Timișoara

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Timişoara)
Jump to: navigation, search
Timișoara
City
Clockwise: Orthodox Cathedral, Romanian National Opera, Stadionul Dan Păltinișanu, St. George's Catholic Cathedral and the Union Square
Coat of arms of Timișoara
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Little Vienna, City of Roses
(Romanian: Mica Vienă, Orașul Rozelor)[1]
Timișoara is located in Romania
Timișoara
Timișoara
Location of Timișoara within Romania
Coordinates: 45°45′35″N 21°13′48″E / 45.75972°N 21.23000°E / 45.75972; 21.23000Coordinates: 45°45′35″N 21°13′48″E / 45.75972°N 21.23000°E / 45.75972; 21.23000
Country  Romania
County Actual Timis county CoA.svg Timiș
Status County capital
First official record 1212 (as Temesiense)
Government
 • Mayor Nicolae Robu (PNL)
 • Deputy Mayor Dan Diaconu (PNL)
 • Deputy Mayor Imre Farkas (UDMR/RMDSZ)
Area
 • City 130.5 km2 (50.4 sq mi)
 • Metro 1,070 km2 (410 sq mi)
Elevation 90 m (300 ft)
Population (2011 census)[2]
 • City 319,279 Increase
 • Rank 3rd (98th in EU)
 • Density 2,446.58/km2 (6,336.6/sq mi)
 • Metro 393,321
Demonym(s) timișoreantimișoreancă (ro)
temesvári (hu)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 300001-300990
Tel. code 0256 / 0356
Car Plates TM
Climate Cfb
Website www.primariatm.ro
xTimișoara metropolitan area is a proposed project.

Timișoara (Romanian pronunciation: [timiˈʃo̯ara]; German: Temeswar, also formerly Temeschburg or Temeschwar; Hungarian: Temesvár, Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈtɛmɛʃvaːr]; Yiddish: טעמשוואר‎; Serbian: Темишвар, Temišvar; Banat Bulgarian: Timišvár; Turkish: Temeşvar; Slovak: Temešvár) is the capital city of Timiș County, and the main social, economic and cultural centre in western Romania.

One of the largest Romanian cities (the third most populous city in the country, as of 2011 census), with a population of 319,279 inhabitants,[2] Timișoara is considered the informal capital city of the historical region of Banat. The city is a candidate to become the 2021 European Capital of Culture.[3]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Timișoara

Middle Ages[edit]

Timișoara was first mentioned as a place in either 1212 or 1266 as Castrum Temesiense.[4] The territory later to be known as Banat was conquered and annexed by the Kingdom of Hungary in 1030. Timișoara grew considerably during the reign of Charles I, who, upon his visit here in 1307, ordered the construction of a royal palace. Timișoara's importance also grew due to its strategic location, which facilitated control over the Banat plain. By the middle of the 14th century, Timișoara was at the forefront of Western Christendom's battle against the Muslim Ottoman Turks. French and Hungarian crusaders met at the city before engaging in the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396. Beginning in 1443, John Hunyadi used Timișoara as a military stronghold against the Turks, having built a powerful fortress. The city was repeatedly besieged by the Ottomans in 1462, 1476, 1491, and 1522.

16th–19th centuries[edit]

In 1552, a 16,000 Ottoman army led by Kara Ahmed Pasha conquered the city and transformed it into a capital city in the region (Temeşvar Eyalet). The local military commander, István Losonczy, along with other Christians were massacred on July 27, 1552 while escaping the city through the Azapilor Gate.[5]

Timișoara in 1656, a map by Nicolas Sanson

Timișoara remained under Ottoman rule for nearly 160 years, controlled directly by the Sultan and enjoying a special status, similar to other cities in the region such as Budapest and Belgrade. During this period, Timișoara was home to a large Islamic community and produced famous historical figures such as Osman Aga of Temesvar, until Prince Eugene of Savoy conquered it in 1716. Subsequently, the city came under Habsburg rule, and it remained so until the early 20th century, except for the Ottoman occupation between 1788–1789 during the Ottoman-Habsburg war.[6] During this time, Timișoara evolved from a strategic fortress to an economic and industrial centre: numerous factories were built,[citation needed] electric illumination and public transport were introduced,[citation needed] and rail connections were established.[citation needed] The city was defortified starting in 1892 up until 1910,[7] and several major road arteries were built to connect the suburbs with the city centre, paving the way for further expansion of the city.[citation needed]

It was the first mainland European city and second in the world after New York to be lit by electric street lamps in 1884.[8][9] It was also the second European and the first city in what is now Romania with horse-drawn trams in 1869.[10] It is said that Gustave Eiffel, the creator of the Eiffel Tower in Paris, drew the projects of one of Timișoara's footbridges over the Bega, the "Metal Bridge", however, it was actually planned by Róbert Tóth, the head of the Bridge Department, at the Reșița rail factory.[11]

20th century[edit]

Historical image of a streetcar in Timișoara in 1910

On October 31, 1918, local military and political elites establish the "Banat National Council", together with representatives of the region's main ethnic groups: Romanians, Germans, Serbs and Hungarians. On November 1 they proclaimed in Timișoara the short-lived Banat Republic. In the aftermath of World War I, the Banat region was divided between the Kingdom of Romania and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, and Timișoara came under Romanian administration after Serbian occupation between 1918–1919. In 1920, King Ferdinand I awarded Timișoara the status of a University Centre, and the interwar years saw continuous economic and cultural development. A number of anti-fascist and anti-revisionist demonstrations also took place during this time.

During World War II, Timișoara suffered damage from both Allied and Axis bombing raids, especially during the second half of 1944. On August 23, 1944, Romania, which until then was a member of the Axis, declared war on Nazi Germany and joined the Allies. Surprised, the local Wehrmacht garrison surrendered without a fight,[citation needed] and German and Hungarian troops attempted to take the city by force throughout September, without success.

After the war, the People's Republic of Romania was proclaimed, and Timișoara underwent Sovietization and later, systematization. The city's population tripled between 1948 and 1992. In December 1989, Timișoara witnessed a series of mass street protests in what was to become the Romanian Revolution.[citation needed] On December 20, three days after bloodshed began there, Timișoara was declared the first city free of Communism in Romania.[12]

Geography[edit]

Bega canal at night

Timișoara lies at an altitude of 90 m on the southeast edge of the Banat plain, part of the Pannonian Plain near the divergence of the Timiș and Bega rivers. The waters of the two rivers form a swampy and frequently flooded land. Timișoara developed on one of few places where the swamps could be crossed. These constituted a natural protection around the fortress for a very long time, however, they also favoured a wet and insalubrious climate, as well as the proliferation of the plague and cholera, which kept the number of inhabitants at a relatively low number and significantly prevented the development of the city. With time, however, the rivers of the area were drained, dammed and diverted. Due to these hydrographical projects undertaken in the 18th century, the city no longer lies on the Timiș River, but on the Bega canal. This improvement of the land was made irreversible by building the Bega canal (started in 1728) and by the complete draining of the surrounding marshes. However, the land across the city lies above a water table at a depth of only 0.5 to 5 metres (1.6–16.4 feet), a factor which does not allow the construction of tall buildings. The rich black soil and relatively high water table make this a fertile agricultural region.

This is a relatively active seismic area, and earthquakes up to 6 on the Richter scale have been recorded.

Climate[edit]

Main article: Climate of Romania

Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).[13]

The climate which defines Timișoara city is the temperate-oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb) and can be regarded as humid continental (Dfb) when using an isotherm of 0 °C (32 °F). The city characterizes the Southern-Eastern part of The Pannonian Basin.

Climate data for Timișoara, Romania
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.4
(63.3)
20.5
(68.9)
28.2
(82.8)
32.0
(89.6)
34.5
(94.1)
38.4
(101.1)
41.1
(106)
41.0
(105.8)
39.7
(103.5)
33.8
(92.8)
27.1
(80.8)
20.2
(68.4)
41.1
(106)
Average high °C (°F) 2.3
(36.1)
5.6
(42.1)
11.9
(53.4)
17.6
(63.7)
22.8
(73)
25.7
(78.3)
27.8
(82)
27.6
(81.7)
24.0
(75.2)
18.1
(64.6)
10.3
(50.5)
4.2
(39.6)
16.5
(61.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.6
(29.1)
1.2
(34.2)
5.8
(42.4)
11.2
(52.2)
16.3
(61.3)
19.4
(66.9)
21.1
(70)
20.4
(68.7)
16.5
(61.7)
11.0
(51.8)
5.6
(42.1)
0.8
(33.4)
10.6
(51.1)
Average low °C (°F) −4.8
(23.4)
−2.3
(27.9)
1.2
(34.2)
5.8
(42.4)
10.1
(50.2)
13.4
(56.1)
14.6
(58.3)
14.3
(57.7)
11.2
(52.2)
6.2
(43.2)
2.1
(35.8)
−1.7
(28.9)
5.8
(42.4)
Record low °C (°F) −35.3
(−31.5)
−29.2
(−20.6)
−20.0
(−4)
−5.2
(22.6)
−5.0
(23)
2.2
(36)
5.9
(42.6)
5.0
(41)
−1.9
(28.6)
−6.8
(19.8)
−15.4
(4.3)
−24.8
(−12.6)
−35.3
(−31.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 40
(1.57)
36
(1.42)
37
(1.46)
48
(1.89)
65
(2.56)
76
(2.99)
64
(2.52)
50
(1.97)
40
(1.57)
39
(1.54)
48
(1.89)
50
(1.97)
593
(23.35)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 9.8
(3.86)
9.3
(3.66)
4.4
(1.73)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
3.7
(1.46)
7.2
(2.83)
34.4
(13.54)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 7 7 7 8 9 10 7 6 6 5 8 9 89
Mean monthly sunshine hours 72.1 92.2 155.4 186.4 242.4 262.3 300.6 280.2 217.5 177.3 86.4 56.9 2,129.7
Source #1: NOAA[14]
Source #2: Romanian National Statistic Institute (extremes 1901–2000)[15]
  • Highest recorded temperature: 41.1 °C (106 °F) – 24 July 2007
  • Lowest recorded temperature: −35.3 °C (−32 °F) – 24 January 1963
  • Snow stays on the ground 30 days a year on average
  • Warmest month: July
  • Coolest month: January
  • Highest precipitation: June: 91.0 mm(3.589 in)
  • Lowest precipitation: February: 44.5 mm(1.737 in)

Climatic general features consist of various and irregular weather conditions. The dominating temperate air masses during spring and summer are of oceanic origin and come with great precipitations. Frequently, even during winter period, the Atlantic humid air masses bring rainy and snowy weather, rarely cold weather.

From September until February, frequent continental polar air masses coming from the East invade the area. In spite of all that, the Banat climate is also influenced by the presence of cyclones and warm air masses which come from the Adriatic Sea and the Mediterranean. Their characteristic feature is that of complete snow thaw during the winter period and stifling heat during the summer period.

Freak measurable snowfalls have occurred as early as late October and as late as early April, but snow in those months is rare, and significant falls do not usually occur until late November. The median date for the first freeze is October 22, while that of the last freeze is April 15.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1787 9,479 —    
1847 18,103 +91.0%
1869 32,725 +80.8%
1900 53,033 +62.1%
1910 72,555 +36.8%
1930 91,580 +26.2%
1948 111,987 +22.3%
1956 142,257 +27.0%
1966 174,243 +22.5%
1977 269,353 +54.6%
1992 334,115 +24.0%
2002 317,660 −4.9%
2011 319,279 +0.5%
Source: Census data, Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
Central Timișoara (November 2012)

In 1910, when the city was part of the Kingdom of Hungary, it had 72,555 inhabitants. Of these, 31,644 (43.6%) were Germans, 28,552 (39.3%) Hungarians, 7566 (10.4%) Romanians and 4793 (6.7%) others.

As of 2011 census data, Timișoara has a population of 319,279,[2] while the proposed Timișoara metropolitan area would have a population of 384,609.

Of this population, 86.79% were ethnic Romanians, while 5.12% were Hungarians, 1.37% Germans, 1.3% Serbs, 0.69% Romani, 0.18% Ukrainians, 0.17% Slovaks, 0.11% Jews and 0.76% others.[16] 14.2% of the population are under 15 years of age, 4.0% are over 75.

The Ukrainian community is currently growing, partly due to the presence of Ukrainian language educational facilities. In recent years, local investment by Italian companies has spurred the creation of an Italian community,[17] even leading to calls for an Italian Cultural Center.[18]

Since 1990, Timișoara saw a slight population decline owing to migration and a drop in birthrates. Notably, the Hungarian and German communities experienced significant decline, with the latter being reduced by half between 1992 and 2002.[19]

Economy[edit]

Timișoara has been an important economic centre since the 18th century when the Habsburg administration was installed. Due to Austrian colonisation, ethnic and religious diversity and innovative laws, the economy began to develop. The technicians and craftsmen that settled in the city established guilds and helped develop the city's economy. Notably, in 1717, Timișoara became host to the first beer factory in what is now Romania.[20]

During the Industrial Revolution, numerous modern innovations were introduced. It was the first city in the monarchy with street lighting, and the first city in mainland Europe illuminated by electric light. The Bega river was also channelled during this time. It was the first navigable canal on current Romanian territory. This way, Timișoara had contact with Europe, and even with the rest of the world through the Black Sea, leading to the local development of commercialism.[21][22][23] In the 19th century, the railway system of the Hungarian Kingdom reached Timișoara.

City Business Centre
Regional Business Centre

Timișoara was the first city in the country with international routes economic boom as the amount of foreign investment, especially in high-tech sectors, has risen.[24] In terms of living standards, Timișoara ranks fourth nationwide.[25] In an article in late 2005, French magazine L'Expansion called Timișoara Romania's economic showcase,[26] and referred to the increased number of foreign investments as a "second revolution".

Apart from domestic local investment, there has been significant foreign investment from the European Union, particularly from Germany and Italy. Continental AG has produced tires since opening a plant in 2000.[27] The Linde Group produces technical gases, and a part of the wiring moulds for BMW and Audi vehicles are produced by the company Dräxlmaier Group locally. Wiring for Volkswagen and other vehicles are produced at the German company Kromberg & Schubert. Also, Swiss company FM Logistic, already present in Timiș County for Nestlé, P&G and in Bucharest for Cora, L'Oréal, Sanofi Aventis and Yves Rocher, and for companies like PROFI Rom Foods, BIC, Kraft Foods or SCA Packaging—offering them domestic transport services and international transport services for Bricostore, Arctic, Danone, Unilever or Contitech, the growth of FM Logistic in Romania and in Dudești through its first warehouse in Romania (Dudeștii Noi gives FM the opportunity). Nestlé produces waffles here. Among the chain restaurants present are Mcdonald's, KFC, Pizza Hut, Subway and Starbucks.

The city has two shopping malls: Iulius Mall Timișoara and Shopping City Timișoara. A third one will be completed in 2017, Timișoara Centrum. [28]

The USA company Flextronics maintains a workplace in the west of the city for the production of mobile telephony and government inspection department devices. In 2009, the company laid off 640 workers.[29] The American company Procter & Gamble manufactures washing and cleaning agents in Timișoara. Smithfield Foods—the world's largest pork processor and hog producer—has two subsidiaries in Timișoara and Timiș County: Smithfield Ferme and Smithfield Prod.

Like most of Romania, Timișoara experienced economic slowdown in 2009, due to the global economic downturn.[30]

Transport[edit]

Tramway and trolleybus routes

Timișoara has a complex system of regional transportation, providing road, air and rail connections to major cities in Romania and Europe. It also features a public transportation system consisting of bus, trolleybus and tram lines.

Timișoara is on two European routes (E70 and E671) in the European road network. At a national level, Timișoara is located on four different national roads: DN6, DN69, DN59 and DN59A. The Romanian Motorway A1, under construction on some sections, will link the city with Bucharest and the eastern part of the country. The A1 is currently the only Romanian motorway that crosses a border, linking Timișoara with Hungarian motorway M43. The Timișoara Coach Station (Autogara) is used by several private transport companies to provide coach connections from Timișoara to a large number of locations from all over the country.[31]

The city is served by Romania's third busiest airport, Traian Vuia International Airport, located 10 km (6.2 mi) northeast away from the city centre. It used to be the hub of Romanian airline Carpatair, and it serves now as an operating base for low-cost airlines Ryanair and Wizz Air. There are regular flights from/to numerous major European and domestic destinations, such as Barcelona, Berlin, Brussels Charleroi, London Stansted, Munich, Rome or Paris.

Timișoara's public transport network consists of 9 tram lines, 8 trolleybus lines and 23 bus lines, of which 4 are metropolitan lines and 8 are express lines. It is operated by Regia Autonomă de Transport Timișoara (RATT), an autonomous institution of the City Hall. Timișoara is a major railway centre and is connected to all other major Romanian cities, as well as local destinations, through the national CFR network. Timișoara is directly linked by train service with Budapest, Belgrade and Sofia.

In 2013, Nicolae Robu announced that plans for building a metro system for the city are taken into consideration. The future metro line will connect the North Train Station (Gara de Nord) to the airport, via Iulius Mall, the East Train Station (Gara de Est) and the Zoo. The plan is currently at the feasibility study stage. [32]

In 2015 Timișoara became the first city in Romania to offer public transport by bike. It has 25 stations and 300 bikes which can be used by locals and tourists for free.[33] Starting from 2016, RATT also offers vaporetto public transport on the Bega canal, resulting in Timișoara being the only city in Romania with 5 types of public transportation.[34]

Cityscape[edit]

Currently, the tallest building is the Timișoara Orthodox Cathedral, at 96 metres (315 feet) and the tallest office building is the Fructus Tower, at 65 metres (213 feet). Other tall buildings, over 50 metres (160 feet), include: Asirom Financial Centre, Bosch Center and the Continental Hotel. Another proposed building, the United Business Center 0, should be completed by the end of 2017 and will be part of the mixed use urban regeneration project: Openville. When completed, the building will have a height of 155 metres (509 feet).

Government[edit]

Timișoara City Hall
Administrative Palace, Timiș Prefecture headquarters

The first free elections in post-communist Timișoara took place in 1992. The winner was Viorel Oancea, of the Civic Alliance Party (PAC), which later merged with the Liberal Party. He was the first officer who spoke to the crowd of revolutionaries gathered in Opera Square. The 1996 elections were won by Gheorghe Ciuhandu, of the Christian Democrats. He had four terms, also winning elections in 2000, 2004 and 2008. Meanwhile, Ciuhandu took over the Christian Democratic Party and ran for president of Romania in 2004. Timișoara's mayor, elected in 2012 and again in 2016, is Nicolae Robu. Deputy mayors are Dan Diaconu (PNL) and Farkas Imre (UDMR).

Like all other local councils in Romania, the Timișoara local council, the county council and the city's mayor are elected every four years by the population. Decisions are approved and discussed by the local council (consiliu local) made up of 27 elected councillors.[35] Local council composition after 2016 local elections:[36]

    Party Seats Current Council
  National Liberal Party (PNL) 12                        
  Social Democratic Party (PSD) 9                        
  People's Movement Party (PMP) 2                        
  Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania (UDMR/RMDSZ) 2                        
  Alliance of Liberals and Democrats (ALDE) 1                        
  Adrian Orza (independent) 1                        

Additionally, as Timișoara is the capital of Timiș County, the city hosts the palace of the prefecture, the headquarters of the county council (consiliu județean) and the prefect, who is appointed by Romania's central government. The prefect is not allowed to be a member of a political party, and his role is to represent the national government at the local level, acting as a liaison and facilitating the implementation of National Development Plans and governing programmes at the local level. County council composition after 2016 local elections: [37]

    Party Seats Current Council
  Social Democratic Party (PSD) 16                                
  National Liberal Party (PNL) 14                                
  National Union for the Progress of Romania (UNPR) 3                                
  Alliance of Liberals and Democrats (ALDE) 2                                
  People's Movement Party (PMP) 2                                

Currently, the city is the largest in the West development region, which is equivalent to NUTS-II regions in the European Union and is used by the European Union and the Romanian Government for statistical analysis and regional development. The West development region is not, however, an administrative entity.[35]

Districts[edit]

Temesvár kerületei-hu.svg

Timișoara city traditionally divided into ten parts, but now they have no administrative function.

District Area (ha) Romanian name German name Hungarian name Institution
I 480 Cetate Innere Stadt Belváros 1718
II 1017 Fabric Fabrikstadt Gyárváros 1718
III 668 Elisabetin Elisabethstadt Erzsébetváros 1890
IV 442 Iosefin Josefstadt Józsefváros 1744
V 205 Mehala Mehala Mehala 1910
VI 231 Fratelia Fratelia Újkissoda 1948
VII 156 Freidorf Freidorf Szabadfalu 1950
VIII 67 Plopi Kardos-Kolonie Kardostelep 1951
IX 72 Ghiroda Nouă Neu-Giroda Erzsébetpuszta 1951
X 102 Ciarda Roșie Rote Tscharda Vörös Csárda 1953

In the 21st century, Timişoara city is divided into quarters (cartiere):

Listed alphabetically
  • Aradului vest
  • Badea Cârțan
  • Banat I
  • Blașcovici
  • Braytim
  • Bucovina
  • Calea Aradului
  • Calea Girocului
  • Calea Lipovei
  • Calea Șagului
  • Cetate
  • Chișoda
  • Ciarda Roșie
  • Circumvalațiunii I, II, III, IV
  • Complex studențesc
  • Complex
  • Crișan
  • Dacia
  • Dâmbovița
  • Elisabetin
  • Fabric
  • Fratelia
  • Freidorf
  • Ghiroda Nouă
  • Ion Ionescu de la Brad
  • Iosefin
  • Kuncz
  • Lunei
  • Matei Basarab
  • Mehala I, II
  • Mircea cel Bătrân
  • Modern
  • Noua Timișoară
  • Olimpia
  • Pădurea Verde
  • Plăvăț
  • Plopi
  • Ronaț
  • Soarelui
  • Stadion
  • Steaua
  • Tipografilor
  • Torontalului
  • Traian
  • Zona Odobescu

Culture and contemporary life[edit]

St. George Roman Catholic Dome

The city center largely consists of buildings from the Austrian Empire era. The old city consists of several historic areas. These are: Cetate (Belváros in Hungarian, Innere Stadt in German), Iosefin (Józsefváros, Josephstadt), Elisabetin (Erzsébetváros, Elisabethstadt), Fabric (Gyárváros, Fabrikstadt). Numerous bars, clubs and restaurants have opened in the old Baroque square (Unirii Square). Landmarks

Performing arts[edit]

  • Banatul Philharmonic of Timișoara (Filarmonica Banatul Timișoara)
  • Romanian Opera House (Opera Română Timișoara)[38]
  • National Theatre (Teatrul Național)
  • German State Theatre (Teatrul German de Stat)
  • Hungarian State Theatre (Teatrul Maghiar de Stat)
  • Puppet Theatre (Teatrul pentru copii și tineret "Merlin")

Festivals and Conferences[edit]

Museums[edit]

  • Art Museum Timișoara
  • Banat Village Museum
  • December 1989 Revolution Museum
  • Museum of Banat
  • Museum of the Orthodox Metropolitan Cathedral
  • Art Collection of the Serbian Episcopacy
  • Zoo

Education[edit]

Timișoara has four public universities and four private universities:

Public

Private

Sport[edit]

Association football[edit]

Historic

Basketball[edit]

Handball[edit]

Rugby union[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Timișoara has 17 twin towns and sister cities, as listed below:[53]

Consulates[edit]

Gallery[edit]

Panorama[edit]

Timișoara panorama from Sky Restaurant terrace in the City Business Center in 700 Area of the city in April 2016. See larger picture for landmark labels.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://issuu.com/rudolfstrutz/docs/ro03-en-temeschwarpark_8756eae930dc33
  2. ^ a b c "Timiș County at the 2011 census" (PDF) (in Romanian). INSSE. February 2, 2012. Retrieved February 16, 2012. 
  3. ^ Timișoara 2021 - European Capital of Culture
  4. ^ http://www.primariatm.ro/timisoara/index.php?meniuId=15&viewCat=136
  5. ^ Gate Azapa Citeste mai mult: adevarul.ro/locale/timisoara/aniversare-trista-timisoara-1552-s-a-lasat-intunericul-dominatiei-otomane-banat-1_50aef2737c42d5a663a1d771/index.html
  6. ^ http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk2/ftp01/MQ37222.pdf
  7. ^ http://www.primariatm.ro/timisoara/index.php?meniuId=15&viewCat=134&viewItem=363
  8. ^ Ilieșiu 2006, op. cit. p. 330
  9. ^ http://romaniatourism.com/timisoara.html
  10. ^ http://www.timisoara-info.ro/en/component/content/article/44-obiectiveturistice/263-premiere-timisoara.html
  11. ^ http://www.welcometoromania.ro/Timisoara/Timisoara_Podul_Metalic_e.htm
  12. ^ "20 decembrie 1989: Timişoara, primul oraş liber de comunism". www.digi24.ro. Retrieved 2016-01-08. 
  13. ^ Climate Summary for Timișoara, Romania
  14. ^ "Timișoara Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 21 March 2015. 
  15. ^ "Air Temperature (monthly and yearly absolute maximum and absolute minimum)" (PDF). Romanian Statistical Yearbook: Geography, Meteorology, and Environment. Romanian National Statistic Institute. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 21 March 2015. 
  16. ^ "Ethno-demographic Structure of Romania". The Ethnocultural Diversity Resource Center. Retrieved April 15, 2011. 
  17. ^ "Timișoara, mina de aur pentru investitorii italieni". 9am.ro. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  18. ^ QCT Connect (1992-08-19). ""Timișoara este floarea de la butonieră a relațiilor româno-italiene" | Primaria Timișoara | Secțiuni suplimentare | Cooperare internațională și dezvoltare economică". Primariatimisoara.ro. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  19. ^ "Centrul de resurse pentru diversitate etnoculturală". Edrc.ro. 2010-05-30. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  20. ^ http://www.historia.ro/exclusiv_web/general/articol/premierele-timisoarei-primul-oras-strazi-iluminate-electric-cea-mai-vec
  21. ^ "Timișoara, monografie Istorică", dr.Nicolae Ilieșu
  22. ^ "Agenda". Agenda.ro. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  23. ^ "Agenda". Agenda.ro. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  24. ^ "La Timișoara, e vremea boom-ului economic". Wall-street.ro. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  25. ^ Scris de Lucian Paulescu. "Timișoara, desemnat al patrulea oraș din România ca standard de viață - Ziua de Vest". Ziuadevest.ro. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  26. ^ "Timișoara Romania's economic showcase". Lexpansion.com. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  27. ^ http://www.conti-online.com/generator/www/uk/en/continental/automobile/themes/about_continental/history/1997_2006_en.html
  28. ^ "New shopping center to be opened in Romania's Timișoara in 2017". Romania-Insider. 
  29. ^ http://www.evertiq.com/news/14398
  30. ^ "Economie: Economia timișeana a traversat un an destul de greu in 2009". Timisoreni.ro. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  31. ^ http://www.autogari.ro/Timisoara/Autogara_Timisoara_-_Gara/Autogara47.aspx
  32. ^ "Metro line plans advance to feasibility study stage for Romania's western city of Timisoara". Romania-Insider. 
  33. ^ "Velo TM – Timișoara Has The First Romanian Bike-Sharing System". Alexandru Garboni Blog. 
  34. ^ "Romania's Timisoara will provide free public transport by boat on the canal crossing the city". Romania-Insider. 
  35. ^ a b http://www.cdep.ro/pls/legis/legis_pck.htp_act_text?idt=27123
  36. ^ "Noul Consiliu Local Timișoara". Opinia Timișoarei. 
  37. ^ "Avem rezultate finale oficiale! Vezi clasamentul partidelor și harta votului în Timiș, la Alegerile Locale 2016!". Opinia Timișoarei. 
  38. ^ "Romanian Opera House". ort.ro. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  39. ^ "Ceau, Cinema! Patru zile pentru cinefili, în iulie". 
  40. ^ "Article about StudentFest in TION". 
  41. ^ "TEDxTimișoara". 
  42. ^ "TEDxTimișoara events on TED.com". 
  43. ^ "Article about TEDxTimișoara in Ziua de Vest". 
  44. ^ Nani, Corina. "Festivalul International Graffiti Timişoara 2011". Street Art Album. ArtPress Timișoara. 
  45. ^ "The West University of Timișoara". Uvt.ro. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  46. ^ "The Politehnica University of Timișoara". Upt.ro. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  47. ^ "Victor Babeș University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timișoara". Umft.ro. 2009-08-29. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  48. ^ "The Banat's University of Agricultural Sciences in Timișoara". Usab-tm.ro. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  49. ^ "The Dimitrie Cantemir University of Timișoara". Ucdctm.ro. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  50. ^ "The Tibiscus University of Timișoara". Tibiscus.ro. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  51. ^ "Mihai Eminescu University of Timișoara". Umet.ro. Retrieved 2011-03-10. 
  52. ^ "Ioan Slavici University of Timișoara". Islavici.ro. Retrieved 2012-01-14. 
  53. ^ http://www.primariatm.ro/timisoara/index.php?meniuId=2&viewCat=82
  54. ^ 友好城市 (Friendly cities), 市外办 (Foreign Affairs Office), 2008-03-22. (Translation by Google Translate.)
  55. ^ 国际友好城市一览表 (International Friendship Cities List), 2011-01-20. (Translation by Google Translate.)
  56. ^ 友好交流 (Friendly exchanges), 2011-09-13. (Translation by Google Translate.)
  57. ^ "Städtepartnerschaften" (in German). Stadt Karlsruhe. 2010-12-16. Archived from the original on 2010-07-24. Retrieved 2011-01-05. 
  58. ^ "European networks and city partnerships". Nottingham City Council. 11 March. Retrieved 2013-07-20.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  59. ^ http://fad.danang.gov.vn/default.aspx?id_NgonNgu=EN&id_ThucDon_Sub=177&TinChinh=0&id_TinTuc=5560&TrangThai=BanTin.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  60. ^ [1]
  61. ^ [2]
  62. ^ [3]
  63. ^ [4]
  64. ^ [5]
  65. ^ [6]
  66. ^ [7]
  67. ^ [8]
  68. ^ [9]
  69. ^ [10]
  70. ^ [11]
  71. ^ [12]
  72. ^ [13]
  73. ^ [14]

External links[edit]