Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic supersedes the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. Vilnius is the capital.
January 1 The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic supersedes the Belarusian People's Republic. Minsk and Smolensk remain joint capitals.
1918 December 1 Iceland, a dependent territory of the Kingdom of Denmark with home rule, becomes the fully sovereign state Kingdom of Iceland in personal union with Denmark. Reykjavík is the capital.
The State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs and the Kingdom of Serbia unite to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Zagreb yields to Belgrade as the capital.
November 28 The Kingdom of Serbia annexes the Kingdom of Montenegro.
November 18 The Republic of Latvia gains independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Riga is the capital.
November 16 The Hungarian People's Republic supersedes the Hungarian Kingdom. Budapest remains the capital.
November 14 The Republic of Poland supersedes the Kingdom of Poland. Warsaw remains the capital.
November 2 The Republic of Lithuania supersedes the Kingdom of Lithuania. Vilnius remains the capital.
November 1 The Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen (North Yemen) gains independence from the Ottoman Empire. Sana'a is the capital.
October 31 The Hungarian Kingdom declares its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Budapest is the capital.
October 29 The State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs gains independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Zagreb is the capital.
July 25 The Kingdom of Belgium reabsorbs the Independent State of Flanders.
July 10 The Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic supersedes the Soviet Russian Republic. Petrograd remains the capital.
July 9 The Kingdom of Lithuania supersedes the State of Lithuania. Vilnius remains the capital.
May 30 Armenia changes its name to the Democratic Republic of Armenia. Yerevan remains the capital.
May 28 Armenia and Azerbaijan Democratic Republic dissolve the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. Yerevan and Baku are the respective capitals.
May 26 The Democratic Republic of Georgia secedes from the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. Tbilisi is the capital.
May 11 The Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus annexes the Emirate of Chechenia.
April 22 The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic gains independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Tbilisi is the capital.
April 19 The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic annexes the Abkhazian Republic (Abkhazia).
March 25 The Abkhazian Republic (Abkhazia) gains independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Sukhumi is the capital.
March 25 The Belarusian People's Republic declares its independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Minsk and Hrodna are named the joint capitals.
March 12 The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic moves its capital from Petrograd to Moscow.
February 24 The Republic of Estonia declares independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Tallinn is the capital.
February 16 The State of Lithuania declares its independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Vilnius is named the capital despite occupation by the Kingdom of Poland.
January 22 The Ukrainian People's Republic gains independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Kiev is the capital.
1917 December 22 The Independent State of Flanders declares its independence from the Kingdom of Belgium. Brussels is the capital.
December 6 The Republic of Finland gains independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Helsinki is the capital.
December 2 The Emirate of Chechenia declares its independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Vedeno is the capital.
November 7 The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic supersedes the Russian Republic. Petrograd remains the capital.
September 14 The Russian Republic supersedes the Provisional Government of Russia. Petrograd remains the capital.
March 15 The Provisional Government of Russia supersedes the Russian Empire. Petrograd remains the capital.
1916 November 5 Germany and Austria-Hungary proclaim the establishment of the Kingdom of Poland. Warsaw is the capital.
1914 March 7 Albania becomes the Principality of Albania. Tirana remains the capital.
1912 November 28 Albania declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire. Tirana is the capital.
January 1 The Republic of China supersedes the Qing dynasty of China. Nanking is the provisional capital.
1910 October 5 The first Portuguese Republic supersedes the Kingdom of Portugal. Lisbon remains the capital.
August 22 The Korean Empire capitulates and is annexed by the Empire of Japan.
May 31 The Cape Colony, the Colony of Natal, the Transvaal, and the Orange River Colony unite as the Union of South Africa to gain independence from the United Kingdom.
January 15 The French Republic creates French Equatorial Africa from its colonies of Gabon, Middle Congo, and Oubangui-Chari. Libreville and Bangui yield to Brazzaville as the capital.
1919[edit]
Territory ceded by Bulgaria in the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine
  • November 27 — Bulgaria signs the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine:
    • Western Thrace is ceded to the Entente
    • The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes is recognized and a small amount of land along the western border is ceded to it
    • Dobruja is given to Romania
  • September 25 — Spitsbergen awarded to Norway
New borders of the states formed by the dissolution of Austria-Hungary
  • September 12 - Bonin-Pichon agreement transfers two desert strips from French control to Italian Libya.
  • September 10 — Austria signs Treaty of Saint Germain:
  • July 10 — France and the United Kingdom agree on frontier between their mandates in the Cameroons
German losses as a result of the treaty of Versailles.
Poland and the Baltic states after the Treaty of Versailles.
1918[edit]
1917[edit]
1914[edit]
  • April 17 - Tannu Uriankhai is officially made a protectorate of Russia.
1913[edit]

Treaty of Constantinople (1913) September 29

    • The Ottoman Empire regains the portions of Eastern Thrace it lost in the First Balkan War
    • The Balkan League gain all Ottoman territory west of a line joining Enez and Kıyıköy (thus the Ottomans lose all their European territory, except for what is roughly the southeastern half of Turkey's present-day European territory).

Treaty of Bucharest (1913) August 10


1912[edit]
1911[edit]

1900s[edit]

Year Date Event
1909 July 9 The Kingdom of Siam transfers its southernmost provinces to British Malaya in the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909.
1908 November 15 King Leopold II of Belgium sells his private Congo Free State to the Kingdom of Belgium. The colony is renamed the Belgian Congo. Boma remains the capital.
October 6 Austria-Hungary formally annexes the Ottoman Vilayet of Bosnia (under de facto Austro-Hungarian rule since the Treaty of Berlin 1878) as the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina (causing the Bosnian crisis)
August 5 The Kingdom of Bulgaria gains independence from the Ottoman Empire. Sofia is the capital.
1907 December 17 Ugyen Wangchuck establishes the Kingdom of Bhutan. Punakha is the winter capital and Thimphu is the summer capital.
September 26 New Zealand gains independence from the United Kingdom. Wellington is the capital.
April 24 The border between the Republic of the United States of Brazil and the Republic of Colombia is defined by the Bogotá Treaty. Brazil gains lands on the margins of the Solimoes River, at the area known as Cabeça de Cachorro (The Dog's Head).
March 23 The Kingdom of Siam concedes territory to French Indochina in exchange for Trat.
1906 The French Republic divides its colony of French Congo into the colonies of Gabon and Middle Congo. Libreville remains the capital of Gabon. Brazzaville becomes the capital of Middle Congo.
1905 October 26 The Kingdom of Sweden recognises the independence of the Kingdom of Norway.
September 5 The Liaodong Peninsula and the Russian railway in south Manchuria are leased to the Empire of Japan following the Treaty of Portsmouth.
The Empire of Japan annexes Sakhalin Island south of 50°N following the Treaty of Portsmouth.
June 7 The Kingdom of Norway declares its independence from the Kingdom of Sweden through dissolution of the personal union. Kristiania is the capital.
1904 October 4 The Franco-Spanish Convention of Paris acknowledges formal control of Saguia el-Hamra (later northern Spanish Sahara) by the Kingdom of Spain.
February 13 Following the Franco-Siamese Convention, the Kingdom of Siam concedes border territories to French Indochina in exchange for French-occupied Chantaburi.
The border between the Republic of the United States of Brazil and British Guiana is defined by arbitration. About half of the disputed land goes to each side.
1903 November 18 The new Republic of Panama grants the United States of America control of the Panama Canal Zone. Balboa is the administrative center.
November 11 The Republic of Bolivia and the Republic of the United States of Brazil sign the Treaty of Petrópolis. Bolivia receives land in Mato Grosso from Brazil, and Brazil absorbes the Republic of Acre.
November 3 The Republic of Panama secedes from the Republic of Colombia. Panama City is the capital.
May 12 Mauritania becomes a protectorate of the French Republic.
January 27 The third Republic of Acre declares its independence from Bolivia. The capital is Antimary.
1902 November 20 British king Edward VII adjusts border in Cordillera of the Andes Boundary Case 1902 (Argentina, Chile).
May 31 The United Kingdom creates the Orange River Colony from the Orange Free State and the Transvaal Colony from the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal). Bloemfontein and Pretoria remains the respective capitals.
May 20 The Republic of Cuba gains independence from the United States of America. Havana is the capital.
1901 January 1 The Commonwealth of Australia is established by federation of the British colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania. Melbourne is the capital until 1927.
1900 October 6 The United Kingdom annexes the Orange Free State. Bloemfontein remains the capital.
May 28 The United Kingdom occupies the Orange Free State. Bloemfontein remains the capital.
March The first Republic of Acre capitulates and is reabsorbed by the Republic of Bolivia. Later the same year, the second Republic of Acre is declared with Antimary as its capital, and it is again reabsorbed by Bolivia.
The border between the Republic of the United States of Brazil and the French colony of Guyane (French Guiana) is defined by arbitration. The French troops that advanced to the margins of Araguari River repair to the Oiapoque River.

19th Century[edit]

Animated image depicting U.S. territorial growth

1890s[edit]

Year Date Event
1899 July 14 The first Republic of Acre declares independence from Bolivia. The capital is Antimary.
1898 December 10 The Monarchy of Spain cedes the Captaincy General of Cuba and the Captaincy General of Puerto Rico to the United States of America with the Treaty of Paris at the conclusion of the Spanish–American War. Havana and San Juan are the respective capitals.
The Monarchy of Spain cedes the Island of Guam to the United States of America with the Treaty of Paris at the conclusion of the Spanish–American War.
The Monarchy of Spain cedes the Captaincy General of the Philippines to the United States of America with the Treaty of Paris at the conclusion of the Spanish–American War. Manila is the Spanish capital. The Philippine Republic maintains its sovereignty with Malolos as its capital.
November 2 The Puna de Atacama dispute is defined by arbitration, of the 75,000 km2 in dispute 64,000 (85%) were awarded to the Argentine Republic and 11,000 (15%) to the Republic of Chile.
August 12 The United States of America annexes the Republic of Hawaii as the Territory of Hawaii. Honolulu remains the capital.
July 25 The United States of America seizes control of Puerto Rico from the Spanish Empire during the Spanish–American War. San Juan remains the capital.
June 12 The Philippine Republic declares independence from Kingdom of Spain. Malolos is the capital.
The Republic of Bolivia moves its administrative capital from Sucre to La Paz. Sucre remains the constitutional and judicial capital.
1897 The Joseon Dynasty becomes the Korean Empire. Hanseong remains the capital.
1895 November 16 The United Kingdom annexes the Crown Colony of British Bechuanaland to the Cape Colony. Vryburg yields to Cape Town as the capital.
October 23 The Empire of Japan conquers the Republic of Formosa. Takasago Koku (Taiwan) becomes a Japanese colony. Taihoku (Taipei) is the capital.
June The Republic of Formosa moves its capital from Taipei to Tainan.
May 23 The Republic of Formosa declares independence from the Qing dynasty of China. Taipei is its capital.
The border between the Republic of the United States of Brazil and the Argentine Republic is defined.
1894 July 4 The Republic of Hawaii supersedes the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi. Honolulu remains the capital.
1891 Pratap Singh defeats the ruler of Chitral and forces Hunza and Nagar to accept the suzerainty of Kashmir and Jammu state.
1890 November 29 The end of the personal union between the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

1880s[edit]

Year Date Event
1889 November 15 The Republic of the United States of Brazil supersedes the Empire of Brazil. Rio de Janeiro remains the capital.
March 9 Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia moves his capital to Addis Ababa.
1888 The Republic of Honduras moves its capital from Comayagua to Tegucigalpa, ending a century of indecision as to the country's capital.
1887 December 16 The Sultanate of Maldives becomes a British Protectorate. Male remains the capital.
1886 May 1 King Leopold II of Belgium selects Boma as the capital of his Congo Free State.
The United States of Colombia become the Republic of Colombia
1885 September 6 The Principality of Bulgaria annexes Eastern Rumelia. Sofia remains the capital.
September 1 The United Kingdom establishes the Crown Colony of British Bechuanaland. Vryburg is the capital.
May 2 King Leopold II of Belgium establishes his Congo Free State, a private government run by the International African Association.
1884 October 18 Argentina ends the conquest campaign of Eastern Patagonia, subduing the remaining Amerindian resistance (modern Provinces of Chubut and Santa Cruz)
August 3 The British suzerainty in the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) ends. Pretoria remains the capital.
April 4 Chile gains Antofagasta as part of the truce ending the (War of the Pacific) (made permanent in 1904)
The Greenwich prime meridian becomes the international standard reference for cartographers
German South-West Africa created[37]
German East Africa created
Togo created
Cameroon created
The United Kingdom establishes the Crown Colony of the Territory of Basutoland. Maseru is the capital.
1883 October 20 Chile gains Tarapacá, Arica, and Tacna (Treaty of Ancón)
Argentina incorpores the Patagonian lands of modern Neuquén Province, until the Limay River
1882 March 6 The Kingdom of Serbia supersedes the Principality of Serbia. Belgrade remains the capital.
1881 August 3 The South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) regains independence under British suzerainty. Pretoria remains the capital.
July 23 The border between the Republic of Chile and the Argentine Republic is defined.
March 14 The Kingdom of Romania is proclaimed. Bucharest is the capital.
Tunisia becomes a French protectorate
1880 The French Republic establishes the protectorate of French Congo. Brazzaville is the capital.
December 6 Federalization of Buenos Aires. Buenos Aires is declared the official capital of the Argentine Republic.

1870s[edit]

Year Date Event Map
1878 July 13 The Principality of Bulgaria moves its capital from Plovdiv to Sofia. (Treaty of Berlin)
The Principality of Bulgaria according to the terms of the Treaties of San Stefano (black outline) and Berlin (green). Eastern Rumelia is shown in red.
|
The Principality of Bulgaria is shrunk significantly (Treaty of Berlin)
Eastern Rumelia is created as an autonomous province of the Ottoman Empire (Treaty of Berlin)
Austro-Hungarian occupation of the Vilayet of Bosnia (Bosnia and Herzegovina) is recognized; De facto under Austro-Hungarian rule. (Treaty of Berlin)
The Ottoman Empire cedes Thessaly and small parts of Epirus to Greece (Treaty of Berlin)
Alashkerd and Bayazid are returned to the Ottoman Empire (Treaty of Berlin)
May 21 The Principality of Romania gains independence from the Ottoman Empire. Bucharest is the capital.
March 3 The Principality of Bulgaria is established by the Treaty of San Stefano. Plovdiv is the capital.
The Ottoman Empire recognizes Montenegro and cedes it territory including Nikšić, Podgorica and Antivari (Treaty of San Stefano)
Serbia gains independence and annexes Niš and Leskovac (Treaty of San Stefano)
The Ottoman Empire recognizes Romanian independence (Treaty of San Stefano)
Russia cedes Northern Dobruja to Romania (ceded to Russia by the Ottoman Empire) (Treaty of San Stefano)
Romania cedes Southern Bessarabia to Russia (Treaty of San Stefano)
The Ottoman Empire cedes Armenian and Georgian territories in the Caucasus to Russia, including Ardahan, Artvin, Batum, Kars, Olti, Beyazit, and Alashkert. (Treaty of San Stefano)
The Vilayet of Bosnia becomes an autonomous province (Treaty of San Stefano)
Crete, Epirus and Thessaly receive limited self-government (Treaty of San Stefano)
The Argentine campaign to take control of Patagonic territories start. By the end of 1879 Argentina's control would go as far as the Negro River (modern Provinces of Río Negro and La Pampa, as well as southern Mendoza, San Luis, Córdoba and Buenos Aires Provinces)
1877 April 12 The United Kingdom annexes the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) as the Transvaal Colony. Pretoria remains the capital.
1876 February 3 Limits between Paraguay and Argentina are established, following the Paraguayan War. Argentina is awarded the Central Chaco (current Formosa Province) and some territories in Misiones
1875 May 7 Japan cedes southern Sakhalin Island to Russia in exchange for the Kuril Islands north of Iturup (Treaty of Saint Petersburg)
1874 December 29 The restored Monarchy of Spain supersedes the first First Spanish Republic. Madrid remains the capital.
1873 November 17 With the unification of Buda, Óbuda and Pest, Budapest becomes the capital of the Hungarian Kingdom.
July 1 Prince Edward Island joins Canada
February 11 The First Spanish Republic supersedes the Monarchy of Spain. Madrid remains the capital.
1872 January 9 Limits between Paraguay and the Brazilian Empire are established, following the Paraguayan War. Brazil enlarged its Mato Grosso region
Limits between Paraguay and the Brazilian Empire are established, following the Paraguayan War. Brazil enlarged its Mato Grosso region
1871 July 20 British Columbia joins Canada
May 10 Germany annexes Moselle and most of Alsace from France following the Franco-Prussian War, which becomes the Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine
January 1 The second German Empire supersedes the North German Confederation. Berlin remains the capital. (Unification of Germany)
Rome replaces Florence as the capital city of Italy
1870 September 20 Italy annexes the area around Rome, ending the Papal States, succeeded by the States of the Church
September 4 The third French Republic supersedes the second French Empire. Paris remains the capital.
July 20 The Crown Colony of British Columbia joins the Dominion of Canada.
July 15 Hudson's Bay Company transfers North-Western Territory to Canada

1860s[edit]

Year Date Event
1868 October 1 The Bolivian Republic changes its name to the Republic of Bolivia. Sucre remains the capital until 1898.
January 3 Japan becomes the Empire of Greater Japan. The capital is moved from Kyoto to Edo, which is renamed Tokyo.
1867 October 18 The Russian Empire sells Alaska to the United States of America. New Archangel (Novoarkhangelsk now Sitka) is the capital.
July 1 The United Kingdom unites its colonies of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and the Crown Colony of the United Province of Canada as the Dominion of Canada. Ottawa is the capital.
The North German Confederation supersedes the German Confederation. Berlin remains the capital.
June 19 The United Mexican States supersedes the Mexican Empire. México remains the capital.
May 29 Austria-Hungary supersedes the Austrian Empire. Vienna remains the capital.
1866 October 22 The Kingdom of Italy annexes the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia. Venice yields to Florence as the capital.
August 6 The United Kingdom unites the colonies of British Columbia and the Island of Vancouver and its Dependencies as the Crown Colony of British Columbia. New Westminster yields to Victoria as the capital.
The United Kingdom moves the capital of the Crown Colony of the United Province of Canada from the city of Québec to Ottawa.
1865 April 11 The Confederate States of America capitulates and is reabsorbed by the United States of America. The USA will readmit the 11 CSA states to full statehood between July 24, 1866, and July 15, 1870.
April 3 The Confederate States of America moves its capital to Danville, Virginia.
March 3 The Dominican Republic regains its independence from the Monarchy of Spain. Santo Domingo is the capital.
The Kingdom of Italy moves its capital from Turin to Florence.
1864 July The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom is conquered by the Qing dynasty of China.
May 21 Britain transfers the Ionian Islands to Greece
April 10 The Mexican Empire supersedes the United Mexican States. México remains the capital.
1863 June 20 The Union-occupied northwestern counties of the Commonwealth of Virginia (which considered itself a part of the Confederate States of America) secede from the state and are admitted to the United States of America as the State of West Virginia.
July 6 The Northern Territory is annexed by the British colony of South Australia from the colony of New South Wales
May 8 The Granadine Confederation becomes the United States of Colombia
1862 October 12 The State of Buenos Aires reunites with the Argentine Republic.
October 8 Buenos Aires is declared provisional capital of the Argentine Republic.
April 12 The British colony of Queensland's western border is shifted from 141°E to 138°E
The United Kingdom creates the Crown Colony of British Honduras at the Settlement of Belize in the Bay of Honduras. The capital is Belize City.
1861 December 12 The Argentine Republic supersedes the Argentine Confederation.
December 10 The splinter government of Kentucky is admitted to the Confederate States of America
December 2 Paraná is no longer the capital of the Argentine Confederation.
November 28 The splinter government of Missouri is admitted to the Confederate States of America
November 20 A splinter government of Kentucky declares the state's secession from the United States of America
October 31 A splinter government of Missouri declares the state's secession from the United States of America
September 17 After the Battle of Pavón the Capital city of Argentina is moved to Buenos Aires
December 10 Arizona Territory is annexed by the Confederate States of America
May 29 The Confederate States of America moves its capital from Montgomery, Alabama, to Richmond, Virginia.
May 20 The State of North Carolina secedes from the United States of America and joins the Confederate States of America.
May 7 The State of Tennessee secedes from the United States of America and joins the Confederate States of America.
May 6 The State of Arkansas secedes from the United States of America and joins the Confederate States of America.
April 17 The Commonwealth of Virginia secedes from the United States of America and joins the Confederate States of America.
March 28 Arizona Territory secedes from the United States of America
March 17 The Kingdom of Italy is proclaimed in place of the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont
February 13 Gaeta surrenders to Sardinia-Piedmont
February 4 The Confederate States of America, formed from the seven seceding states, declare their independence from the United States of America. Montgomery, Alabama, is the capital for three months. Four more slave states will join by May 20.
February 1 The State of Texas secedes from the United States of America, declaring itself the Republic of Texas. Austin remains the capital.
January 26 The State of Louisiana secedes from the United States of America, declaring itself the Republic of Louisiana. Baton Rouge remains the capital.
January 19 The State of Georgia secedes from the United States of America, as the independent State of Georgia. Milledgeville remains the capital.
January 11 The State of Alabama secedes from the United States of America, declaring itself the Alabama Republic. Montgomery remains the capital.
January 10 The State of Florida secedes from the United States of America, declaring itself the Republic of Florida. Tallahassee remains the capital.
January 9 The State of Mississippi secedes from the United States of America, declaring itself the Republic of Mississippi. Jackson remains the capital.
The Dominican Republic returns to Spanish rule.
The Principality of Monaco declares independence from the Second French Empire. Monaco itself is the capital.
1860 December 20 The State of South Carolina secedes from the United States of America, declaring itself the Republic of South Carolina. Columbia remains the capital. Six more slave states will secede by February 1, 1861.
November 4 Sardinia-Piedmont annexes the Papal States of Umbria and The Marches
October 21 The Kingdom of Two Sicilies is annexed to Sardinia-Piedmont, except for the Fortress of Gaeta
October 8 The Argentine Nation becomes the Argentine Republic
June 14 France annexes the Duchy of Savoy (Treaty of Turin)
June 12 France annexes the County of Nice (Treaty of Turin)
March 22 The United Provinces of Central Italy are annexed by Sardinia-Piedmont
The British colony of South Australia's western border is changed from 132°E to 129°E
Kashmir and Jammu annexes Gilgit[38]

1850s[edit]

Year Date Event
1859 December 8 The Duchy of Parma, the Duchy of Modena and Reggio, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, and the Papal Legations combine to form the Sardinian client state of the United Provinces of Central Italy
November 11 After the Battle of Cepeda, the State of Buenos Aires rejoins the Argentine Confederation
November 10 Austria cedes Lombardy from Lombardy-Venetia to France (Treaty of Zürich)
France immediately cedes Lombardy to Sardinia-Piedmont (Treaty of Zürich)
June 6 Queen Victoria signs the Proclamation separating the colony of Queensland from British New South Wales
The United Kingdom moves the capital of the Crown Colony of the United Province of Canada from the city of Québec back to Toronto.
1858 August 2 The continental portion of Canada's part of Oregon Country organized as the Colony of British Columbia
May 28 Qing dynasty China cedes Outer Manchuria to the Russian Empire by the Treaty of Aigun
May 22 The Republic of New Granada becomes the Granadine Confederation
The United Kingdom moves the capital of the Crown Colony of the United Province of Canada from Toronto back to the city of Québec.
1856 January 1 The British colony Van Diemen's Land changes its name to Tasmania
The United Kingdom moves the capital of the Crown Colony of the United Province of Canada from the city of Québec back to Toronto.
1855 February 7 Russians in north of Sakhalin Island, Japanese in south, with no defined border between (Treaty of Shimoda)
Russia recognizes Japanese sovereignty of the Kuril Islands from Iturup on southwards (Treaty of Shimoda)
1854 March 24 The Argentine Confederation moves its capital to Paraná.
February 23 The Orange Free State is established. Bloemfontein is the capital.
1853 June 24 The Gadsden Purchase gives a portion of southern Arizona and New Mexico from Mexico to the United States
May 1 The Argentine Confederation becomes a Federal Republic, renamed the Argentine Nation
March The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom establishes its capital at Tianjing.
1852 December 2 The second French Empire supersedes the second French Republic. Paris remains the capital.
September 11 The Province of Buenos Aires secedes from the Argentine Confederation as the State of Buenos Aires. Buenos Aires remains the capital, the Confederation is without capital until 1854.
February 3 The Battle of Caseros ends the Argentine Civil War. Entre Ríos and Corrientes rejoin the Argentine Confederation. The Capital city is moved to Paraná
January 17 The South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) is established. Pretoria is the capital.
The United Kingdom moves the capital of the Crown Colony of the United Province of Canada from Toronto to the city of Québec.
1851 July 1 The colony of Victoria is split off from the British colony of New South Wales
May 1 The Argentine Provinces of Entre Ríos and Corrientes secede from the Argentine Confederation
January 11 The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom gains independence from the Qing dynasty of China.

1840s[edit]

Year Date Event
1849 August 13 The Hungarian State capitulates and is reabsorbed by the Austrian Empire.
July 2 The Papal States are restored as Rome falls
April 14 The Hungarian State declares its independence from the Austrian Empire. Debrecen is the temporary capital.
March 29 The Sikh Empire falls after the Sikh defeat in Anglo-Sikh wars and is merged in British India
February 9 Rebels under Giuseppe Garibaldi take over the area of the Papal States and create the Roman Republic
The United Kingdom moves the capital of the Crown Colony of the United Province of Canada from Montréal to Toronto.
1848 February 24 The second French Republic supersedes the Kingdom of France. Paris remains the capital.
February 2 The United Mexican States surrenders its northern territory to the United States of America with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo at the conclusion of the Mexican-American War.
1847 July 26 The African American colony of Liberia declares its independence as the Republic of Liberia. Monrovia is the capital.
1846 November 28 The British colony of North Australia is reincorporated back into the colony of New South Wales
August 22 The United Mexican States supersedes the Mexican Republic. México remains the capital.
June 18 The Oregon Treaty establishes the 49th parallel north west of the Lake of the Woods as the continental border between the Province of Canada and the United States.
February 17 The colony of North Australia is separated from the British colony of New South Wales
The princely state of Kashmir and Jammu, ruled by the Dogra Dynasty, is created after the first Anglo-Sikh war, as per the Treaty of Amritsar.[39][36]
1845 December 29 The Republic of Texas joins the United States of America as the State of Texas. Austin yields to Washington as federal capital while remaining capital of the state.
The Netherlands splits its colonial possessions in the Americas into two parts: Suriname and Curaçao and Dependencies. Paramaribo remains the capital of Suriname, while Willemstad on Curaçao becomes the capital of the six Caribbean islands.
The Kingdom of Hawaiʻi moves its capital from Lāhainā to Honolulu.
The United Kingdom moves the capital of the Falkland Islands from Port Louis to Stanley.
March 1 The Riograndense Republic is reabsorbed by the Brazilian Empire as the province of Rio Grande do Sul again.
1844 The United Kingdom moves the capital of the Crown Colony of the United Province of Canada from Kingston to Montréal.
February 27 The Dominican Republic gains independence from Haiti. Santo Domingo is the capital.
1841 February 10 The United Kingdom unites Upper Canada and Lower Canada as the Crown Colony of the United Province of Canada. Kingston is the capital.
February 2 The sole remnant of the Federal Republic of Central America changes its name back to the Republic of El Salvador. San Salvador remains the capital.
1840 November 16 The colony of New Zealand is separated from the British colony of New South Wales

1830s[edit]

Year Date Event
1839 November 17 The Republic of Guatemala secedes from the Federal Republic of Central America. Guatemala City becomes the capital.
October 17 The Republic of Texas establishes its permanent capital at Austin.
August 25 The Peruvian Republic and the Bolivian Republic are formed from the dissolution of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation. Lima and Sucre (previously Chuquisaca) are the respective capitals.
July 24 The Juliana Republic declares independence from Brazil. Laguna is the capital. The Republic capitulates and is reabsorbed later in the year.
April 19 The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg becomes independent, but remains in the personal Union with the Netherlands as a result of the Treaty of London.
The Principality of Serbia moves its capital from Kragujevac to Belgrade.
1838 November 5 The Republic of Costa Rica, the Republic of Nicaragua, and the Republic of Honduras secede from the Federal Republic of Central America. San José, Managua, and Comayagua are the respective capitals.
1836 December 28 The colony of South Australia is separated from the British colony of New South Wales.
October 28 The Republic of North Peru, the Republic of South Peru, and the Bolivian Republic unite to form the Peru-Bolivian Confederation. Tacna is the capital.
September 6 The Riograndense Republic declares independence from Brazil. Piratini is the first of five provisional capitals.
August 11 The Republic of North Peru supersedes the Peruvian Republic. Lima remains the capital.
March 17 The Republic of South Peru secedes from Peruvian Republic. Cusco is the capital.
March 2 The Republic of Texas declares its independence from México. Washington is the first of six cities that will serve as temporary capital until 1839.
1835 October 23 The Mexican Republic supersedes the United Mexican States. México remains the capital.
1834 The Federal Republic of Central America moves its capital from Guatemala City to San Salvador.
The Kingdom of Greece moves its capital from Nafplio to Athens.
1833 January 3 The United Kingdom removes a garrison installed by the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata in October 1832 reasserting its sovereignty claim over the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas). Port Louis becomes the capital.
1832 May The Kingdom of Greece supersedes the First Hellenic Republic. Nafplio remains the capital.
The colony of Western Australia supersedes the British Swan River Colony in Australia.
The Unitarian League is dissolved and its members join the Argentine Confederation.
1831 October 20 The Republic of New Granada supersedes Gran Colombia. Bogotá remains the capital.
July 21 Belgium becomes the Kingdom of Belgium. Brussels remains the capital.
January 4 The United Kingdom combines Essequibo-Demerara and Berbice as the Crown Colony of British Guiana. Georgetown is the capital.
January 4 The Argentine Confederation supersedes the United Provinces of the River Plate. Buenos Aires remains the capital until 1852.
1830 October 4 Belgium declares its independence from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Brussels is the capital.
June 28 The Oriental State of Uruguay is created from the Government and Provisional General Captaincy of the Oriental State of Uruguay. Montevideo remains the capital.
May 13 The Republic of Ecuador, and the Republic of Venezuela declare independence from Gran Colombia. Quito, and Caracas are the respective capitals.
February 3 The Ottoman Empire recognizes the independence of Greece. Nafplio is the capital.
The Unitarian League is created among the Argentine provinces of San Luis, La Rioja, Catamarca, Mendoza, San Juan, Tucumán, Córdoba, Salta and Santiago del Estero.

1820s[edit]

Year Date Event
1829 The British Swan River Colony is established in the west of Australia
1828 August 27 The Banda Oriental gains independence from the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata as Government and Provisional General Captaincy of the Oriental State of Uruguay. Montevideo is the capital.
Misiones Orientales are awarded to Brazil
1827 August 17 The Argentine Republic is dissolved. The Argentine Provinces resume their sovereignty delegating the Foreign affairs on the Province of Buenos Aires
1826 July 9 The Republic of Chile supersedes the State of Chile. Santiago remains the capital.
The Argentine Republic is proclaimed
1825 December 3 Van Diemen's Land is declared a separate British colony to New South Wales
November 15 The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves changes its name back to the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Lisbon remains the capital.
August 29 The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves recognizes the independence of the Empire of Brazil. Rio de Janeiro remains the capital.
August 25 Cisplatina declares its independence from the Empire of Brazil and reunites with the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata.
August 6 The Bolivian Republic gains independence from the Monarchy of Spain at the conclusion of the Bolivian War of Independence. Chuquisaca (later Sucre) is the capital.
July 16 The border of the British colony of New South Wales is extended from 133°E to 129°E
The Netherlands administratively combines its three colonies of Suriname, Curaçao and Dependencies (the ABC islands), and Sint Eustatius and Dependencies (the SSS islands). The capital is Paramaribo.
1824 December 9 The Battle of Ayacucho end the Spanish American wars of independence in South America
October 4 The United Mexican States supersedes the Mexican Empire upon the execution of Emperor Maximilian I. México remains the capital.
August 6 Bolivia declares independence from Spain, and refuses to join either Peru or the United Provinces of South America
July 2 The Confederation of the Equator declares independence from Brazil. Recife is the capital, but the Confederation capitulates and is reabsorbed at the same year.
1823 July The Republic of Guatemala, the Republic of El Salvador, the Republic of Nicaragua, the Republic of Honduras, and the Republic of Costa Rica unite to form the Federal Republic of Central America. Guatemala City is the capital.
May 16 The Republic of Costa Rica moves its capital from Cartago to San José.
1822 December 19 The Peruvian Republic supersedes the State of Peru. Lima remains the capital.
October 12 The Empire of Brazil supersedes the Independent Kingdom of Brazil. Rio de Janeiro remains the capital.
September 7 The Independent Kingdom of Brazil declares its independence from the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Rio de Janeiro is the capital.
February 9 Haiti annexes the Republic of Spanish Haiti. Santo Domingo yields to Port-au-Prince as the capital.
1821 December 1 The Republic of Spanish Haiti gains independence from Monarchy of Spain. Santo Domingo is the capital.
November 28 Independence of Panama from Spain
September 21 The Republic of Costa Rica gains independence from the Monarchy of Spain. Cartago is the capital.
September 15 The Republic of Guatemala, the Republic of Honduras, the Republic of Nicaragua and the Republic of El Salvador become independent from the Monarchy of Spain. Guatemala City, Comayagua, Managua, and San Salvador are the respective capitals.
August 24 The Monarchy of Spain recognizes the independence of the Mexican Empire. México remains the capital.
August 3 Peru becomes the State of Peru. Lima remains the capital.
July 28 Peru declares its independence from the Monarchy of Spain. Lima is the capital.
July 18 Cisplatina formally declares itself as part of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
July 3 The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves returns the capital from exile in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to Lisbon.
March 25 Greece declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire. Nafplion is the capital.
February 19 The United States of America receives Florida from Spain in the Adams–Onís Treaty
Alaska Boundary Dispute with Russia and Great Britain begins
1820 October 8 The Kingdom of Haiti collapses upon the suicide of King Henri I. Haiti is unified under the Republic of Haiti with its capital at Port-au-Prince.
February 1 Federal League Provinces of Entre Ríos and Santa Fe defeat the central government of the United Provinces of South America. The Federal League is dissolved and the Argentine Provinces resume their sovereignty, delegating the Foreign affairs on the Province of Buenos Aires
The Kingdom of Hawaiʻi establishes its capital at Lāhainā.

1810s[edit]

Retreat of European colonialism and change of political borders in South America, 1700–present
Year Date Event
1819 December 17 Gran Colombia is established from the previous Second Republic of Venezuela, United Provinces of New Granada, and the Presidency of Quito
August 7 The United Provinces of New Granada gains independence from the Monarchy of Spain. Bogotá is the capital.
1817 April 5 The Battle of Maipú secures Chilean independence from Spain
February 12 The State of Chile again declares its independence from the Monarchy of Spain. Santiago is the capital.
January 20 The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves occupies the Banda Oriental (Uruguay) as Cisplatina.
1816 July 9 The United Provinces in South America (Argentina, Bolivia, and Uruguay) declares its independence from the Monarchy of Spain. Buenos Aires remains the capital.
May 6 Spanish reconquest of New Granada ends the early Colombian independent governments
1815 December 16 The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves supersedes the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Rio de Janeiro remains the capital-in-exile.
November 21 Miloš Obrenović establishes the Principality of Serbia. Kragujevac is the capital.
June 29 The Federal League (including modern-day Uruguay and several Argentine Provinces) is established
July 8 The restored Kingdom of France supersedes the first French Empire. Paris remains the capital.
June 9 The Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia is formed from the Milanese and Venetian portions of the Kingdom of Italy and becomes a crown land of the Austrian Empire (Congress of Vienna)
Austria gains the territory of the former Republic of Ragusa (Congress of Vienna)
Grand Duchy of Tuscany is re-established and is given Piombino (Congress of Vienna)
The Duchy of Lucca is created in place of the former Republic of Lucca (Congress of Vienna)
The Duchy of Warsaw is partitioned into the Grand Duchy of Posen (Prussia), Congress Poland (Russia) and the Free City of Kraków (jointly controlled by Prussia, Russia, and Austria) (Congress of Vienna)
Prussia is awarded Danzig, much of the Kingdom of Saxony, Westphalia and the Rhineland. (Congress of Vienna)
The United Kingdom of the Netherlands is created from the former Dutch Republic and Austrian Netherlands, with Luxembourg in a personal union. (Congress of Vienna)
Swedish Pomerania is ceded to Prussia. (Congress of Vienna)
The Duchy of Lauenburg is ceded by Hanover to Denmark (Congress of Vienna)
Hanover becomes a Kingdom annexes the former territories of the Bishop of Münster and East Frisia (Congress of Vienna)
Bavaria gains the Palatinate and parts of the Duchy of Würzburg and Grand Duchy of Frankfurt (Congress of Vienna)
Hesse-Darmstadt gains Rhenish Hesse (Congress of Vienna)
British control of various colonies, including the Cape Colony, Tobago, and Ceylon, is recognized (Congress of Vienna)
The United States of the Ionian Islands is formed as a British protectorate (Congress of Vienna)
German Confederation established. Frankfurt is the capital. (Congress of Vienna)
March 20 The first French Empire supersedes the Kingdom of France. Paris remains the capital.
March 16 The United Kingdom of the Netherlands supersedes the Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands. Amsterdam and Brussels are the joint capitals.
Sir Robert Brownrigg establishes the Crown Colony of Ceylon. Colombo becomes the capital.
The capital of Bermuda is moved from St George to Hamilton
1814 November 4 The Kingdom of Norway joins a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Stockholm and Christiania are the capitals.
October 2 The Monarchy of Spain reconquers Chile.
May 17 Norway declares full independence, electing its own king and adopting its own constitution.
April 11 Napoleon abdicates from the Italian throne, effectively dissolving the Kingdom.
April 6 The restored Kingdom of France supersedes the First French Empire. Paris remains the capital.
March 29 The Netherlands are reestablished from France as the Sovereign Princedom of the Netherlands.
May 17 Denmark cedes Norway to Sweden through the peace of Kiel.
Various Italian states are reinstated, including the Duchy of Modena and Reggio and the Papal States.
May 17 The Kingdom of Sardinia reclaims its mainland territory and annexes the land of the former Republic of Genoa. (Ratified by the Congress of Vienna in 1815.)
January 14 The Kingdom of Norway secedes Denmark–Norway. Christiania is the capital.
The Principality of Andorra declares independence from the First French Empire. Andorra la Vella is the capital.
1813 December 11 The Treaty of Valençay ends formally the Peninsular War, with the restoration of Ferdinand VII of Spain and releasing the country from being a client state of the Napoleonic French Empire.
December 2 The Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands is created from the ruins of the first French Empire. Amsterdam is the capital.
October 19 The Confederation of the Rhine dissolves.
October 12 Paraguay becomes the Republic of Paraguay. Asunción remains the capital.
August 7 The Second Republic of Venezuela is declared
July 23 The British Malta Colony supersedes the Malta Protectorate. Valletta remains the capital.
1812 July 28 The First Republic of Venezuela is crushed by the Spanish Empire
May 28 The eastern portion of the Principality of Moldavia (Bessarabia) is ceded to the Russian Empire by the Ottoman Empire in the Treaty of Bucharest
May 14 France annexes Catalonia from Spain, creating the départements of Bouches-de-l'Èbre, Montserrat, Sègre and Ter. Andorra is also annexed and incorporated into the département of Sègre.
1811 November 27 The United Provinces of New Granada (modern Colombia) are established
July 5 Venezuela declares independence from Spain
May 14 Paraguay gains independence from the Monarchy of Spain. Asunción is the capital.
March 28 The Kingdom of Haiti supersedes the State of Haiti. Cap-Haïtien is the capital.
1810 December 13 France annexes northern Germany (Hamburg, Bremen, Lübeck, Salm, Arenberg, Oldenburg, parts of Westphalia and Berg)
September 18 Chile declares its independence from the Monarchy of Spain. Santiago is the capital.
September 16 México declares its independence from the Monarchy of Spain.
July 20 Colombia declares its independence from the Monarchy of Spain.
July 13 The Kingdom of Holland (Netherlands) is annexed by the first French Empire.
May 25 The United Provinces in South America (Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay) is created from colonies of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. Buenos Aires is the capital.
May 22 By the terms of the Treaty of Paris, the Principality of Regensburg is formally incorporated into the Kingdom of Bavaria
April 19 The First Republic of Venezuela is established, starting the Venezuelan War of Independence from Spain
April Kamehameha I unifies the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi.
The Rhodanic Republic is annexed by France and becomes the département of Simplon

1800s[edit]

Year Date Event
1809 October 14 Salzburg is ceded to Bavaria (Treaty of Schönbrunn)
West Galicia is ceded to the Duchy of Warsaw (Treaty of Schönbrunn)
Tarnopol is ceded to the Russian Empire (Treaty of Schönbrunn)
Trieste and Croatia south of the Sava are ceded to France; these become the Illyrian provinces (Treaty of Schönbrunn)
September 17 Sweden officially cedes Finland to Russia through the peace of Hamina
March 29 The Russian Tsar is declared Grand-duke of Finland, effectively separating Finland from Sweden and turning it into a Russian autonomous duchy
Napoleon dissolves the Teutonic Knights; their lands are redistributed between neighboring states of the Holy Roman Empire, mostly to Württemberg.
1808 March 7 The Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves removes the capital from Lisbon to exile in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Spain becomes a client state of the First French Empire after the country was partially occupied by French forces and Joseph I set as king by Napoleon.
1807 July Napoleon creates the Duchy of Warsaw from land ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia by the Treaties of Tilsit
1806 October 17 The Empire of Haiti collapses upon the assassination of Emperor Jacques I. Haiti splits in two with the State of Haiti in the north with its capital at Milot, and the Republic of Haiti in the south with its capital at Port-au-Prince.
August 6 Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, dissolves the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.
July 25 Napoleon I of France establishes the Confederation of the Rhine. Frankfurt is the capital.
June 5 The Kingdom of Holland (Netherlands) supersedes the Batavian Republic. Amsterdam remains the capital.
January 8 The United Kingdom establishes the Cape Colony. Cape Town is the capital.
1805 July France annexes the Principality of Piombino and the Republic of Lucca and reconstitutes them as the Principality of Lucca and Piombino
1804 September 22 Jean-Jacques Dessalines establishes the Empire of Haiti. Port-au-Prince remains the capital.
August 11 Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, establishes the Austrian Empire. Vienna is the capital.
May 18 The first French Empire supersedes the first French Republic. Paris remains the capital.
March 4 The French Republic sells Louisiane to the United States of America. New Orleans (Nouvelle-Orléans) is the capital of the unorganized territory.
January 1 The French colony of Saint-Domingue on Hispaniola declares its independence from the French Republic as Haiti. Port-au-Prince remains the capital.
1803 April 27 As a result of the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss, all but three (Archbishopric of Regensburg, and the lands of the Teutonic Knights and Knights of Saint John) ecclesiastical states of the Holy Roman Empire are either secularized or annexed by other states. The Duchy of Salzburg (formerly the Archbishopric of Salzburg) is also raised to an electorate.
February 19 The Act of Mediation converts the Helvetic Republic into the Swiss Confederation
1802 Napoleon separates the Canton of Valais from the Helvetic Republic to form the Rhodanic Republic
1801 August 20 The Gozitan Nation is annexed by the British protectorate of Malta.
June 6 The Kingdom of Spain and the Kingdom of Portugal signs the Treaty of Badajoz. Spain cedes the South American Misiones Orientales to Portugal.
The Kingdom of Spain and the Kingdom of Portugal signs the Treaty of Badajoz. Portugal cedes Olivenza to Spain.
January 1 The Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland unite to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Dublin yields to London as the capital.
1800 November 17 The United States of America moves its capital from Philadelphia to its permanent location at Washington in the District of Columbia.
September 5 French forces in Malta surrender to the British. The island becomes the British protectorate of Malta with Valletta as capital.
October 1 After a secretly negotiated treaty between France and Spain, Spain returns the colony of Louisiana to France
1800 February 17 The French département of Mont-Terrible is merged into the département of Haut-Rhin.

18th Century[edit]

1790s[edit]

Year Date Event
1799 July 7 Establishment of the Sikh Empire after capture of Lahore by Maharaja Ranjit Singh and unification of the Sikh Confederacy under him.
1798 October 28 The Gozitan Nation gains de facto independence from Malta with Rabat as its capital.
June 11 The Order of Saint John capitulates to French forces and Malta is under French occupation with Valletta remaining the capital.
April 12 The Napoleonic Helvetic Republic is declared
January 4 France annexes Mulhouse
1797 April 17 The House of Habsburg annexes the Republic of Venice.
October 18 The Austrian Netherlands and various Mediterranean islands, including Corfu, are ceded to France. (Treaty of Campo Formio)
The Republic of Venice is dissolved. Venetia (the eastern portion of Domini di Terraferma, roughly modern Veneto and Friuli-Venezia Giulia), Istria and Dalmatia are annexed by Austria (Treaty of Campo Formio)
Austria recognizes the Cisalpine Republic and Ligurian Republic (Treaty of Campo Formio)
The Kingdom of Italy is recognized as defunct and all subordinate territories are formally released from the Holy Roman Empire (Treaty of Campo Formio)
1795 January 19 The Batavian Republic supersedes the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. Amsterdam is the capital.
October 24 Third partition of Poland
France annexes Southern Netherlands
1793 June 25 Avignon is transferred from the Papal States to France
March 23 The Rauracian Republic is annexed by France to form the département of Mont-Terrible
March 2 France annexes the Principality of Salm-Salm
1792 December 17 Most of the Prince-Bishopric of Basel becomes the Napoleonic Rauracian Republic, retaining only Schliengen
September 21 The first French Republic supersedes the Kingdom of France. Paris remains the capital.
January 23 Second partition of Poland
1791 March 4 The Vermont Republic joins the United States of America as the State of Vermont. Windsor yields to Philadelphia as the federal capital.
1790 December 7 The United States of Belgium capitulates to the House of Habsburg.
December 6 The United States of America moves its temporary capital from New York City to Philadelphia pending the construction of the new capital permitted by the new United States Constitution.
January 11 The United States of Belgium declares its independence from the House of Habsburg. Brussels is the capital.

1780s[edit]

Year Date Event
1788 January 26 British colony of New South Wales is established
1785 January 11 The United States of America moves its temporary capital from Trenton to New York City.
1784 November 1 The United States of America moves its temporary capital from Annapolis to Trenton.
King Joseph II moves the capital of the Hungarian Kingdom back to Buda.
1784 July 1 King Gustav III of Sweden acquires the island of Saint Barthélemy in the Caribbean from France. It becomes a Swedish colony for nearly a century, until it is sold back to France in 1878.
Russian seafarer and merchant Grigory Ivanovich Shelikhov arrives in Three Saints Bay in Alaska
1783 November 26 The United States of America moves its temporary capital from Princeton to Annapolis.
September 3 The Kingdom of Great Britain signs the Treaty of Paris, recognizing the independence of the United States of America. Princeton remains the temporary capital.
November 26 The United States of America moves its temporary capital from Philadelphia to Princeton.
January 20 Great Britain surrenders East Florida and West Florida to Spain
April 19 [O.S. April 8] The Crimean Khanate is annexed by the Russian Empire and incorporated as the Taurida Governorate
Province of Trinidad moves its capital from San José de Oruña to Puerto de España, its present location.
1782 April  21 Siam moves its capital from Thonburi to Bangkok, its present location.

1770s[edit]

Year Date Event
1778 July 27 The United States of America moves its temporary capital from York back to Philadelphia.
1777 October 1 The Kingdom of Spain and the Kingdom of Portugal sign the First Treaty of San Ildefonso, confirming almost all the borders defined by the Treaty of Madrid, with the exception that Spain would rule both Colonia del Sacramento and the Misiones Orientales.
September 30 The United States of America moves its temporary capital from Lancaster to York.
September 27 United States of America moves its temporary capital from Philadelphia to Lancaster for one day, following the capture of Philadelphia by British forces.
July 8 The Republic of New Connecticut changes its name to the Vermont Republic. Windsor remains the capital.
June 4 The Republic of New Connecticut moves its capital to Windsor.
March 4 The United States of America moves its temporary capital back from Baltimore to Philadelphia.
January 15 The Republic of New Connecticut declares its independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain. Westminster is the temporary capital.
1776 December 20 The United States of America moves its temporary capital from Philadelphia to Baltimore.
July 4 The United States of America (including the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations) declares its independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain. Philadelphia is the first of eight cities that will serve as a temporary capital until 1800.
May 4 Rhode Island and Providence Plantations declares its independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain. Providence is the capital.
1775 The Kingdom of Portugal reunites its South American colonies of the State of Brazil, the State of Great-Pará, and the State of Maranhão into the Colony of Brazil. Rio de Janeiro is the capital.
1772 The Kingdom of Portugal divides its colony of the State of Great-Pará and Maranhão into the State of Great-Pará (capital, Belém) and the State of Maranhão (capital, São Luis).
Ayutthaya having been destroyed in 1767, the new capital of Siam is created in Thonburi.
August 5 First partition of Poland

1760s[edit]

Year Date Event
1768 December 21 Prithvi Narayan Shah unifies the Kingdom of Nepal. Kathmandu is the capital.
May 15 Genoa sells to France its rights to Corsica
1763 February 12 The Kingdom of Portugal moves the capital of its colony of the State of Brazil from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro.
February 10 The Treaty of Paris creates a number of territory transfers between Great Britain, France, and Spain. New France (Canada) now belongs to the British.
The capital of the colony of Brazil is moved from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro
1762 The Louisiana Territory is transferred from France to Spain in the Treaty of Fontainebleau
1761 February 12 The Kingdom of Spain and the Kingdom of Portugal sign the Treaty of El Pardo, nullifying the Treaty of Madrid.

1750s[edit]

Year Date Event
1758 The Zunghar Khanate is annexed by Qing dynasty China.
1752 Georgia becomes a colony of British North America[40]
1751 The Kingdom of Portugal changes the name of its colonial State of Maranhão to State of Great-Pará and Maranhão.
September 21 Through the Treaty of Strömstad, the border between Sweden and Norway is finally settled, from the beginning of the land border in Iddefjord until Norway's border on Russia at Varanger (since Finland was part of Sweden at this time, the border between the two countries continued beyond the present end point of the border between Norway and Sweden).
1750 January 13 The Kingdom of Spain and the Kingdom of Portugal signs the Treaty of Madrid. Based on the uti possidetis concept, Portugal gains lands on the actual south, central and north regions of Brazil. The treaty also stipulated that Spain would receive the Colonia del Sacramento and Portugal the Misiones Orientales.

1740s[edit]

Year Date Event
1747 Safavid Empire collapses[41]
October The Durrani Empire is founded near Kandahar on a Loya jirga, when Ahmad Shah Abdali is chosen as the king of the newly independent empire. He is later regarded as the founder of modern Afghanistan.
1740 Prussia annexes Silesia from Austria

1730s[edit]

Year Date Event
1737 The Kingdom of Portugal moves the capital of its colonial State of Maranhão from São Luís to Belém.
1739 September 18 The Habsburg Monarchy cedes the Kingdom of Serbia, the southern part of the Banat of Temeswar and northern Bosnia to the Ottoman Empire
The Habsburg Monarchy cedes Oltenia to Wallachia (an Ottoman vassal)
January 1 Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier discovers Bouvet Island in the South Atlantic Ocean

1720s[edit]

Year Date Event
1729 North Carolina and South Carolina become royal colonies, due to the division of the Province of Carolina
1728 On Greenland (then part of Denmark-Norway), Hans Egede founds the colony of Godthåb
1721 October 22 Peter the Great proclaims the Tsardom of Russia an Empire
August 30 Swedish Estonia, Ingria, Livonia, and most of Karelia is ceded by Sweden to the Tsardom of Russia according to the terms of the Treaty of Nystad.
1720 January 21 Sweden cedes the portion of Swedish Pomerania south of the Peene and east of the Peenestrom to Prussia

1710s[edit]

Year Date Event
1719 November 9 Sweden cedes Bremen-Verden to the Electorate of Hanover
1718 July 21 The Ottoman Empire cede the Banat, southeastern Syrmia, central Serbia, part of northern Bosnia and Lesser Wallachia (Oltenia) to the Habsburg Monarchy (Treaty of Passarowitz)
The Kingdom of Serbia is established as a Habsburg crown land (Treaty of Passarowitz)
The Banat of Temeswar is established as a Habsburg crown land (Treaty of Passarowitz)
Venice return Morea (gained by the Treaty of Karlowitz) and its Cretan holdings to the Ottomans.
The Ottoman Empire cede parts of Dalmatia (Imotski, Sinj, and Vrgorac).
1715 The Kingdom of Spain returns Colonia del Sacramento to the Kingdom of Portugal.
November 28 Kingdom of Castile integrates the Kingdom of Majorca, the last part of the Crown of Aragon, through invasion
1714 September 11 Fall of the Crown of Aragon invaded by Kingdom of Castile marked by the invasion of the City of Barcelona (Siege of Barcelona). Creation of a unified Kingdom of Spain through the Nueva Planta decrees.
September 7 The Duchy of Milan is ceded to the Habsburg Monarchy
1713 March and April The Treaty of Utrecht is signed. The United Kingdom takes sovereignty over Gibraltar and Menorca from the Kingdom of Spain. Spain also ceded: Sicily and parts of the Duchy of Milan to Savoy; Spanish Netherlands, the Kingdom of Naples, Sardinia, and the bulk of the Duchy of Milan to Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor; lands in South America between Amazon River and Oiapoque River to the Kingdom of Portugal.
Gibraltar passes from Spain to Great Britain
1711 The Principality of Transylvania is integrated de jure into the Habsburg Monarchy as a crown land (Principality of Transylvania (1711–1867))
July 21 The Russian Empire returns Azov to the Ottoman Empire by the Treaty of the Pruth

1700s[edit]

Year Date Event
1707 May 1 The Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland unite to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.[42] Edinburgh yields to London as the capital for all but judicial functions.
April 25 Kingdom of Castile integrates the Kingdom of Valencia part of the Crown of Aragon through invasion (Battle of Almansa)
May 1 The creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain through the Acts of Union

17th Century[edit]

Year Date Event
1700 The Ottoman Empire cedes Azov to the Russian Empire by the Treaty of Constantinople
1699 January 26 The Ottoman Empire cede the Eğri Eyalet, the Varat Eyalet, northern parts of the Temeşvar Eyalet, most of the Budin Eyalet and parts of the Bosnia Eyalet to the Habsburg Monarchy. This territory plus the Principality of Transylvania corresponds to most of the territory of mediaeval Hungary previously lost to the Ottomans (Ottoman Hungary). (Treaty of Karlowitz)
The Principality of Transylvania, while nominally independent, comes de facto under Habsburg rule.(Treaty of Karlowitz)
The Ottoman Empire return Podolia to Poland-Lithuania.(Treaty of Karlowitz)
The Ottoman Empire cede the Morea and most of Dalmatia to the Republic of Venice.(Treaty of Karlowitz)
1700 The Ottoman Empire cedes Azov to the Russian Empire by the Treaty of Constantinople
1684 The English Crown Colony of Bermuda supersedes the Somers Isles Company. Hamilton is the capital.
1685 New York becomes a royal colony
1682 Robert de La Salle sails down the Mississippi River[43]
1681 Pennsylvania becomes a colony
1674 Shivaji founded Maratha Empire in Maharashtra
1664 New Jersey founded
1663 Rhode Island becomes a colony
1662 Connecticut becomes a British royal colony
1661 Aurangzeb of the Mughal Empire gives the port of Bombay to the British
1660 May 27 The Kingdom of Sweden cedes Trøndelag to the Kingdom of Denmark and Norway, the Wends and the Goths as part of the Treaty of Copenhagen.
May 3 The Treaty of Oliva cedes Ruhnu Island in Estonia from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth to Sweden
April 4 The restored Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Scotland, and Kingdom of Ireland supersede the republican Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland. London, Edinburgh, and Dublin are the respective capitals.
1658 February 26 The Kingdom of Denmark and Norway, the Wends and the Goths cedes Skåne, Blekinge, Halland, Bornholm, Båhus and Trøndelag to the Kingdom of Sweden as part of the Treaty of Roskilde.
December 16 The Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland supersedes the Commonwealth of England, the Kingdom of Scotland, and the Kingdom of Ireland. Edinburgh and Dublin yield to London as the capital.
1658 February 26 Sweden gains in Danish-Norwegian regions of Blekinge, Bornholm, Bohuslän (Båhuslen), Scania (Skåne) and Trøndelag and the 30 year ownership of Halland is made permanent in the treaty of Roskilde
1653 May 4 The precise borders between Swedish Pomerania and Farther Pomerania (Brandenburg-Prussia) are determined in the Treaty of Stettin
1649 May 19 The republican Commonwealth of England supersedes the Kingdom of England. London remains the capital.
1648 The Netherlands, Switzerland, and many Italian city-states are made independent of the Holy Roman Empire
The Duchy of Pomerania is divided between Sweden (Swedish Pomerania) and Brandenburg-Prussia (Farther Pomerania), although the precise borders would not be determined until 1653
1645 August 13 The Kingdom of Denmark and Norway, the Wends and the Goths cedes Jämtland, Härjedalen, Idre & Särna, Gotland, Ösel and Halland, the latter for a period of 30 years, to the Kingdom of Sweden as part of the Treaty of Brömsebro.
1644 October 30 The Qing dynasty of China supersedes the Ming dynasty. Beijing remains the capital.
1640 December 1 Portugal separates from personal union with Spain
1638 Delaware founded
1636 England establishes the Crown Colony of Connecticut. Hartford is the capital.
1635 Fasilides makes Gondar the first permanent capital of Ethiopia since the fall of the Zagwe Dynasty
1634 Maryland founded
1628 The Colony of Barbados moves its capital from Saint James Town to Bridgetown.
1626 Dutch purchase Manhattan[44]
1627 The Kingdom of England establishes the Colony of Barbados with its capital at Saint James Town.
1623 New Hampshire founded
1621 The Kingdom of Portugal divides the Colony of Brazil into the State of Brazil (capital, Salvador) and the State of Maranhão (capital, São Luis).
1620 Massachusetts founded
1617 February 27 In the treaty of Stolbovo Sweden gained the Russian province and fortress of Kexholm (Käkisalmi, now Priozersk) and the province of Ingria including the fortress of Nöteborg (now Shlisselburg, Russia)
1612 The Kingdom of Portugal reunites North Brazil and South Brazil into the Colony of Brazil. The capital is Salvador.
1610 Henry Hudson discovers Hudson Bay
1608 The Kingdom of Portugal divides the Colony of Brazil into North Brazil (capital, Salvador) and South Brazil (capital, Rio de Janeiro) for the second time.
1607 Jamestown and Virginia Colony founded
1601 January 17 France gains Bresse, Bugey, and Gex from Savoy, and cedes Saluzzo to Savoy in exchange

16th century[edit]

Year Date Event Map
1598 Kuchum, Khan of Sibir is killed in battle with Russian forces, thus completing the Russian conquest of Siberia.
1596 Willem Barentsz makes the first indisputable discovery of the Svalbard archipelago
1594 Virmadhalasuriya I of Sri Lanka moves the capital of the Kingdom of Sri Lanka to Kandy
1591 *Moroccans conquer Timbuktu[45]
1581 July 26 The Republic of the Seven United Netherlands declares its independence from the Monarchy of Spain.
1581 March 20 Swedish Estonia is reorganized as the Duchy of Estonia.
1580 July Yermak Timofeyevich invades the territory of the Voguls, beginning the Russian conquest of Siberia.
1580 July Personal union of Spain and Portugal
1578 The Kingdom of Portugal reunites North Brazil and South Brazil into the Colony of Brazil. The capital is Salvador.
1575 The capital of Chile is moved from Concepción to Santiago
Historical map of the world by Ortelius, 1570 CE
1573 The Kingdom of Portugal divides the Colony of Brazil into North Brazil (capital, Salvador) and South Brazil (capital, Rio de Janeiro).
1571 March 18 The Order of Saint John moves the capital of Malta from Birgu to Valletta.
1570 December 13 The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth cedes Lääne County and Hiiumaa Island to Sweden.
1569 July 1 The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania unite to form the Commonwealth of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom and Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Vilnius yields to Kraków as the capital.
1563 Denmark and Lithuania exchange some outlying territories of the former Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek and the Livonian Order
1562 March 5 The Livonian Order is incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as the Duchy of Livonia.
1561 June 15 Northern Estonia pledges allegiance to Sweden and is annexed as Swedish Estonia.
1559 June 15 The Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek in Western Estonia is sold to Denmark.
1558 July 18 Russia conquers the Bishopric of Dorpat in Estonia.
1549 The Kingdom of Portugal establishes a central government for its Colony of Brazil, with Salvador as the capital.
1542 The Kingdom of Ireland supersedes the feudal Lordship of Ireland. Dublin remains the capital.
The Kingdom of England annexes the Principality of Wales.
1536 King Ferdinand I moves the capital of the Hungarian Kingdom to Pozsony.
1534 The Kingdom of Portugal divides its Colony of Brazil into 15 independent captaincies.
1532 The Kingdom of France annexes the Duchy of Brittany.
1532 Francisco Pizzaro conquers the Inca
1530 October 26 The Order of Saint John annexes Malta and moves the capital from Mdina to Birgu.
1529 April 22 Representatives of the Kingdom of Portugal and the Kingdom of Spain sign the Treaty of Zaragoza, settling the countries' boundary of conquest in Asia and Oceania at a meridian about 144°40' west of Greenwich.)
1526 Babur of the Mughal Empire defeats the sultan of Delhi
Archduke Ferdinand of Austria is elected the next King of Bohemia and Hungary following the death of Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia, uniting the lands which would come to be known as the Habsburg Monarchy under a single ruler
1522 Ferdinand Magellan circumnavigates the Earth
1521 August 13 The combined forces of Hernán Cortés conquer Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztec Empire. The Kingdom of Spain subsequently renames the region New Spain. The destroyed capital is rebuilt and renamed México.
King Mayadunne I moves the capital of the Kingdom of Sri Lanka to Sitawaka.
1513 Juan Ponce de León claims Florida for Spain
Vasco Núñez de Balboa crosses the Isthmus of Panama
1504 The Kingdom of Naples is ceded to the Crown of Aragon
1501 João da Nova discovers Ascension Island
1500 April 22 Portuguese navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral arrives at the coast of Brazil and claims all land in South America east of the Tordesillas Meridian for the Kingdom of Portugal, thus establishing the Portuguese Colony of Brazil.

15th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1495 June 7 Representatives of the Kingdom of Spain and the Kingdom of Portugal sign the Treaty of Tordesillas, settling the countries' boundary of conquest in the Americas (and Africa and Asia) at a meridian about 46°0' west of Greenwich.
1493 May 4 Spanish Pope Alexander VI issues the papal bull Inter caetera granting to the Crowns of Castile and Aragon (Spain) all newly discovered lands west of the meridian 100 leagues west of any of the islands of the Azores (approximately 38°11' west of Greenwich.)
1492 October 12 While seeking a route to the East Indies, Genoese navigator Cristoforo Colombo (Christopher Columbus) lands on the island of Guanahani in the Lucayan Archipelago, which he mistakes for the Japanese Archipelago. Columbus claims the archipelago for his patrons the Crowns of Castile and Aragon (Spain), and subsequently explores and claims Cuba and Hispaniola.
1490 King Vladislaus II moves the capital of the Hungarian Kingdom back to Buda.
1499-1501 Safavids conquer Persia
1490 May 20 Vasco da Gama discovers the sea route to India
1490 May 3 Christopher Columbus arrives at Xamayca
1490 October 12 Christopher Columbus arrives at America when he sights land in The Bahamas[46]
1490 January 2 The combined forces of Castile and Aragon captured the Emirate of Granada, completing the Spain's Reconquista.
1488 Bartolomeu Dias rounds the Cape of Good Hope
1485 King Matthias I moves the capital of the Hungarian Kingdom to Bécs.
1482 The Burgundian Netherlands are disestablished
1481 France gains the County of Provence
1478 Commenced the completion of the conquest of the Canary Islands by Catholic Monarchs' Spain.
1472 The Kingdom of Scotland annexes Orkney and Shetland.
1469 The crowns of the Iberian Christian kingdoms of Castile and Aragon were united by the marriage of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, the Catholic Monarchs.
1453 29 May The Byzantine Empire falls to the Ottoman Empire. The capital of the Ottoman Empire is moved to Constantinople, present day Istanbul.
1444 March The Albanian Principalities are unified to form the Albanian Confederate of League of Lezhe.
1432 March Burgundy acquires the County of Hainaut
1421 The Ming dynasty of China moves its capital from Nanjing to Beijing.
1415 August 21 The Conquest of Ceuta marks the beginning of the Portuguese Empire.
1412 King Parakramabahu VI moves the capital of Kingdom of Sri Lanka to Kotte.
1408 King Zsigmond of Luxemburg moves the capital of the Hungarian Kingdom back to Buda.

14th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1392 The Joseon Dynasty succeed the Goryeo Dynasty of Korea. Hanseong is the capital.
1384 The Burgundian Netherlands are established.
1368 The Ming dynasty supersedes the Yuan dynasty of China. Nanjing is the capital.
1366 Liège annexes the County of Loon
1358 Duke Rudolf IV of Austria has the Privilegium Maius forged, a set of documents which purports to elevate the Duchy of Austria to the status of "Archduchy". This status remains unrecognised.
1350 With the foundation of the Ayutthaya Kingdom, its capital is created in Ayutthaya, instead of the former Sukhothai.
1349 Dauphiné sold to France
1347 June 7 The Teutonic Order gives the former Danish Estonia over to the Livonian Order
1346 November 1 Denmark sells and hands the Duchy of Estonia over to the Teutonic Order
1341 King Magnus Eriksson of Sweden buys the county of Halland from Denmark.
1326 The Crown of Aragon conquers Sardinia, creating the Kingdom of Sardinia
1325 March 13 The Mexicas (Aztecs) founded Tenochtitlan, the foundation of México. It is the oldest continuous capital in the Americas.
1323 King Charles I moves the capital of the Hungarian Kingdom to Visegrád.
1323 August 12 The treaty of Nöteborg is signed between Sweden and Novgorod, resulting in the first true border regulation in Swedish Finland.
1316 France gains the Counties of Valentinois and Diois
1315 King Charles I moves the capital of the Hungarian Kingdom to Temesvár.
1305 France gains the County of Vivarais
1301 France gains Barrois mouvant (County of Bar west of Meuse River)

13th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1299 Ottoman Empire founded
1293 March 10 Sweden conquers the southeastern parts of Finland.
1287 King Parakramabahu III moves the capital of the Kingdom of Sri Lanka back to Polonnaruwa.
1279 March 19 The Song dynasty is conquered by the Yuan dynasty of China.
1279 The Kingdom of Majorca becomes a vassal of the Crown of Aragon
1278 September 8 The Paréage of Andorra is signed, establishing a condominium between the Count of Foix and the Bishop of Urgell in the territory of Andorra.
1278 Andorra granted independence from the Crown of Aragon
1276 Kingdom of Majorca is split from the Crown of Aragon, which are inherited by different sons of James I of Aragon
1272 The Yuan dynasty of China moves its capital from Shangdu to Dadu.
February 1 The Kingdom of Albania (medieval) established.
August 10 Yekuno Amlak overthrows the Zagwe dynasty, establishing the Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia. Lalibela ceases to be the capital, and the Emperor of Ethiopia rules from a continually moving encampment around his domains for the following centuries.
1266 July 2 Caithness and the territory of the Kingdom of the Isles (the Hebrides and Mann) is ceded to the Kingdom of Scotland by the Treaty of Perth
1260 July 2 Mongol Empire splits
1258 May 11 The Treaty of Corbeil formally ends French feudal overlordship of the counties in the Spanish March and Catalan counties in the March of Gothia
1258 Mongols occupy Baghdad
1256 King Béla IV moves the capital of the Hungarian Kingdom to Buda.
1245 The Crown of Aragon completes the reconquest of what would become the Kingdom of Valencia up to the limits agreed upon in the Treaty of Almizra
1238 June 7 The Livonian Order returns Danish Estonia to Denmark, but Järva County is ceded to the Livonian Order.
Sweden conquers central Finland.
1237 May 12 The Livonian Brothers of the Sword are incorporated into the Teutonic Order as the autonomous Livonian Order.
1236 Mongols invade Northern Korea
1235 Aragon conquers Ibiza, which becomes part of the Kingdom of Majorca
1235 Kingdom of Mali established
1231 Aragon completes the Conquest of Majorca and Menorca, establishing the Kingdom of Majorca as part of the Crown of Aragon
1228 August The Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek is established from the Western Estonian territory of the Bishopric of Livonia. Some of its land is ceded to the Livonian Brothers of the Sword.
1227 February The Livonian Brothers of the Sword subjugate the Estonians and conquer much of Danish Estonia.
1224 August The Bishopric of Estonia is renamed the Bishopric of Dorpat.
1224 July 24 The Bishopric of Estonia cedes some of its land in Southeastern Estonia to the Bishopric of Livonia.
1224 July 21 The Livonian Brothers of the Sword cede Southern Estonia to the Bishopric of Estonia. The bishopric returns some of the lands to the Sword Brothers.
1223 Mongols defeat East Slavic warriors
1220 King Vijayabahu III moves the capital of the Kingdom of Sri Lanka to Dambadeniya.
1219 Denmark annexes the Northern Estonian counties of Harjumaa, Virumaa and Järvamaa as the Duchy of Estonia.
1218 The Principality of Wales is recognized in the Treaty of Worcester.
1217 Serbian kingdom established.
1216 The Principality of Wales is founded at the Council of Aberdyfi.
1215 The Livonian Brothers of the Sword establish first presence in Southern Estonia.
1210 Mongols capture much of China.

12th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1197 The Kingdom of Deheubarth is disestablished.
1190 The Principality of Arbanon is established.
1185 The Second Bulgarian Empire gains independence from the Byzantine Empire under Peter IV of Bulgaria.
1162 The Viking Kingdom of Dublin is conquered by England.
1162 Alfonso II/I ascends to the thrones of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona, establishing the Crown of Aragon.
1154 Al-Idrisi creates an early world map named Tabula Rogeriana, which describes the Eurasian continent and the northern half of Africa.
1156 King Erik den helige of Sweden leads the first crusade to Finland and incorporates it with Sweden.
1139 The Kingdom of Portugal gains independence from the Kingdom of León.
1139 The County of Portugal declares independence from the Kingdom of León, as the Kingdom of Portugal.
1130 December 25 The Norman Kingdom of Sicily is established; the Duchy of Apulia and Calabria is disestablished
1127 The Song dynasty of China moves its capital from Bianjing to Lin'an.

11th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1097 King William II moves the capital of the Kingdom of England to London.
1092 William Rufus, son of William the Conqueror, invades Cumberland (then part of Scotland) and incorporates it into England.
1091 Noto, Sicily is conquered by the County of Sicily, ending the Muslim Emirate of Sicily
1088 The Principality of Taranto is established
1076 Muslim Almoravids conquer Ghana.
1076 The kingdoms of Pamplona and Aragon are reunited (in a personal union) under Sancho Ramírez, who styled himself "King of the Aragonians and Pamplonese". The two kingdoms are now de jure separate entities
1076 Muslims conquer Syria
1076 Palermo, the capital of the Emirate of Sicily is taken by the Normans. The Norman County of Sicily is established.
1066 England is conquered by William, Duke of Normandy, thus bringing England and the Duchy of Normandy into a personal union
1065 The kingdoms of Castile and Galicia are split from the Kingdom of León
1065 The Duchy of Limburg is established
1061 Estonians reconquer Ugandi County from the Kievan Rus'
1061 Messina, Sicily is captured from the Muslims by the Normans
1059 The County of Apulia and Calabria is raised to a Duchy by the Pope
1055 King Vijayabahu I moves the capital of the Kingdom of Sri Lanka to Polonnaruwa.
1018-1054 At some point between 1018 and 1054 the Kingdom of Strathclyde is conquered by Scotland
1043 Kingdom of Aragon becomes de facto independent from the Kingdom of Pamplona
1042 The Norman County of Apulia and Calabria is established
1035 The territory that would come to be the Kingdom of Aragon is united under Ramiro I of Aragon
1032 Kingdom of Arles is inherited by Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor and incorporated in the Holy Roman Empire.
1030 Kievan Rus' conquers Ugandi County in Southeastern Estonia.
1018 English (Northumbrian) land north of the Tweed is ceded to Scotland
1000 King Stephen I establishes the Hungarian Kingdom. Esztergom and Székesfehérvár are the official capitals.
1000 Gunnbjörn Ulfsson spots islands off the coast of Greenland. European discovery of the island itself is dated to the 980s, when explorers arrived from Iceland and Norway.
1000 Leif Ericson discovers Newfoundland and establishes a short-lived colony at L'Anse aux Meadows.

1st Millennium CE[edit]

10th century[edit]

Year Date Event
987 Hughe Capet confirmes Paris as the capital of the Kingdom of the West Franks (soon to become the Kingdom of France).
975 Erik Segersäll becomes first king of Sweden
962 February 2 Otto the Great re-establishes the Holy Roman Empire. Rome is the official capital.
960 January 3 Emperor Taizu of Song establishes the Song dynasty of China. Bianjing remains the capital.
ca. 965 The Byzantine Empire establishes the theme of Lucania.
ca. 965 The Byzantine Empire establishes the Catepanate of Italy.
ca. 965 The Kalbids take the last remaining Byzantine territory in Sicily.
962 King Otto I of Germany and Italy has himself crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope, thereby forming the Holy Roman Empire.
961 King Otto I of Germany invades the Kingdom of Italy (of which is wife Adelaide of Italy was already queen) and is crowned King.
959 Lower Lorraine is established
954 The Viking Kingdom of Jórvík (the Viking-ruled portion of the Kingdom Northumbria) is conquered by England, thus ending the Danelaw
961 The Kingdom of Nri is established
948 The first Emirs of Sicily, the Kalbids, are appointed, establishing the Emirate of Sicily
942 England re-takes the Five Boroughs of the Danelaw
941 Jórvík reoccupies the Five Boroughs of the Danelaw for the Danes
936 Goryeo Dynasty unified the Later Three Kingdoms of Korea.
927 July 12 King Athelstan of Wessex establishes the Kingdom of England. Winchester is the capital.
927 The Kingdom of Northumbria is conquered by Wessex, thus uniting all of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms under one ruler and forming what would come to be known as the Kingdom of England
922 The County of Aragon falls under the control of the Kingdom of Pamplona
920 The Kingdom of Seisyllwg unites with the Kingdom of Dyfed to form the Kingdom of Deheubarth
920 The County of Horne is established
918 King Taejo establishes Goryeo Dynasty on the Korean Peninsula. Gaegyeong is the official capital.
918 The Kingdom of East Anglia is conquered by Wessex
918 The Kingdom of Mercia is absorbed into Wessex
916-917 Mercia and Wessex reconquer the Five Boroughs of the Danelaw from the Danes
910 December 10 The Kingdom of Asturias moves its capital to León and becomes the Kingdom of León
909 The Fatimids take Raqqada from the Aghlabid Emirate of Ifriqiya, establishing the Fatimid Caliphate
902 The Byzantine city of Taormina, Sicily falls to the Emirate of Ifriqiya

9th century[edit]

Year Date Event Map
895 Grand Prince Árpád establishes the Principality of Hungary.
891 The Byzantine Empire conquers Benevento and establishes the Theme of Longobardia.
891 Harald Fairhair unifies the Petty kingdoms of Norway and establishes the Kingdom of Norway. Stavanger becomes the capital.
880's Byzantine control in southern Italy is extended over most of Apulia and Calabria.
880 The Kings of West Francia cede their portion of Lotharingia to East Francia by the Treaty of Ribemont.
Frankish kingdoms in 888
878 The Emirate of Ifriqiya takes Syracuse, Sicily from the Byzantine Empire.
876 The Byzantine Empire re-conquers Bari.
873 The Byzantine Empire re-conquers Otranto from the Saracens.
872 The Kingdom of Norway is unified.
870 As a result of the Treaty of Meerssen, Lotharingia is divided between East and West Francia, and Provence is divided between East Francia, West Francia and the Kingdom of Italy.
860 Æthelberht succeeds his brother Æthelbald as king of Wessex, thus uniting it with Sussex and Kent.
858 Æthelberht is crowned king of Sussex and Kent.
855 Middle Francia is partitioned into the Kingdom of Italy, Lotharingia and the Kingdom of Provence by the Treaty of Prüm.
851 The Principality of Salerno is partitioned from the Principality of Benevento.
843 Charles the Bald, grandson of Emperor Charlemagne, made Paris the capital of the Kingdom of the West Franks, established as the result of the Treaty of Verdun.
Partitions of Francia by the Treaty of Verdun
843 The Kingdom of Scotland (Kingdom of Alba) is unified.
843 The Carolingian Empire (Francia) is partitioned into three by the Treaty of Verdun, forming West, Middle and East Francia.
831 September Palermo, Sicily is captured by the Aghlabid Emirate of Ifriqiya, is renamed al-Madinah, and becomes the capital of Muslim Sicily.
825 The Kingdom of Essex is ceded to Wessex
825 The Kingdom of Sussex becomes subject to Wessex
824 The Kingdom of Pamplona (later Navarre) is established
820 The title Count of Aragon is usurped and Aragon ceases to be a vassal of the Franks
814 Cornwall loses its independence to Wessex, possibly becoming a sub-kingdom
804 Charlemagne establishes the Holy Roman Empire. While Rome is the official capital of the empire, Aix-la-Chapelle is the de facto capital.
800 Saxony is integrated into the Frankish Kingdom as the Duchy of Saxony

8th century[edit]

Year Date Event
795 The Franks create the Marca Hispanica as a buffer against the Moors
788 The Franks conquer Bavaria[47]
788 The Franks annex Chieti from the Principality of Benevento to the Duchy of Spoleto
787 Benevento submits to Frankish overlordship but retain effective autonomy
785 Franks defeat Widukind thereby conquering the remaining Frisian lands east of the Lauwers and vassalizing Saxony.
774 Franks conquer the Kingdom of the Lombards (Italy)
774 The Lombard Duchy of Benevento in the south of Italy effectively becomes independent and becomes the Principality of Benevento
769 Franks conquer Gascony
768-769 Franks conquer Aquitania
759 Franks conquer Septimania
754 The Papal States is established
751 The Exarchate of Ravenna, the center of Byzantine power in Italy, is disestablished after the Lombards invade
744 Franks conquer Alemannia
734 Franks annexed the Frisian lands between the Vlie and the Lauwers
718 Kingdom of Asturias established
717 Córdoba becomes the capital of Muslim Al-Andalus.
711 A Berber force under the Berber general Tariq ibn Ziyad, loyal to the Emir of Damascus, enters the Iberian peninsula from North Africa, thus starting the foundation of Al-Andalus.

7th century[edit]

Year Date Event
690 King Go establishes Balhae on the Manchuria and northern Korean Peninsula.
690 Muslims conquer North Africa[48]
681 Khan Asparukh crosses the Danube Delta and settles in the Ongal area (Southern Bessarabia or northern Dobruja). Asparukh, with his Slav allies, defeats Byzantine Emperor Constantine IV and establishes the First Bulgarian Empire. Pliska is the capital.
680 The Kingdom of Ceredigion changes its name to the Kingdom of Seisyllwg.
676 Silla unified the Three Kingdoms of Korea.
634 The Anglian kingdoms of Bernicia and Deira unite to form Northumbria.
630 January 11 The Islamic prophet, Muhammad (Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullāh) conquers Mecca and unites Arabia. Medina is the capital.
628 Hwicce becomes a client or sub-kingdom of Mercia.
618 June 18 Li Yuan declared himself the emperor of a new dynasty, the Tang. Chang'an is the capital.

6th century[edit]

Year Date Event
553 The Ostrogothic Kingdom is conquered by the Byzantine Empire
538 The Baekje of Korea moves its capital from Ungjin to Sabi.
538 The Vandal Kingdom is conquered by the Byzantine Empire
508 Frankish King Clovis the Frank makes Paris the capital of the Frankish Kingdom.

5th century[edit]

Year Date Event
493 Ostrogoths establish a kingdom in Italy
490 Odoacer is defeated at the river Adda by the Goths and flees
486 The Kingdom of Soissons, a Roman rump state ruled by Syagrius, is conquered by the Franks
480 A Roman rump state, Roman Dalmatia, is disestablished after Julius Nepos is murdered
476 September 4 Germanic General Odoacer forces Roman Emperor Romulus Augustus to abdicate, bringing the Western Roman Empire to an end.
475 The Baekje of Korea moves its capital from Wirye to Ungjin by pressure of Goguryeo.
469 The Hunnic Empire is disestablished after Dengizich dies
457-461 Western Roman Emperor Majorian makes a concerted effort to try to restore the Empire, and reconquers most of Hispania and southern Gaul
451-453 Huns attack the Western Roman Empire
435 The Vandals establish a kingdom in North Africa
429 Vandals enter Africa
427 The Goguryeo of Korea moves its capital from Gungnae City to Pyongyang.
426 Alans leave Hispania
418 The Visigoths establish a kingdom in southern Gaul
411 The Burgundians establish a kingdom in the western bank of the Rhine
405 A mixed group of barbarians including Vandals, Alans, and Suebi enter the Western Roman Empire in the Crossing of the Rhine
402 Western Roman Empire capital moved to Ravenna

4th century[edit]

Year Date Event
395 January 17 At his death, Roman Emperor Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius) permanently splits the Roman Empire between his two sons. Arcadius (Flavius Arcadius) rules the Eastern Roman Empire from Constantinopolis (now Istanbul, Turkey), and Honorius (Flavius Honorius) rules the Western Roman Empire from Mediolanum (now Milan, Italy).
370 The Bosporan Kingdom is disestablished
370 Huns appear north of the Black Sea
358 Franks allowed to settle in Toxandria (present-day Belgium)
330 May 11 Roman Emperor Constantine the Great builds a new capital for the Roman Empire at Byzantium which he renames Constantinopolis (now Istanbul, Turkey).[49]
324 September 18 Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus) reunites the Roman Empire. Nicomedia (now İzmit, Turkey) becomes the capital.
301 September 3 Saint Marinus establishes the Most Serene Republic of San Marino, declaring independence from the Roman Empire. The City of San Marino is the capital.

3rd Century[edit]

Year Date Event
293 Roman co-emperors Diocletian and Maximian split the Roman Empire into a tetrarchy with capitals at Mediolanum (now Milan, Italy), Augusta Treverorum (now Trier, Germany), Nicomedia (now İzmit, Turkey), and Sirmium (now Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia).
286 April 1 Roman Emperor Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus) appoints Maximian (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius) co-emperor, splitting the Roman Empire into a dyarchy with capitals at Mediolanum (now Milan, Italy) and Augusta Treverorum (now Trier, Germany).
274 Roman Emperor Aurelian conquers the Palmyrene Empire which is subsumed back into the Roman Empire.
273 Roman Emperor Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus) conquers the Gallic Empire which is subsumed back into the Roman Empire.
271 Roman Dacia is abandoned
269 The Palmyrene Empire conquers the Roman Province of Egypt.
Roman Emperor Claudius II recovers Hispania from the Gallic Empire
260 Syrian Queen Zenobia breaks from the Roman Empire and establishes the Palmyrene Empire. Palmyra is the capital.
Postumus (Marcus Cassianius Latinius Postumus) breaks from the Roman Empire and establishes the Gallic Empire. Colonia Agrippina (now Cologne, Germany) is the capital.
240 Gupta Empire forms in India

1st century[edit]

World in year 1.
Year Date Event
3 CE The Goguryeo of Korea moves its capital from Jolbon to Gungnae.
5 CE Romans conquer much of the Middle East
43-47 CE The Romans found Londinium, a town that will with time become modern London
71-84 CE Conquest of Wales and Scotland by Romans

Before the Common Era[edit]

Note: The common year numbering system follows the ordinal numbers rather than the cardinal numbers, thus there was no year "zero". The date January 1, 1 CE immediately followed the date December 31, 1 BCE. Thus, while the 2000s began on Saturday, January 1, 2000 CE, the official Third Millennium began on Monday, January 1, 2001 CE.

First Millennium BCE[edit]

Year Date Event
1st century BCE The Romans conquer the city of Sirmium, modern Sremska Mitrovica
18 BCE Onjo establishes Baekje on the central Korean Peninsula. Wiryeseong is the capital.
27 BCE January 16 The Roman Senate grants Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus the title Augustus. This effectively ends the Roman Republic and establishes the Roman Empire. The city of Rome remains the capital.
30 BCE August 1 Roman consul Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus conquers the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt. Octavianus organizes Egypt as a province under his personal control.
37 BCE Dongmyeong establishes Goguryeo on the northern Korean Peninsula. Jolbon is the capital.
58-50 BCE Romans conquer Gaul
57 BCE Hyeokgeose establishes Silla on the southeast Korean Peninsula. Gyeongju is the capital.
63 BCE Romans conquer Jerusalem
63 BCE Romans annex western Pontus and create a client state out of the Eastern portion under Pharnaces II.
111 BCE By this date, Emperor Wu of Han had conquered much of what is today Southern China and Northern Vietnam from the Yue
133 BCE Upon the death of Attalus III, he wills his kingdom of Pergamon to the Roman Republic.
133 BCE Romans conquer Celtiberia following the Siege of Numantia
135 BCE Western half of Minyue conquered by China
146 BCE Romans conquer Iberia
146 BCE Ancient Carthage is disestablished
146 BCE Romans conquer Corinth and dissolve the Achaean League
146 BCE Roman provinces of Macedon and Achaea formed
148 BCE Mithridates I of Parthia conquers Ectebana
168 BCE Romans dissolve the Kingdom of Macedon after the Battle of Pydna.
180 BCE Demetrius I of Bactria invades India, forming the Indo-Greek Kingdom.
187 BCE The Shunga Empire is formed after the Mauryan Empire is destroyed
194 BCE Wanggeom-seong becomes the capital of Wiman Joseon on the Korean Peninsula.
194 BCE Seleucids take control of Coele Syria and Judea from Ptolemaic Egypt
194 BCE Romans force Philip of Macedon to abandon Greece in the Peace of Flamininus, while allowing him to maintain Macedon itself.
202 BCE February 28 Gaozu establishes the Han dynasty of China. Chang'an becomes the capital.
209 BCE The Romans conquer Cartagena from the Carthaginians, bringing Carthaginian Spain under Roman control
211 BCE Romans capture Syracuse
221 BCE Qin Shi Huang unifies ancient China as the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty of China. Xianyang becomes the capital.
230 BCE Han state conquered by Qin
238 BCE Arsaces I of Parthia establishes the Arsacid Dynasty of Parthia. Hecatompylus becomes the capital.
238 BCE Sardinia and Corsica become Roman provinces
238 BCE Sicily becomes first Roman province
266 BCE Ashoka unifies most of South Asia
281 BCE Lysimachus dies at the Battle of Corupedium, his empire falling to the Seleucids
291 BCE Demetrius Poliorcetes captures Thebes after a successful siege.
294 BCE Demetrius I of Macedon kills Alexander V of Macedon, and in claiming the throne loses Thebes to a revolt.
301 BCE The death of Antigonus I Monophthalmus at the Battle of Ipsus results in his kingdom being divided between the remaining Diadochi, namely Ptolemy I Soter, Seleucus I Nicator, Lysimachus, and Cassander.
305 BCE Macedonian general Ptolemy establishes the Ptolemaic Dynasty of Egypt as King Ptolemy I Soter. Alexandria remains the capital.
306 BCE Following the death of Alexander IV of Macedon, Antigonus I Monophthalmus declares himself an independent king, soon to by followed by his fellow Diadochi Ptolemy I Soter, Seleucus I Nicator, Lysimachus, and Cassander.
309 BCE Seleucus I Nicator forms the Seleucid Empire after conquering Babylonia, Media, and Elam from Antigonus I Monophthalmus in the Babylonian War, leaving him with one third of his empire.
312 BCE Macedonian general Seleucus establishes the Seleucid Empire. Babylon is the capital.
316 BCE The states of Shu and Ba are conquered by King Huiwen of Qin.
322 BCE Chandragupta establishes the Maurya Empire of ancient India. Pataliputra (now Patna) is the capital.
323 BCE Alexander dies and his empire splits
329 BCE Alexander conquers Samarkand
330 BCE Alexander the Great of Macedon conquers Persia. Alexander makes Babylon the capital.
332 BCE Alexander the Great of Macedon conquers Persian-occupied Egypt and establishes the Argead Dynasty of Egypt as Pharaoh Alexander III. Alexander builds a new capital at Alexandria.
338 BCE Phillip II of Macedon unites Greece
343 BCE Artaxerxes III of Persia reconquers Egypt and establishes the Persian Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt as Pharaoh Artaxerxes III.
375 BCE Zheng annexed by Han
380 BCE November Pharaoh Nectanebo I establishes the Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt. Sebennytos becomes the capital.
387 BCE The Peace of Antalcidas imposes Persian rule on the Greek cities of Asia and Cyprus.
399 BCE autumn Pharaoh Nefaarud I establishes the Twenty-ninth Dynasty of Egypt. Mendes becomes the capital.
404 BCE Amyrtaeus expels the Persians from Egypt and establishes the Twenty-eighth Dynasty of Egypt as Pharaoh Amyrtaeus. Sais is the capital.
404 BCE Athens surrenders to Sparta and her allies, resulting in the dismemberment of the Delian League and a temporary Spartan hegemony
405 BCE Gela and Camarina in Sicily are abandoned by the Greeks and sacked by Carthage
406 BCE Akragas in Sicily is abandoned by the Greeks and sacked by Carthage
409 BCE Selinus and Himera in Sicily are destroyed by Carthage
479 BCE Delian League established
504 BCE King Panduvasudeva moves the capital of the Kingdom of Lanka to Upatissa Nuwara.
509 BCE The Roman Republic supersedes the Kingdom of Rome. The city of Rome remains the capital.
515 BCE Darius the Great moves the capital of the Persian Empire to Persepolis.
525 BCE May Cambyses II of Persia conquers Egypt and establishes the Persian Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt as Pharaoh Cambyses II.
535 BCE Cyrus the Great conquers the Gandhara Kingdom
539 BCE Cyrus the Great conquers the Neo-Babylonian Empire
543 BCE King Vijaya establishes the Kingdom of Lanka and makes Tambapanni the new capital.
546 BCE Cyrus the Great conquers the Lydian Empire
546 BCE Cyrus the Great establishes the Persian Empire and makes Pasargadae the new capital.
586 BCE Traditional date for the destruction of the Kingdom of Judah at the hands of the Babylonians.
605 BCE With the Battle of Carchemish, the Assyrian Empire is destroyed and replaced by a balance of power between Babylon, Media, Lydia and Egypt.
609 BCE Harran, the new capital of Assyria, is destroyed by the Medes and Babylonians
612 BCE Nineveh falls to a coalition of the Medes and Babylonians
650 BCE Ancient Carthage is established
653 BCE After the Battle of Ulai, Elam is vassalized by the Assyrians
657 BCE Byzantium is settled by colonists from Megara
660 BCE February 11 Emperor Jimmu establishes the Empire of Japan.
about 664 BCE Pharaoh Necho I establishes the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt. Sais is the capital.
671 BCE Esarhaddon captures Memphis and drives the Kushites out of Lower Egypt, and establishes local rulers in the delta region.
694 BCE Deioces is elected the first King of the Medes. Ecbatana (now Hamadan) is the capital.
695 BCE Gordium, capital of Phrygia, is destroyed by the Cimmerians, resulting in Phrygia being ruled by the Lydians
about 700 BCE Phoenicians establish a colony in Malta with Maleth as capital.
705 BCE The capital of Assyria moves from Dur-Sharrukin to Nineveh.
706 BCE The capital of Assyria moves from Nimrud to Dur-Sharrukin.
713 BCE The Neo-Hittite states of Tabal and Hilakku fall to the Assyrians
717 BCE The Neo-Hittite state of Carchemish falls to the Assyrians
720 BCE Traditional date for the destruction of the Kingdom of Israel at the hands of the Assyrians
about 728 BCE Pharaoh Tefnakhte establishes the Twenty-fourth Dynasty of Egypt. Sais becomes the capital.
732 BCE The Assyrians conquer Damascus, ending the kingdom of Aram-Damascus.
733 BCE-734 BCE The city of Syracuse, Sicily is founded by settlers from Corinth and Tenea.
about 740 BCE Nubian King Piye establishes the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt and rules Egypt from Napata in Nubia.
745 BCE Tiglath-Pileser III founds the Neo-Assyrian Empire, annexing the city of Babylon
753 BCE April 21 Romulus establishes the Kingdom of Rome. The new city of Rome becomes the capital.
808 BCE Karanus establishes the Argead Dynasty of Macedon and builds Aigai to be the capital.
about 875 BCE Pharaoh Pedubast I establishes the Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt. Thebes is the capital of Upper Egypt.
879 BCE Ashurnasirpal II moves the capital of the New Assyrian Empire to Kalhu.
911 BCE Adad-nirari II establishes the New Assyrian Empire. Assur remains the capital.
about 930 BCE The Kingdom of Israel under Jeroboam I separates from the Kingdom of Judah under Rehoboam. Samaria becomes the capital of Israel, Jerusalem remains the capital of Judah.
about 945 BCE Pharaoh Shoshenq I establishes the Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt. Tanis remains the capital.

Second Millennium BCE[edit]

Year Event
about 1004 BCE King David conquers the city of Jebus and makes the renamed City of David (now Jerusalem) the capital of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
about 1046 BCE Wu establishes Zhou dynasty in China. Fenghao is the capital.
about 1047 BCE Shaul ben Qysh establishes the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah. Gibeah is the capital.
about 1070 BCE Pharaoh Nesbanebdjed I establishes the Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt. Tanis becomes the capital.
about 1077 BCE The New Kingdom of Egypt collapses, beginning the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt
about 1184 BCE Greeks destroy the city-state of Troy.
about 1188 BCE Pharaoh Setnakhte establishes the Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt. Pi-Ramesses Aa-nakhtu remains the capital.
about 1243 BCE Ashur-nadin-apli of the Middle Assyrian Empire moves capital back to Assur.
about 1230 BCE Pharaoh Ramesses II builds a new capital for the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt at the site of Avaris and names it Pi-Ramesses Aa-nakhtu.
about 1243 BCE Tukulti-Ninurta I of the Middle Assyrian Empire moves capital to Kar-Tukulti-Ninurta.
about 1272 BCE Mursili III of the Hittite empire moves capital back to Hattusa.
about 1293 BCE Pharaoh Ramesses I establishes the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Memphis remains the capital.
about 1295 BCE Pharaoh Muwatalli II of the Hittite empire moves capital to Tarhuntassa.
about 1332 BCE Pharaoh Tutankhamun of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt moves capital to Memphis.
about 1340 BCE Ashur-uballit I establishes the Middle Assyrian Empire. Assur is the capital.
about 1345 BCE Pharaoh Akhenaten of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt moves capital to Amarna (Akhetaton).
about 1400 BCE Kurigalzu I a Kassite king in Mesopotamia moves the capital to Dur-Kurigalzu.
about 1534 BCE Agum II establishes the rule of the Kassites in Mesopotamia. Babylon becomes the capital.
about 1534 BCE Pharaoh Ahmose I establishes the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Thebes remains the capital.
about 1550 BCE The New Kingdom of Egypt is established
about 1600 BCE Tang establishes the Shang dynasty in China. Yinxu is the capital.
about 1619 BCE Rahotep Sekhenrewahkhaw establishes the Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt. Thebes remains the capital.
about 1620 BCE Djehuti establishes the Sixteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Thebes is the capital.
about 1624 BCE Salitis establishes the Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Avaris is the capital.
about 1650 BCE The Middle Kingdom of Egypt collapses, beginning the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt
about 1710 BCE Nehesy establishes the Fourteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Xois is the capital.
about 1763 BCE Hammurabi establishes the Babylonian Empire. Babylon remains the capital.
about 1778 BCE Wegaf Khutawyre establishes the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Amenemhat-itj-tawy remains the capital.
about 1810 BCE Sumu-Epuh first attested king of the empire of Yamhad. Aleppo is the capital.
about 1894 BCE Sumu-abum establishes the First Babylonian Dynasty. Babylon is the capital.
about 1900 BCE Zulilu establishes the Old Assyrian Empire. Assur is the capital.
about 1940 BCE The Third Dynasty of Ur falls after an Elamite invasion
about 1983 BCE Amenemhat I establishes the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt and builds Amenemhat-itj-tawy to be the new capital.

Third Millennium BCE[edit]

Year Event
about 2047 BCE Ur-Nammu establishes the Sumerian Third Dynasty of Ur. Ur is the capital.
about 2055 BCE The Middle Kingdom of Egypt is established.
about 2070 BCE Yu the Great establishes the Xia dynasty in China. Yangcheng, Zhenxun are the capitals.
about 2112 BCE Utu-hengal defeats the Gutians and establishes the Third Dynasty of Ur.
about 2130 BCE Mentuhotep I establishes the Eleventh Dynasty of Egypt. Thebes becomes the capital of Upper Egypt.
Meryhathor establishes the Tenth Dynasty of Egypt. Henen-nesut remains the capital of Lower Egypt.
about 2160 BCE Meryibre Khety establishes the Ninth Dynasty of Egypt. Henen-nesut becomes the capital of Lower Egypt.
about 2165 BCE Neferkare Pepiseneb establishes the Eighth Dynasty of Egypt. Memphis remains the capital.
about 2175 BCE Netjerkare establishes the Seventh Dynasty of Egypt. Memphis remains the capital.
about 2181 BCE The Old Kingdom of Egypt collapses, beginning the First Intermediate Period of Egypt.
about 2193 BCE The Akkadian Empire collapses after an invasion by the Gutian people.
about 2270 BCE Sargon of Akkad establishes the Sumerian First Dynasty of Akkad after defeating Lugal-zage-si at the Battle of Uruk. Akkad is the capital.
about 2333 BCE Dangun Wanggeom establishes Gojoseon on the Korean Peninsula.
about 2380 BCE Ur-Nanshe establishes the Sumerian First Dynasty of Lagash. Lagash is the capital.
about 2336 BCE Teti establishes the Sixth Dynasty of Egypt. Memphis remains the capital.
about 2484 BCE Userkaf establishes the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt. Memphis remains the capital.
about 2580 BCE Mesannepada establishes the First Dynasty of Ur. Ur becomes the de facto capital of Sumer.
about 2655 BCE Sneferu establishes the Fourth Dynasty of Egypt. Memphis remains the capital.
about 2686 BCE The Old Kingdom of Egypt is established. Memphis remains the capital. This era sees the building of the Egyptian pyramids.
about 2727 BCE Djoser establishes the Third Dynasty of Egypt. Memphis becomes the capital.
about 2860 BCE Hotepsekhemwy establishes the Second Dynasty of Egypt. Memphis remains the capital.

Fourth Millennium BCE[edit]

Year Event
about 3080 BCE Narmer (or Menes) unites Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt under the First Dynasty of Egypt. Memphis becomes the capital of all Egypt.
about 3200 BCE The regional power centers of Thinis, Naqada, and Nekhen dominate Upper Egypt.
about 3200 BCE The city-states of Eridu, Bad-tibira, Larsa, Sippar, and Shuruppak rise to prominence in Sumer.

Tenth Millennium BCE[edit]

Year Event
about 9000 BCE First stone structures at Jericho are built.
about 9500 BCE Building begins at Göbekli Tepe

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]