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A Tiriyó man and woman from Brazil
|~2000 (in 2005)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Traditional, Christian (Catholic in Brazil, Protestant in Suriname)|
The Tiriyó (also known as Trio) are a Amerindian ethnic group native to parts of northern Brazil and Suriname. In 2005, there were approximately 2,000 Tiriyó in the two countries. They live in several major villages and a number of minor villages in the border zone between Brazil and Suriname. They speak the Tiriyó language, a member of the Cariban language family and refer to themselves as tarëno, etymologically 'people from here' or 'local people'.
About 30% are Christians, while 70% follow indigenous religions.
The modern Tiriyó are formed from various different indigenous communities; some of these, such as the Aramixó, are mentioned in European writings as early as 1609-1610. Many of the now-Tiriyó groups lived between Brazil and French Guiana until they were driven out by the Oyampi, a Tupi-Guaranian group allied with the Portuguese. Together, the Portuguese and Oyampi drove these groups westward, and they mingled with the groups that were in the area to form the modern Tiriyó group.
As such, the Tiriyó established contact relatively early with runaway slave groups that settled in the area around the end of the 18th century. They maintained regular commercial relations with one group, the Ndyuka, and for many years they were the only contact the Tiriyó had with foreign populations. The first recorded contact between the Tiriyó and a European took place in 1843 between a ‘Drio’ village and Robert Schomburgk; this and the meeting between French explorer Jules Crevaux and a few ‘Trio’ were the only two points of contact between Tiriyó and Europeans in the 19th century.
Subsequent contact between Europeans and Tiriyó in the first half of the twentieth century produced ethnographic and linguistic studies of the region and Tiriyó subgroups in particular. After the ‘exploratory phase’ of contact came the ‘missionary phase,’ wherein newly-built airstrips facilitated contact between missionaries and the Tiriyó. These missions tried to concentrate the Tiriyó population in larger villages to more easily convert them to Christianity, and over time, other Indigenous groups such as the Akuriyó joined them here.
Today, the Tiriyó have a high degree of independence because their settlements are difficult to access. However, they are interested in reinforcing relationships with the foreign world.
- Joshua Project http://www.joshuaproject.net/people-profile.php?peo3=15581&rog3=NS
- Meira 1999.
- Heemskerk & Delvoye 2007, p. 22.
- Carlin & Van Goethem 2009, p. 17.
- Heemskerk et al. 2007, p. 21.
- "Caracterização do DSEI Amapá e Norte do Pará, conforme Edital de Chamada Pública n. 2/2017 (item 3.1)" (PDF). portalarquivos.saude.gov.br. 30 June 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
- Carlin, Eithne B.; Van Goethem, Diederik (2009). In the Shadow of the Tiger: The Amerindians of Suriname. Amsterdam: KIT Publishers. ISBN 978-9460220-265.
- Heemskerk, Marieke; Delvoye, Katia (2007). Trio Baseline Study: A sustainable livelihoods perspective on the Trio Indigenous Peoples of South Suriname (PDF). Paramaribo: Stichting Amazon Conservation Team-Suriname.
- Heemskerk, Marieke; Delvoye, Katia; Noordam, Dirk; Teunissen, Pieter (2007). Wayana Baseline Study: A sustainable livelihoods perspective on the Wayana Indigenous Peoples living in and around Puleowime (Apetina), Palumeu, and Kawemhakan (Anapaike) in Southeast Suriname (PDF). Paramaribo: Stichting Amazon Conservation Team-Suriname.
- Meira, S. (1999). A Grammar of Tiriyo (PDF) (Thesis).
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