Timotheus (Greek: Τιμόθεος; born in Epidaurus; died in Epidaurus, c. 340 BC) was a Greek sculptor of the 4th century BC, one of the rivals and contemporaries of Scopas of Paros, among the sculptors who worked for their own fame on the construction of the grave of Mausolus at Halicarnassus between 353 and 350 BC. He was apparently the leading sculptor at the temple of Asklepios at Epidaurus, c. 380 BC. To him is attributed a sculpture of Leda and the Swan in which the queen Leda of Sparta protected a swan from an eagle, on the basis of which a Roman marble copy in the Capitoline Museums is said to be "after Timotheus". The theme must have been popular, judging by the more than two dozen Roman marble copies that survive. The most famous version has been that in the Capitoline Museums in Rome, purchased by Pope Clement XIV from the heirs of Cardinal Alessandro Albani. A highly restored version is in the Museo del Prado, and an incomplete one is in the Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut.
- Pliny the Elder, Natural History 36.30-31.
- The connection with Timotheus was first made by Franz Winter, (Mittheil. Arch. Athen. 1894:157-62 and pl. vi), on the basis of comparison of drapery of a Nereid or a Hygeia of Timotheus, just then being excavated at Epidaurus. (Adolf Michaelis, A Century of Archaeological Discoveries (1908:313)
- Inv. MC0302.
- Richard Hamann, "Original und Kopie" Marburger Jahrbuch für Kunstwissenschaft 15 (1949, pp. 135-156) p 153.
- Reiche, A. "Die copien der 'Leda von Timotheos'" Antike Plastik 17 (1978:21-55).
- Kunzl, E. and G. Horn, Die 'Hygeia' des Timotheos 1969.
- Schorb, B. Timotheos 1965.
- Brill's New Pauly, "Timotheus".
- (Getty Museum) Leda and the Swan Roman marble, 1st century AD, found in Rome, 1775 and bought by the second Earl of Shelburne, Lansdowne House, London. (Cornelius C. Vermeule, "Notes on a New Edition of Michaelis: Ancient Marbles in Great Britain," American Journal of Archaeology 1955:132f).
- (Capitoline Museums) Leda and the Swan, from the Albani collection (inv. MC0302).
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