Tirant lo Blanch
Martí Joan de Galba
|Original title||Tirant lo Blanch|
|Country||Kingdom of Valencia|
|Set in||Europe, north Africa, Middle East, 15th century AD|
|Publisher||Martí Joan de Galba|
|Tirant lo Blanch at Catalan Wikisource|
Tirant lo Blanch (Valencian pronunciation: [tiˈɾand lo ˈblaŋ(k)], modern orthography: Tirant lo Blanc) is a chivalric romance written by the Valencian knight Joanot Martorell, finished posthumously by his friend Martí Joan de Galba and published in the city of Valencia in 1490 as an incunabulum edition. The title means "Tirant the White" and is the name of the romance's main character who saves the Byzantine Empire.
It is one of the best known medieval works of literature in Valencian. It is considered a masterpiece in the Valencian literature and in the literature in Catalan language as a whole, and it played an important role in the evolution of the Western novel through its influence on the author Miguel de Cervantes.
Tirant lo Blanch tells the story of a knight Tirant from Brittany who has a series of adventures across Europe in his quest. He joins in knightly competitions in England and France until the Emperor of the Byzantine Empire asks him to help in the war against the Ottoman Turks, Islamic invaders threatening Constantinople, the capital and seat of the Empire. Tirant accepts and is made Megaduke of the Byzantine Empire and the captain of an army. He defeats the invaders and saves the Empire from destruction. Afterwards, he fights the Turks in many regions of the eastern Mediterranean and North Africa, but he dies just before he can marry the pretty heiress of the Byzantine Empire.
Compared to books of the same time period, it lacks the bucolic, platonic, and contemplative love commonly portrayed in the chivalric heroes. Instead the main character is full of life and sensuous love, sarcasm, and human feelings. The work is filled with down to earth descriptions of daily life, prosaic and even bitter in nature.
Tirant lo Blanch is one of the most important books written in Catalan. Written by Joanot Martorell in the 15th century, the Tirant is an unusual chivalric novel in its naturalistic and satirical character, which also appears to have a strong autobiographic component. It tells the feats and adventures of Knight Tirant lo Blanc from Brittany. At times, it parallels the life and adventures of Roger de Flor, main leader of the mercenary Company of Almogàvers, which fought in Asia Minor and Greece, both for and against the Emperor of Byzantium. This historical resemblance is evident in the description of events occurring around Constantinople and the defeat of Sultan Mehmed II "the conqueror". While Roger de Flor's almogàvers had the upper hand in the region, the Fall of Constantinople in 1453 was a huge shock to Christian Europe, marking an end to the Byzantine Empire that Martorell's contemporaries wished to change. In writing his novel, Martorell perhaps rewrote history to fit what he wanted it to be - which in a way makes it a precursor of the present-day genre of alternate history.
The Spanish text of Don Quixote states, in Chapter 6 of Part I, that because of certain characteristics of Tirant – characters with unlikely or funny names such as Kirieleison de Montalbán, the presence of a merry widow, the fact that in the book knights eat, sleep, and die in their beds having made a will, and the title can be understood as "Tirant the Blank", lacking a major victory to put on his shield – the book is quite different from the typical chivalric romance. These aspects make the book exceptional, and made Cervantes state that "por su estilo", which can be translated "because of its style" but more likely means "in its own way", the book is "a treasure of enjoyment and a gold mine of recreation" ("un tesoro de contento y una mina de pasatiempos"), the "best book in the world." It is an (unintentionally) funny book, and Cervantes liked funny books, believed the world needed more of them, and in Don Quixote wrote his own. Cervantes saw this 100-year-old book as the crown jewel of his library.
Recent scholarship has called into question some understandings of this work. In a 2011 thesis, Francisco Macias states that his "initial approach was to see the work as a conventional work of medieval literature." Yet as he worked through the intricacies of the work and resolved the questions that surfaced, he came to understand that "the work is undoubtedly a satire; and it should be analyzed as one. Martorell's narrators are quite astute; they guide us into the labyrinth that is the Tirant with hints of satirical discourse that is hidden in plain sight: satire is hidden in the blatantly obvious narrative where the reader does not question; rather, he surrenders and allows the narrator(s) to (mis)lead him into a totally different reality. Subtleties that were not obvious from the outset become clear in retrospect." He also clarifies that "perhaps the totalizing approaches and the heft of some of the scholars, with respect to contentions concerning genre and studies of the Tirant at large, resulted in a thought-terminating cliché of sorts that stopped new scholars from feeling the need to look further for other possibilities." He admits that he "too halted." He provides some thought-provoking analysis by highlighting some connections between Tirant, Edward II, Piers Gaveston and Edward III of England. In fact, the parallels he establishes between Tirant and Edward III bring back into question the etymology of the name of Tirant, the Tyrant.
Translations and adaptations
The book has been translated into several languages including French, Italian, Spanish, Polish,, Russian, German, Dutch, Swedish and Chinese. Modern translations of the book into English include Tirant lo Blanc, translated by David H. Rosenthal (1983, 1996) and Tirant lo Blanc: The Complete Translation (Catalan Studies, Vol 1), translated by Ray La Fontaine (1994).
The plot of the 2006 film adaptation is based on the later part of the adventures of Tirant and events leading to his involvement in Constantinople and afterwards.
Notes and references
- Its modern spelling, according to both the Valencian and the Catalan standard, is Tirant lo Blanc, but it is also referred to by its original spelling Tirant lo Blanch, where the h is silent.
- Joanot Martorell; Ray la Fontaine (1994). Tirant lo Blanch: the Complete Translation. Peter Lang Gmbh, Internationaler Verlag Der Wissenschaften. ISBN 0820416886.
- Joanot Martorell; Martí Joan de Galba; David Rosenthal (1996). Tirant lo Blanch. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801854210.
- de Courcelles, Dominique (April 1996). "Voeu chevaleresque et voeu de croisade dans le roman de Tirant lo Blanc (1460-1490)". Les Cahiers du Centre de Recherches Historiques (in French). 16: 1–14. doi:10.4000/ccrh.2652.
Among the Catalan literature of the late Middle Ages, the chivalric romance entitled Tirant lo Blanc is one of the best known works
- Manuel Muñoz (30 January 1985). "Rosenthal pudo al fin hablar en Valencia sobre su traducción de 'Tirant lo Blanc'". El País. Spain. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
Rosenthal, the first translator into English of the masterpiece of the literature in Catalan language, written by the Valencians Joanot Martorell and Martí Joan de Galba, was boycotted in his first attempt to give a talk in the city [Valencia]
- Edward T. Aylward (1985). Martorell's Tirant lo Blanch: A Program for Military and Social Reform in Fifteenth-Century Christendom. University of North Carolina Press, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill for its Department of Romance Studies. ISBN 0807892297.
Only in the late 1940s did Hispanists begin to awaken to the considerable literary qualities of this unique Catalan work of fiction
- Daniel Eisenberg, "Pero Pérez the Priest and his Comment on Tirant lo Blanch, MLN (Modern Language Notes), volume 88, 1973, pp. 320-330, https://web.archive.org/web/*/http://users.ipfw.edu/jehle/deisenbe/cervantes/peroperezhigh.pdf included in Eisenberg, Romances of Chivalry in the Spanish Golden Age, Newark, Delaware, Juan de la Cuesta, 1982. http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/servlet/SirveObras/01159841877587238327702/index.htm
- Daniel Eisenberg, La biblioteca de Cervantes, in Studia in honorem Martín de Riquer, volume 2, Barcelona, Quaderns Crema, 1987, pp. 271-328; online as "La reconstrucción de la biblioteca de Cervantes", pp. 41-52 of La biblioteca de Cervantes: Una reconstrucción, https://web.archive.org/web/*/http://users.ipfw.edu/jehle/deisenbe/cervantes/reconstruction.pdf on p. 51.
- Macias, Francisco. Tirant lo Blanc(h): Masculinities, phallosocial desire, and triangular constellations. Thesis. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses. 2011. ProQuest 915725354
- Joanot Martorell; Comte de Caylus (1997). Tirant le Blanc. Éditions Gallimard. ISBN 2070751090.
- Joanot Martorell; Lelio Manfredi (1556). Della historia del valorosissimo et invittissimo cavallier Tirante il Bianco. Domenico Farri.
- Joanot Martorell; Diego de Gumiel; Vicent Escartí (2005). Tirante el Blanco. Traducción castellana, Valladolid, 1511. Editorial Tirant lo Blanch. ISBN 9788484560234.
- Joanot Martorell; Rozalya Sasor (2007). Tirant Biały. Ksiegarnia Akademicka.
- Joanot Martorell; Marina Abramova; P. A. Skobtsev; E. E. Guixina (2006). Tirant lo Blanch. Ladomir: Nauka.
- Full text in a slightly revised orthography version, in Catalan
- Tirant lo Blanch, online edition (full text in a web page, in Catalan)
- The White Knight: Tirant lo Blanc at Project Gutenberg edited and translated into English by Robert S. Rudder
- Tirant lo Blanc: An Analysis of its Transitional Styles by Suzanne S. Hintz
- Tirant lo Blanc, Wikisource
- In the opinion of some experts Tirant is different from similar works see "Origenes de la novela..." By Marcelino Mendendez y Pelayo, Adolfo Bonilla y San Martin
- El ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha By Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra
- Tirant Lo Blanch: A Study of Its Authorship, Principal Sources and historical setting" by Joseph A. Vaeth (1918)