Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy
First UK edition
|Author||John le Carré|
|Cover artist||Jerry Harpur|
|Series||George Smiley /
The Quest for Karla
|Publisher||Hodder & Stoughton (UK)
Random House (USA)
|Media type||Print (hardback & paperback)|
|LC Class||PZ4.L4526 Ti3 PR6062.E33|
|Followed by||The Honourable Schoolboy|
Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy is a 1974 spy novel by British author John le Carré. It follows the efforts of taciturn, ageing spymaster George Smiley to uncover a Soviet mole in the British Secret Intelligence Service. Since the time of its publication, the novel has received critical acclaim for its complexity, social commentary and lack of sensationalism, and remains a staple of the spy fiction genre.
Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy was followed by two sequels, The Honourable Schoolboy (1977) and Smiley's People (1979), later published in an omnibus edition as Smiley Versus Karla (1982). These are the fifth, sixth, and seventh le Carré spy novels featuring George Smiley. Three characters who are important players in TTSS first appeared in le Carré's very first book, Call for the Dead (1961): George Smiley, Peter Guillam, and Inspector Mendel.
Control, chief of the Circus, assigns the code names "Tinker", "Tailor", "Soldier", "Poor Man", and "Beggar Man" to five senior intelligence officers at the Circus. He suspects that one of the five is a Soviet mole and assigns these code names with the intention that, should his agent Jim Prideaux uncover information about the identity of the mole, Prideaux can relay it back to the Circus using an easy-to-recall codename. The names are derived from the English children's rhyme "Tinker, Tailor":
Rich Man, Poor Man,
Beggar Man, Thief.
The code name "Sailor" is not used as it sounds too much like "Tailor" and Control drops "Rich Man", resulting in Toby Esterhase being code-named "Poor Man". George Smiley is "Beggar Man".
It is 1973, at the height of the Cold War. George Smiley, former deputy chief of the Circus, has been living in unhappy retirement for a year after an operation in Czechoslovakia, code-named Testify, ended in disaster with the capture of agent Jim Prideaux and provoked the dismissals of Smiley and Control, the anonymous head of the Circus. Control, already ill by then, has died soon afterwards. One night, Smiley is unexpectedly approached by Peter Guillam, a former colleague, and Under Secretary Oliver Lacon, the Civil Service officer responsible for overseeing the Intelligence Services, to hear the story of Ricki Tarr, another former British agent now in hiding. Tarr heard from a tentative defector in Hong Kong of the existence of a Soviet mole at the highest level of the Circus, code-named Gerald and handled by Moscow Centre’s Colonel Polyakov. When Tarr cabled the information to London, his contact was immediately abducted back to Moscow and Tarr went on the run to escape Soviet agents.
Smiley accepts Lacon’s request to investigate in total secrecy, since all senior Circus staff are suspects. He soon focuses on the details of British intelligence’s best Soviet source, code-named Merlin, which Control had deemed suspicious from the start. Merlin had been developed and vigorously sponsored by four ambitious senior Circus men, led by Percy Alleline, who wanted to oust Control and had rallied Circus overseers in Whitehall to their cause at the time of Testify. Gerald must be one of these four: Alleline himself, a vain and politically skilled Scot who took over as Chief from Control; Roy Bland, a gifted if boorish intellectual of humble origins; Toby Esterhase, a self-serving Hungarian refugee hungry for promotion; or Bill Haydon, an aristocratic polymath and a Circus legend who once had an affair with Smiley’s now-estranged wife Ann.
Working through Circus documents surreptitiously provided by Lacon and Guillam, Smiley discovers that Merlin is not one source but several and that the operation has an ultra-secret London end: a safe house where Alleline and his inner circle personally collect information from a Merlin emissary posted in London under diplomatic cover. Eventually, Smiley realizes the truth: the Merlin emissary is none other than Polyakov himself and that the actual flow of information goes the other way, with Gerald passing actual British secrets while receiving fake and worthless Soviet material.
Smiley suspects a link between Merlin and the botched Operation Testify, whose details Control had hidden from him at the time. He tracks down Prideaux and all other Circus participants and confirms the connection. Control had independently concluded the existence of a mole and mounted Testify to learn his identity from an aspiring defector in Czech intelligence privy to the information. Polyakov and Karla, Moscow Centre’s crafty spymaster and Smiley’s nemesis, were both present at Prideaux’s interrogation which focused exclusively on the extent and status of Control’s investigations. The Czech defector was a plant, engineered by Karla to provoke Control’s demise through Testify and so protect Gerald.
Smiley pressures Esterhase, whose deep involvement in Merlin has made him vulnerable, into revealing the location of the safe house. He then lays out a trap for Gerald by having Tarr unexpectedly contact the Circus head of station in Paris and send a message to Alleline about information crucial to the well-being of the Service. This triggers an emergency meeting between Gerald and Polyakov at the safe house where Smiley and Guillam are lying in wait. They confront the mole and turn him over to a dumbfounded Alleline for interrogation while Polyakov, who has diplomatic immunity, leaves and presumably returns to Moscow in disgrace.
Gerald’s interrogation reveals that he was recruited several decades ago by Karla and became a full-fledged Soviet spy partly for political reasons, partly in frustration at Britain’s rapidly declining influence on the world stage. He is to be exchanged with the Soviet Union for several of the agents he betrayed but is killed shortly before he is due to leave England. The identity of his killer is not explicitly revealed but is strongly implied to be Prideaux, whom Gerald betrayed in Operation Testify.
Alleline is removed and Smiley is appointed temporary head of the Circus to deal with the fallout. The book ends with Smiley’s traveling to visit Ann and attempt to salvage what’s left of their relationship.
- George Smiley. Educated at Lincoln College, Oxford, where he fully intended on making a career as a professor specializing in "the literary obscurities of seventeenth-century Germany". But in 1928 (mid-1930s in revised chronology) he was recruited by Circus "talent spotter" Jebedee. Smiley became a spy's spy for two reasons: first, his wife, Lady Ann Sercomb, described him as "breathtakingly ordinary". Secondly, Smiley saw the opportunity for "excursions into the mystery of human behaviour". As of the events of Tinker Tailor, Smiley has become Control's right-hand man. However, Smiley is forced out of the Circus after Control's retirement and continues his academic research into the 17th century German Baroque literature.
- Percy Alleline. Chief of the Circus following Control's ousting. "A lowland Scot and a son of the Manse". "A bit of an athlete". "Missed the war by a year or two". Former field agent; Control despised him. Cambridge. Alleline spent his early career in South America, Northern Africa and India. One of the four who ran the double agent codenamed "Merlin". Alleline is knighted in the course of the book in recognition of the quality of the "Witchcraft" intelligence provided by Merlin.
- Roy Bland: Second in command to Bill Haydon of London Station. "Cockney voice". Son of a dockworker who was "a passionate trade-unionist and a Party member". "A warm-hearted and impulsive fellow, red-haired and burly". Smiley had recruited him. Oxford. One of the four who ran the double agent codenamed "Merlin". Bland was the top specialist in Soviet satellite states and spent several years under cover as a left-wing academic in the Balkans before being instated in Circus.
- "Control": Former head of the Circus; forced to retire and now dead. Before the war he was a Cambridge don.
- Toby Esterhase. "Runs between Bill Haydon and Roy Bland like a poodle". Ran the "lamplighters" (see "Jargon" below) when Control was in charge. White hair. "Dressed like a male model, but was unmistakably a fighter". "Tiny Toby spoke no known language perfectly, but he spoke them all". "Toby Esterhase would put the dogs on his own mother if it bought him a pat on the back from Alleline". Hungarian; recruited by Smiley as "a starving student in Vienna". One of the four who ran the double agent codenamed "Merlin".
- Peter Guillam. Currently in charge of the "scalp hunters" (see "Jargon") at the Brixton location ("they were to handle the hit-and-run jobs that were too dirty or too risky for the residents abroad… they weren't gradual, and they weren't gentle, either"). Son of a French businessman and an Englishwoman and longtime associate of Smiley from the Ministry of Defence.
- Bill Haydon. Commander of London Station; worked with the Circus since the war. "Dashing Bill Haydon, our latter day Lawrence of Arabia". "Painter, polemicist, socialite". "Of that pre-war set that seemed to have vanished for good". Reputed to be bisexual. Father was a High Court judge. Close companion of Prideaux since university. Oxford. One of Ann Smiley's many cousins, also her lover. One of the four who ran the double agent codenamed "Merlin".
- Oliver Lacon. "Of the Cabinet Office, a senior advisor to various mixed committees and a watchdog of intelligence". Recruited Smiley to find the mole. As Guillam phrased it, "Whitehall's head prefect". Cambridge.
- Mendel. Retired former Inspector in the Special Branch, who assists Smiley. He and Smiley have worked together before and Smiley trusts him more than most. A "quirkish, loping tracker of a man, sharp-faced and sharp-eyed". Keeps bees as a hobby.
- Jim Prideaux (code name: Jim Ellis). Fluent speaker of Czech and several other languages. He was shot in Czechoslovakia on an operation code-named "Testify", an assignment that was blown to the Soviets. Former head of the "scalp hunters". Now a schoolteacher. Close companion (and possibly a former lover) of Haydon. "A large fellow". Athlete. Raised partially abroad and educated at Oxford University.
- Connie Sachs. Former Russia analyst for the Circus, forced to retire, now runs a rooming house in Oxford. "A big woman, bigger than Smiley by a head". Alcoholic, but with an excellent memory.
- Ricki Tarr. A field agent; the one who found Irina and gives a clear indication that there is a "mole" in the Circus. Smiley originally gave him his job. Works for Guillam as one of the "scalp hunters".
The characters in Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy use a great deal of spy jargon which is presented as the authentic insiderspeak of British Intelligence. Le Carré has said that, with the exception of a few terms like "mole" and "legend", this jargon was his own invention. Examples are:
|Agent||An espionage agent or spy; a citizen who is recruited by a foreign government to spy on his own country. This term should not be confused with a member of an intelligence service who recruits spies; they are referred to as intelligence officers or more particularly case officers.|
|Circus||The in-house name for MI6, the SIS (Secret Intelligence Service), which collects foreign intelligence. "Circus" refers to the (fictional) locale of the headquarters in Cambridge Circus, London.|
|Coat trailing||An officer of one side acting as if he is a likely defector - drinking, complaining about his job, in the hope of attracting a recruitment offer from an enemy intelligence officer, with the object of recruiting the enemy as a double agent instead.|
|The Competition||MI5, the Security Service, the UK's internal counter-espionage and counter-terrorism service, which the Circus also calls "The Security Mob".|
|The Cousins||The US intelligence agencies in general and the CIA in particular.|
|Ferrets||Technicians who find and remove hidden microphones, cameras, etc.|
|Honey-trap||A sexual blackmailing operation.|
|Housekeepers||The internal auditors and financial disciplinarians of the Circus.|
|Inquisitors||Interrogators who debrief Circus intelligence officers and defectors.|
|Janitors||The Circus headquarters operations staff, including those who watch doors and verify that people entering secure areas are authorised to do so.|
|Lamplighters||A section which provides surveillance and couriers.|
|Legend||A false identity|
|Mailfist job||An assassination operation.|
|Mole||An agent recruited long before he has access to secret material, who subsequently works his way into the target government organisation. Le Carré has said this was a term actually used in the KGB; an equivalent term used in Western intelligence services was sleeper agent.|
|Mothers||Secretaries and trusted typists serving the senior officers of the Circus.|
|Neighbours||The Soviet intelligence services, in particular the KGB and Karla's fictional "Thirteenth Directorate".|
|Nuts and Bolts||The engineering department who develop and manufacture espionage devices.|
|Pavement Artists||Members of surveillance teams who inconspicuously follow people in public.|
|Persil||The cleanest security category available, used of questionable foreigners, "Clean as fabric washed in Persil".|
|Reptile fund||A slush fund, to provide payment for covert operations.|
|Scalphunters||Handle assassination, blackmail, burglary, kidnap; the section was sidelined after Control's dismissal.|
|Shoemakers||Forgers of documents and the like.|
|Wranglers||Radio signal analysts and cryptographers; it derives from the term wrangler used of Cambridge University maths students.|
In addition, the book uses terms from British English such as mews (a type of quiet residential street), peach (to inform against, betray), shirty (aggressive), redbrick (a university that is not Oxbridge), and D-Notice (a publication restriction), and loanwords such as thé dansant, coq au vin, Märchen and Gemütlichkeit.
The television adaptation of Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy also uses the term "burrower" for a researcher recruited from a university, a term taken from the novel's immediate sequel The Honourable Schoolboy.
Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy is John le Carré's novelisation about his experiences of the revelations in the 1950s and the 1960s which exposed the Cambridge Five traitors: Guy Burgess, Donald Maclean, Anthony Blunt, John Cairncross, and Kim Philby as KGB moles in the British Intelligence services.
The character Bill Haydon is partly derived from Kim Philby, a senior SIS officer and double agent who defected to the USSR in 1963. David Cornwell (John le Carré), who worked as an intelligence officer for both MI5 and the SIS (MI6), has said that Philby betrayed his identity to the Russians, which was a factor in the 1964 termination of his intelligence career.
Connie Sachs, the Circus's principal Russia researcher, is modelled upon Milicent Bagot.
In 1979 a TV adaptation of the same name was made by the BBC. It was a seven-part miniseries and was released in September of that year. The series was directed by John Irvin, produced by Jonathan Powell, and starred Alec Guinness as George Smiley.
In 1988, BBC Radio 4 broadcast a dramatisation, by Rene Basilico, of Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy in seven weekly half-hour episodes, produced by John Fawcett-Wilson. It is available as a BBC audiobook in CD and audio cassette formats. Notably, Bernard Hepton portrays George Smiley. Nine years earlier, he had portrayed Toby Esterhase in the television adaptation.
In 2009, BBC Radio 4 also broadcast new dramatizations, by Shaun McKenna, of the eight George Smiley novels by John le Carré, featuring Simon Russell Beale as Smiley. Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy was broadcast as three one-hour episodes, from Sunday 29 November to Sunday 13 December 2009 in BBC Radio 4's Classic Serial slot. The producer was Steven Canny. The series was most recently repeated on BBC Radio 4 Extra, June/July 2016.
Swedish director Tomas Alfredson made a film adaptation in 2011 based on a screenplay by Bridget O'Connor and Peter Straughan. The film was released in the UK and Ireland on 16 September 2011, and in the United States on 9 December 2011. It included a cameo appearance by John le Carré in the Christmas party scene as the older man in the grey suit who stands suddenly to sing the Soviet anthem. The film received numerous Academy Award nominations including a nomination for Best Actor for Gary Oldman for his role as George Smiley. The film also starred Colin Firth as Bill Haydon, Benedict Cumberbatch as Peter Guillam, Tom Hardy as Ricki Tarr, and Mark Strong as Jim Prideaux.
- Modern first editions – a set on Flickr
- Locke, Richard (30 June 1974). "The Spy Who Spied on Spies". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 July 2015.
- Bradford, Michael; Burridge, James (17 October 2012). "Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy: the Movie". Studies in Intelligence 56 (3). Retrieved 18 July 2015.
- Le Carré, John; Matthew Joseph Bruccoli; Judith Baughman (2004). Conversations with John le Carré. USA: University Press of Mississippi. pp. 68–69. ISBN 1-57806-669-7.
- New York Post
- Anthony, Andrew (1 November 2009). "Observer Profile: John le Carré: A man of great intelligence". The Observer (London). Retrieved 4 March 2010.
- "Le Carré betrayed by 'bad lot' spy Kim Philby", Channel 4 News. Retrieved 3 October 2010.
- "The Complete Smiley". BBC Radio 4. 23 May 2009. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
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