Tina Manning

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Tina Manning (left), John Trudell and their children

Tina Manning Trudell was a Paiute-Shoshone water rights activist and wife of John Trudell.[1] Manning was the daughter of Arthur and Leah Hicks Manning. Her father had served as the tribal chairman of the Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Reservation.[2] She attended the University of Tulsa, where first she met John Trudell.[3]

She was killed, along with her unborn baby (Josiah Hawk), three other children–Ricarda Star, Sunshine Karma, and Eli Changing Sun–and her mother in a suspicious fire on the Duck Valley Indian Reservation[2] in northern Nevada on 12 February 1979. Her father survived the fire but was badly burned.[2]

The fire took place less than 12 hours after John Trudell had delivered a speech in front of FBI headquarters in Washington, DC, during which he burned a United States flag.


  1. ^ Mankiller and Wallis, 209
  2. ^ a b c Mankiller and Wallis, 210
  3. ^ ""John Trudell: A Man of Beautiful Lines."". Archived from the original on 2012-03-05. Retrieved 3 May 2016. 


  • Hoxie, Fredrick E., Mancall, Peter C. and Merrell, James (2001). American Nations: Encounters in Indian Country, 1850 to the Present. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92750-1
  • Mankiller, Wilma and Wallis, Michael. Mankiller: A Chief and Her People. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999. ISBN 0-312-20662-3.
  • Rowell, Andrew (1996). Green Backlash: Global Subversion of the Environment Movement. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-12827-7