|Classification and external resources|
Tin poisoning refers to the toxic effects of tin and its compounds. Cases of poisoning from tin metal, its oxides, and its salts are "almost unknown"; on the other hand certain organotin compounds are almost as toxic as cyanide.
Biology and toxicology
Tin has no known natural biological role in living organisms. It is not easily absorbed by animals and humans. The low toxicity is relevant to the widespread use of tin in dinnerware and canned food. Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea have been reported after ingesting canned food containing 200 mg/kg of tin. This observation led, for example, the Food Standards Agency in the UK to propose upper limits of 200 mg/kg. A study showed that 99.5% of the controlled food cans contain tin in an amount below that level. However un-lacquered tin cans with food of a low pH for example fruits and pickled vegetables can contain elevated concentrations of tin.
Organotin compounds can be very toxic. "Tri-n-alkyltins" are phytotoxic and, depending on the organic groups, can be powerful bactericides and fungicides. Other triorganotins are used as miticides and acaricides. Tributyltin (TBT) was extensively used in marine antifouling paints, until discontinued for leisure craft due to concerns over longer term marine toxicity in high traffic areas such as marinas with large numbers of static boats.
- G. G. Graf "Tin, Tin Alloys, and Tin Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2005 Wiley-VCH, Weinheim doi:10.1002/14356007.a27_049
- Blunden, Steve; Wallace, Tony (2003). "Tin in canned food: a review and understanding of occurrence and effect". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 41 (12): 1651–1662. PMID 14563390. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(03)00217-5.
- "Eat well, be well — Tin". Food Standards Agency. Retrieved 2009-04-16.
- "Tin in canned fruit and vegetables (Number 29/02)" (PDF). Food Standards Agency. 2002-08-22. Retrieved 2009-04-16.
- Westrum, Bente; Thomassen, Yngvar (2002). "The Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals and the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards : 130. Tin and inorganic tin compounds". Arbete och Hälsa 2002:10. Arbetslivsinstitutet. ISBN 91-7045-646-1.
- Howe, Paul; Watts, Peter (2005-01-01). Tin and Inorganic Tin Compounds. ISBN 9789241530651.
- Horwitz, William (1979). Arsenic and Tin in Foods: Reviews of Commonly Used Methods of Analysis. ISBN 9789251007273.
- Coles, Richard; Kirwan, Mark J. (2011-02-25). Food and Beverage Packaging Technology. ISBN 9781444392173.
- Blunden, Steve; Wallace, Tony (2003). "Tin in canned food: A review and understanding of occurrence and effect". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 41 (12): 1651–62. PMID 14563390. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(03)00217-5.
- Kimbrough, RD (1976). "Toxicity and health effects of selected organotin compounds: A review". Environmental Health Perspectives. 14: 51–56. PMC . PMID 789069. doi:10.1289/ehp.761451.
- Stewart, C.; De Mora, S. J. (1990). "A review of the degradation of tri(n‐butyl)tin in the marine environment". Environmental Technology. 11 (6): 565–570. doi:10.1080/09593339009384897.
- Wong, P. T. S.; Chau, Y. K.; Kramar, O.; Bengert, G. A. (1982). "Structure–toxicity Relationship of Tin Compounds on Algae". Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 39 (3): 483–488. doi:10.1139/f82-066.
- Dubey, S. K.; Roy, U. (2003). "Review: Biodegradation of tributyltins (organotins) by marine bacteria". Applied Organometallic Chemistry. 17: 3–8. doi:10.1002/aoc.394.
- Winship, KA (1988). "Toxicity of tin and its compounds". Adverse drug reactions and acute poisoning reviews. 7 (1): 19–38. PMID 3291572.
- Stoner, HB; Barnes, JM; Duff, JI (1955). "Studies on the toxicity of alkyl tin compounds". British Journal of Pharmacology and Chemotherapy. 10 (1): 16–25. PMC . PMID 14351681. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.1955.tb00053.x.
- De Groot, A.P; Feron, V.J; Til, H.P (1973). "Short-term toxicity studies on some salts and oxides of tin in rats". Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. 11 (1): 19–30. PMID 4716127. doi:10.1016/0015-6264(73)90058-8.
- Krigman, MR; Silverman, AP (1984). "General toxicology of tin and its organic compounds". Neurotoxicology. 5 (2): 129–39. PMID 6390260.
- Cooney, Joseph J. (1988). "Microbial transformations of tin and tin compounds". Journal of Industrial Microbiology. 3 (4): 195–204. doi:10.1007/BF01569577.
- J. M. Barnes; Stoner, HB (1959-06-01). "The Toxicology of Tin Compounds". Pharmacological Reviews. 11 (2): 211–31. PMID 13667399.