Following the Invasion of Manchuria by the Imperial Japanese Army and the capture of Liaoning and Jilin provinces. Hostilities did not commence in the Harbin area until the end of January 1932 when General Ting Chao resolved to defend the northern metropolis, a key hub of rail and riverine communication, against the approach first of General Xi Qia's "New Kirin" Army and then Japanese troops. He appealed to the city's Chinese residents to join his Jilin Self-Defence Army made of railway garrison troops and other regulars in battle against the Japanese. On 29 January, Ting put the Chief Administrator under house arrest and took possession of the office.
General Ting was defeated on 5 February 1932 by a force combining Japanese troops and those of General Hai Hsai.
Later after Ting Chao's beaten forces retired from Harbin to the northeast down the Sungari River, they joined the Lower Sungari garrison of Gen. Li Du as the nucleus of armed opposition in the north. After his retreat from Harbin he was made Chairman of the Government of Jilin Province and opposed the new puppet government of Manchukuo in their anti bandit operations of the pacification campaign.
- Ogata, Sadako N. (1964). Defiance in Manchuria: The Making of Japanese Foreign Policy, 1931-1932. University of California Press.
- League of Nations (1932). Appeal by the Chinese Government: report of the Commission of Enquiry ... signed by the members of the commission on September 4th, 1932, at Peiping. League of Nations.
- "JAPANESE PREPARATIONS.". Cairns Post (Qld. : 1909 - 1954) (Qld.). 29 December 1932. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- Cryer, Robert (2008). Documents on the Tokyo International Military Tribunal: Charter, Indictment, and Judgments, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199541928.