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In Jainism, a tirthankara (Sanskrit: tīrthaṅkara; English: literally a 'ford-maker') is a saviour and spiritual teacher of the dharma (righteous path). The word tirthankara signifies the founder of a tirtha, which is a fordable passage across the sea of interminable births and deaths, the saṃsāra. According to Jains, a tirthankara is a rare individual who has conquered the saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth, on their own, and made a path for others to follow. After understanding the true nature of the Self or soul, the Tīrthaṅkara attains Kevala Jnana (omniscience), and the first Tirthankara refounds Jainism. Tirthankara provides a bridge for others to follow the new teacher from saṃsāra to moksha (liberation).
The tirthankara Māllīnātha is believed to be a woman named Malli bai by Svetambara Jains while the Digambara sect believes all 24 tirthankara to be men including Māllīnātha. Digambara tradition believes a woman can reach to the 16th heaven and can attain liberation only being reborn as a man.
In Jain cosmology, the wheel of time is divided in two halves, Utsarpiṇī or ascending time cycle and avasarpiṇī, the descending time cycle (said to be current now). In each half of the cosmic time cycle, exactly twenty-four tirthankaras grace this part of the universe. There have been an infinite number of tirthankaras in the past time periods. The first tirthankara in this present time cycle was Rishabhanatha, who is credited for formulating and organising humans to live in a society harmoniously. The 24th and last tirthankara of present half-cycle was Mahavira (599–527 BC). History records the existence of Mahavira and his predecessor, Parshvanath, the twenty-third tirthankara.
The tirthankara's teachings form the basis for the Jain canons. The inner knowledge of tirthankara is believed to be perfect and identical in every respect and their teachings do not contradict one another. However, the degree of elaboration varies according to the spiritual advancement and purity of the society during their period of leadership. The higher the spiritual advancement and purity of mind of the society, the lower the elaboration required.
While tirthankaras are documented and revered by Jains, their grace is said to be available to all living beings, regardless of religious orientation.
Tīrthaṅkaras are arihants who after attaining kevalajñāna (pure infinite knowledge) preach the true dharma. An Arihant is also called Jina (victor), that is one who has conquered inner enemies such as anger, attachment, pride and greed. They dwell exclusively within the realm of their Soul, and are entirely free of kashayas, inner passions, and personal desires. As a result of this, unlimited siddhis, or spiritual powers, are readily available to them – which they use exclusively for the spiritual elevation of living beings. Through darśana, divine vision, and deshna, divine speech, they help others in attaining kevalajñana, and moksha (final liberation) to anyone seeking it sincerely.
The word tirthankara signifies the founder of a tirtha which means a fordable passage across the sea of interminable births and deaths (called saṃsāra). Tirthankaras are variously called "Teaching Gods", "Ford-Makers", "Crossing Makers" and "Makers of the River-Crossing.
Jain texts propound that a special type of karma, the tīrthaṅkara nama-karma, raises a soul to the supreme status of a Tīrthaṅkara. Tattvartha Sutra, a major Jain text, list down sixteen observances which lead to the bandha (bondage) of this karma:
- Purity of right faith
- Observance of vows and supplementary vows without transgressions
- Ceaseless pursuit of knowledge
- Perpetual fear of the cycle of existence
- Giving gifts (charity)
- Practising austerities according to one's capacity
- Removal of obstacles that threaten the equanimity of ascetics
- Serving the meritorious by warding off evil or suffering
- Devotion to omniscient lords, chief preceptors, preceptors, and the scriptures
- Practice of the six essential daily duties
- Propagation of the teachings of the omniscient
- Fervent affection for one's brethren following the same path.
Five auspicious events called, Pañca kalyāṇaka marks the life of every tirthankara:
- Gārbha kalyāṇaka (conception): When ātman (soul) of a tirthankara comes into his mother's womb.
- Janma kalyāṇaka (birth): Birth of a tirthankara. Indra performs a ceremonial bath on tirthankara on Mount Meru.
- Tapa kalyāṇaka (renunciation): When a tirthankara renounces all worldly possessions and become an ascetic.
- Jñāna kalyāṇaka: The event when a tirthankara attains kevalajñāna (infinite knowledge). A samavasarana (divine preaching hall) is erected from where he delivers sermons and restores sangha after that.
- Nirvāṇa kalyāṇaka (liberation): When a tirthankara leaves his mortal body, it is known as nirvana. It is followed by the final liberation, moksha. Their souls dwells in Siddhashila after that.
After attaining kevalajñāna, a tirthankara preaches the path to liberation in the samavasarana. According to Jain texts, the heavenly pavilion is erected by devas (heavenly beings) where devas, humans and animals assemble to hear the tirthankara. A tirthankara's speech is heard by all humans and animals in their own language. It is believed that during this speech, there is no unhappiness for miles around the site.
Tīrthaṅkaras of present cosmic age
Jainism postulates that time has no beginning or end. It moves like the wheel of a cart. The wheel of time is divided in two halves, Utsarpiṇī (ascending half cycle) and Avasarpiṇī (descending half cycle). 24 tirthankaras are born in each half of this cycle. In Jain tradition the tirthankaras were royal in their final lives, and Jain texts record details of their previous lives. Their clan and families are also among those recorded in very early, or legendary, Hindu history. Jain canons state that Rishabhanatha, the first tirthankara, founded the Ikshvaku dynasty, from which 21 other tirthankaras also rose over time. Two tirthankaras – Munisuvrata, the 20th, and Neminatha, the 22nd – belonged to the Harivamsa dynasty.
In Jain tradition, the 20 tirthankaras attained moksha on mount Shikharji, in the present Indian state of Jharkhand. Rishabhanatha attained nirvana on Mount Kailash, presently located in Tibet, close to Indian border, Vasupujya at Champapuri in North Bengal, Neminatha on mount Girnar, Gujarat, and Mahavira, the last tirthankara, at Pawapuri, near modern Patna. Twenty-one of the tirthankaras are said to have attained moksha in the kayotsarga (standing meditation posture), while Rishabhanatha, Neminatha and Mahavira are said to have attained moksha in the Padmasana (lotus position).
List of the 24 tirthankaras
Present cosmic age
In chronological order, the names, emblems and colours of the 24 tirthankaras of this age are mentioned below: Dhanuṣa means "bow", hatha means "hands" and 1 Purva equals 8,400,000 x 8,400,000 or 70,560,000,000,000 years.
|1||Rishabhanatha (Adinatha)||Bull||Golden||500 dhanuṣa||8,400,000 Purva|
|2||Ajitanatha||Elephant||Golden||450 dhanuṣa||7,200,000 Purva|
|3||Sambhavanatha||Horse||Golden||400 dhanuṣa||6,000,000 Purva|
|4||Abhinandananatha||Monkey||Golden||350 dhanuṣa||5,000,000 Purva|
|5||Sumatinatha||Heron||Golden||300 dhanuṣa||4,000,000 Purva|
|6||Padmaprabha||Padma||Red||250 dhanuṣa||3,000,000 Purva|
|7||Suparshvanatha||Swastika||Golden||200 dhanuṣa||2,000,000 Purva|
|8||Chandraprabha||Crescent Moon||White||150 dhanuṣa||1,000,000 Purva|
|9||Pushpadanta (Suvidhinath)||Crocodile or Makara||White||100 dhanuṣa||2,00,000 Purva|
|10||Shitalanatha||Shrivatsa||Golden||90 dhanuṣa||1,00,000 Purva|
|11||Shreyanasanatha||Rhinoceros||Golden||80 dhanuṣa||84,00,000 Years|
|12||Vasupujya||Buffalo||Red||70 dhanusa||72,00,000 Years|
|13||Vimalanatha||Boar||Golden||60 dhanusa||60,00,000 Years|
|14||Anantanatha||Porcupine according to the Digambara
Falcon according to the Śvētāmbara
|Golden||50 dhanuṣa||30,00,000 Years|
|15||Dharmanatha||Vajra||Golden||45 dhanuṣa||10,00,000 Years|
|16||Shantinatha||Antelope or deer||Golden||40 dhanuṣa||1,00,000 Years|
|17||Kunthunatha||Goat||Golden||35 dhanuṣa||95,000 Years|
|18||Aranatha||Nandyavarta or fish||Golden||30 dhanuṣa||84,000 Years|
|19||Māllīnātha||Kalasha||Blue||25 dhanuṣa||55,000 Years|
|20||Munisuvrata||Tortoise||Black||20 dhanuṣa||30,000 Years|
|21||Naminatha||Blue lotus||Golden||15 dhanuṣa||10,000 Years|
|22||Neminatha||Shankha||Black||10 dhanuṣa||1000 Years|
|23||Parshvanatha||Snake||Blue||9 hath||100 Years|
|24||Mahavira||Lion||Golden||7 hath||72 Years|
Next cosmic age
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The 24 tirthankaras of the present age (avasarpinī) are the ones listed above. The names of the next 24, which will be born in utsarpinī age are as follows. [Mentioned in the parentheses is one of the (previous human birth) of that soul.]
- Padmanabha (King Shrenika)
- Surdev (Mahavira's uncle Suparshva)
- Suparshva (King Kaunik's son king Udayin)
- Svamprabh (The ascetic Pottil)
- Sarvanubhuti (Śrāvaka Dridhayadha)
- Devshruti (Kartik's Shreshti)
- Udaynath (Shravak Shamkha)
- Pedhalputra (Shravak Ananda)
- Pottil (Shravak Sunand)
- Shatak (Sharavak Shatak)
- Munivrat (Krishna's mother Devaki)
- Amam (Krishna)
- Shrinishkashay (Satyaki Rudhra also Satyaki of Mahabharata)
- Nishpulak (Krishna's brother Balbhadra also known as Balrama)
- Nirmam (Shravika Sulsa)
- Chitragupta (Krishna's brother's mother Rohini Devi)
- Samadhinath (Revati Gathapatni)
- Samvarnath (Sharavak Shattilak)
- Yashodhar (Rishi Dwipayan)
- Vijay (Karna of Mahabharata)
- Malyadev (Nirgranthaputra or Mallanarada)
- Devachandra (Shravak Ambadh)
- Anantvirya (Shravak Amar)
- Shribhadrakar (Shanak)
A tīrthaṅkara is represented either seated in lotus position (Padmasana) or standing in the meditation in Khadgasana (Kayotsarga) posture. Usually they are depicted seated with their legs crossed in front, the toes of one foot resting close upon the knee of the other, and the right hand lying over the left in the lap. Tirthanakar idols looks similar and are differentiated on the basis of symbol or emblem (Lanchhana) belonging to each tirthanakar except Parshvanatha, statues of Parshvanath have snake crown on head. The first Tirthankara Rishabha can be identified with locks of hair falling on his shoulders. Sometimes Suparshvanath is shown with small snake-hood. The symbols are marked in centre or in the corner of the pedestal of statue. Both sects of Jainism Digambara and Svetambara have different depiction of idols. Digambara images are naked without any beautification whereas Svetambara ones are clothed and decorated with temporary ornaments. The images are often marked with Srivatsa on the chest and Tilaka on fore head. Srivatsa is one of the ashtamangala (auspicious symbol). It can look somewhat like a fleur-de-lis, an endless knot, a flower or diamond-shaped symbol.
In other religions
The first Tirthankara, Rishabhanatha is mentioned in Hindu texts like the Rigveda, Vishnupurana and Bhagwata Purana. The Yajurveda mentions the name of three Tīrthaṅkaras – Ṛiṣhabha, Ajitnātha and Ariṣṭanemi. The Bhāgavata Purāṇa includes legends about the Tirthankaras of Jainism particularly Rishabha. Yoga Vasishta, Chapter 15, Sloka 8 the saying of Rama:
I am not Rama. I have no desire for material things. Like Jina I want to establish peace within myself.
Image of Rishabhanatha, the first Tirthankara, 7th century
Tirthankara statue, late medieval period, The Prince of Wales Museum
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