Tiriyó

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Tiriyó (Trio)
Ape&Joonare.jpg
A Tiriyó man and woman from Brazil
Total population
~2000 (in 2005)
Regions with significant populations
Brazil, Suriname
Languages
Tiriyó language
Religion
Traditional, Christian (Catholic in Brazil, Protestant in Suriname)

The Tiriyó (also known as Trio) are a Amerindian ethnic group native to parts of northern Brazil and Suriname. In 2005, there were approximately 2,000 Tiriyó in the two countries. They live in several major villages and a number of minor villages in the border zone between Brazil and Suriname. They speak the Tiriyó language, a member of the Cariban language family and refer to themselves as tarëno, etymologically 'people from here' or 'local people'.

About 30% are Christians, while 70% follow indigenous religions.[1]

History[edit]

The modern Tiriyó are formed from various different indigenous communities; some of these, such as the Aramixó, are mentioned in European writings as early as 1609-1610.[2] Many of the now-Tiriyó groups lived between Brazil and French Guiana until they were driven out by the Oyampi, a Tupi-Guaranian group allied with the Portuguese. Together, the Portuguese and Oyampi drove these groups westward, and they mingled with the groups that were in the area to form the modern Tiriyó group.[2]

As such, the Tiriyó established contact relatively early with runaway slave groups that settled in the area around the end of the 18th century. They maintained regular commercial relations with one group, the Ndyuka, and for many years they were the only contact the Tiriyó had with foreign populations.[2] The first recorded contact between the Tiriyó and a European took place in 1843 between a ‘Drio’ village and Robert Schomburgk; this and the meeting between French explorer Jules Crevaux and a few ‘Trio’ were the only two points of contact between Tiriyó and Europeans in the 19th century.[2]

Subsequent contact between Europeans and Tiriyó in the first half of the twentieth century produced ethnographic and linguistic studies of the region and Tiriyó subgroups in particular. After the ‘exploratory phase’ of contact came the ‘missionary phase,’ wherein newly-built airstrips facilitated contact between missionaries and the Tiriyó.[2] These missions tried to concentrate the Tiriyó population in larger villages to more easily convert them to Christianity, and over time, other Indigenous groups such as the Akuriyó joined them here.[2]

Today, the Tiriyó have a high degree of independence because their settlements are difficult to access. However, they are interested in reinforcing relationships with the foreign world.[2]

Communities[edit]

Tiriyó settlements
Kasuela
Kasuela
Kuruni
Kuruni
Kamani
Kamani
Sakuru
Sakuru
Cachoeirinha
Cachoeirinha
Mataware
Mataware
Iyaherai
Iyaherai
Manau
Manau
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
link=Amana[disambiguation needed]
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Tiriyó
Kuxaré
Kuxaré
Urunai
Urunai
Yawa
Yawa
Pedra da Onça
Pedra da Onça
The southernmost villages of Marithepu, Boca do Marapí and Santo Antonio are not indicated on the map. In the densely populated area around Missão Tiriyó and Kuxaré, the villages are not labeled.
Place Coordinates Inhabitants River Country
Sandlanding 5°9′47″N 57°10′12″W / 5.16306°N 57.17000°W / 5.16306; -57.17000 (Sandlanding) 33[3] Courentyne Flag of Suriname.svg Suriname
Wanapan (Arapahtë pata) 4°22′55″N 57°57′28″W / 4.38194°N 57.95778°W / 4.38194; -57.95778 (Wanapan) 34[3] Courentyne Flag of Suriname.svg Suriname
Lucie 3°34′48″N 57°41′6″W / 3.58000°N 57.68500°W / 3.58000; -57.68500 (Lucie) 18[3] Lucie Flag of Suriname.svg Suriname
Amotopo 3°32′50″N 57°38′35″W / 3.54722°N 57.64306°W / 3.54722; -57.64306 (Amotopo) 15[3] Courentyne Flag of Suriname.svg Suriname
Kasuela 3°16′39″N 57°35′58″W / 3.27750°N 57.59944°W / 3.27750; -57.59944 (Kasuela) New River Flag of Guyana.svg Guyana
Kuruni 3°22′12″N 57°20′40″W / 3.37000°N 57.34444°W / 3.37000; -57.34444 (Kuruni) 35[3] Coeroeni Flag of Suriname.svg Suriname
Kwamalasamutu 2°21′23″N 56°47′12″W / 2.35639°N 56.78667°W / 2.35639; -56.78667 (Kwamalasamutu) 685[3] Sipaliwini Flag of Suriname.svg Suriname
Kamani 2°34′5″N 57°0′30″W / 2.56806°N 57.00833°W / 2.56806; -57.00833 (Kamani) 6[4] Kamani Flag of Suriname.svg Suriname
Sipaliwini 2°1′33″N 56°7′29″W / 2.02583°N 56.12472°W / 2.02583; -56.12472 (Sipaliwini) 214[3] Sipaliwini Flag of Suriname.svg Suriname
Alalapadu 2°31′14″N 56°19′41″W / 2.52056°N 56.32806°W / 2.52056; -56.32806 (Alalapadu) 65[3] Alalapadu Flag of Suriname.svg Suriname
Sakuru 2°4′21″N 56°53′21″W / 2.07250°N 56.88917°W / 2.07250; -56.88917 (Sakuru) Aramatau Flag of Suriname.svg Suriname
Pelelu Tepu 3°9′35″N 55°43′7″W / 3.15972°N 55.71861°W / 3.15972; -55.71861 (Pelelu Tepu) 393[3] Tapanahony Flag of Suriname.svg Suriname
Palumeu 3°20′43″N 55°26′35″W / 3.34528°N 55.44306°W / 3.34528; -55.44306 (Palumeu) 96[5] Tapanahony Flag of Suriname.svg Suriname
Kasikasima 2°58′33″N 55°23′0″W / 2.97583°N 55.38333°W / 2.97583; -55.38333 (Kasikasima) Paloemeu Flag of Suriname.svg Suriname
Cachoeirinha 1°59′45″N 55°10′55″W / 1.99583°N 55.18194°W / 1.99583; -55.18194 (Cachoeirinha) 47[6] Paru d'Este Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Mataware 1°57′4″N 55°7′10″W / 1.95111°N 55.11944°W / 1.95111; -55.11944 (Mataware) 92[6] Paru d'Este Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Iyaherai 1°42′23″N 54°59′22″W / 1.70639°N 54.98944°W / 1.70639; -54.98944 (Iyaherai) 52[6] Paru d'Este Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Manau 1°35′11″N 54°55′14″W / 1.58639°N 54.92056°W / 1.58639; -54.92056 (Manau) 21[6] Paru d'Este Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Orokofö Velha 2°18′3″N 55°56′51″W / 2.30083°N 55.94750°W / 2.30083; -55.94750 (Orokofö Velha) 38[6] Paru de Oeste Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Orokofö Nova 2°18′19″N 55°56′17″W / 2.30528°N 55.93806°W / 2.30528; -55.93806 (Orokofö Nova) 44[6] Paru de Oeste Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Paruaka 2°17′32″N 55°51′23″W / 2.29222°N 55.85639°W / 2.29222; -55.85639 (Paruaka) 55[6] Paru de Oeste Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Taratarafö 2°16′46″N 55°57′13″W / 2.27944°N 55.95361°W / 2.27944; -55.95361 (Taratarafö) 37[6] Paru de Oeste Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Tuha-entu 2°17′10″N 55°56′33″W / 2.28611°N 55.94250°W / 2.28611; -55.94250 (Tuha-entu) 45[6] Paru de Oeste Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Oroi-entu 2°15′58″N 55°52′55″W / 2.26611°N 55.88194°W / 2.26611; -55.88194 (Oroi-entu) 55[6] Paru de Oeste Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Acahé 2°14′42″N 56°0′23″W / 2.24500°N 56.00639°W / 2.24500; -56.00639 (Acahé) Paru de Oeste Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Notüpö 2°14′56″N 55°57′26″W / 2.24889°N 55.95722°W / 2.24889; -55.95722 (Notüpö) 56[6] Paru de Oeste Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Betânia 2°14′12″N 55°57′50″W / 2.23667°N 55.96389°W / 2.23667; -55.96389 (Betânia) 202[6] Paru de Oeste Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Amana 2°13′58″N 55°57′55″W / 2.23278°N 55.96528°W / 2.23278; -55.96528 (Amana) 42[6] Paru de Oeste Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Kuritaraimö 2°13′49″N 55°57′51″W / 2.23028°N 55.96417°W / 2.23028; -55.96417 (Kuritaraimö) 33[6] Paru de Oeste Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Missão Tiriyó 2°13′54″N 55°57′39″W / 2.23167°N 55.96083°W / 2.23167; -55.96083 (Missão Tiriyó) 495[6] Paru de Oeste Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Missão Velha 2°13′17″N 55°57′34″W / 2.22139°N 55.95944°W / 2.22139; -55.95944 (Missão Velha) 97[6] Paru de Oeste Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Muneny 2°13′15″N 55°54′31″W / 2.22083°N 55.90861°W / 2.22083; -55.90861 (Muneny) 4[6] Paru de Oeste Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Ponoto 2°12′37″N 55°49′47″W / 2.21028°N 55.82972°W / 2.21028; -55.82972 (Ponoto) 22[6] Paru de Oeste Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Kumuimi 2°11′43″N 55°57′0″W / 2.19528°N 55.95000°W / 2.19528; -55.95000 (Kumuimi) 6[6] Paru de Oeste Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Arawatá 2°10′53″N 55°56′36″W / 2.18139°N 55.94333°W / 2.18139; -55.94333 (Arawatá) 24[6] Paru de Oeste Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Waypa 2°9′16″N 55°55′1″W / 2.15444°N 55.91694°W / 2.15444; -55.91694 (Waypa) 20[6] Paru de Oeste Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Ömetanömpo 2°8′28″N 55°54′54″W / 2.14111°N 55.91500°W / 2.14111; -55.91500 (Ömetanömpo) 26[6] Paru de Oeste Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Pedra da Onça 1°26′9″N 55°39′46″W / 1.43583°N 55.66278°W / 1.43583; -55.66278 (Pedra da Onça) 86[6] Paru de Oeste Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Santo Antonio 0°55′18″N 55°45′33″W / 0.92167°N 55.75917°W / 0.92167; -55.75917 (Santo Antonio) 87[6] Paru de Oeste Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Aiki 1°48′39″N 56°4′20″W / 1.81083°N 56.07222°W / 1.81083; -56.07222 (Aiki) 5[6] Marapí Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Castanhal 1°48′1″N 55°57′44″W / 1.80028°N 55.96222°W / 1.80028; -55.96222 (Castanhal) 11[6] Marapí Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Marihpa 1°44′26″N 56°4′16″W / 1.74056°N 56.07111°W / 1.74056; -56.07111 (Marihpa) 20[6] Marapí Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Kuxaré 1°42′0″N 56°4′10″W / 1.70000°N 56.06944°W / 1.70000; -56.06944 (Kuxaré) 178[6] Marapí Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Urunai 1°31′3″N 56°5′4″W / 1.51750°N 56.08444°W / 1.51750; -56.08444 (Urunai) 32[6] Marapí Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Yawa 1°21′13″N 56°7′52″W / 1.35361°N 56.13111°W / 1.35361; -56.13111 (Yawa) 56[6] Marapí Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Marithepu 1°5′23″N 56°11′35″W / 1.08972°N 56.19306°W / 1.08972; -56.19306 (Marithepu) 56[6] Marapí Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
Boca do Marapí 0°36′37″N 55°58′34″W / 0.61028°N 55.97611°W / 0.61028; -55.97611 (Boca do Marapí) 31[6] Marapí Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Joshua Project http://www.joshuaproject.net/people-profile.php?peo3=15581&rog3=NS
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Meira 1999.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Heemskerk & Delvoye 2007, p. 22.
  4. ^ Carlin & Van Goethem 2009, p. 17.
  5. ^ Heemskerk et al. 2007, p. 21.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af "Caracterização do DSEI Amapá e Norte do Pará, conforme Edital de Chamada Pública n. 2/2017 (item 3.1)" (PDF). portalarquivos.saude.gov.br. 30 June 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2018.

References[edit]

Coordinates: 1°50′00″N 54°00′00″W / 1.8333°N 54.0000°W / 1.8333; -54.0000