Tirumala limniace

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Blue Tiger
Blue tiger (Tirumala limniace).jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Nymphalidae
Genus: Tirumala
Species: T. limniace
Binomial name
Tirumala limniace
(Cramer, [1775])
Subspecies

See text

Tirumala limniace - Distribution.png
Synonyms
  • Papilio limniace Cramer, [1775]
  • Danais limniace fruhstorferi van Eecke, 1915
  • Danaida limniace kuchingana Moulton, 1915

The Blue Tiger (Tirumala limniace) is a butterfly found in India that belongs to the crows and tigers, that is, the danaid group of the brush-footed butterfly family. This butterfly shows gregarious migratory behaviour in southern India.

Description[edit]

Upperside black, with bluish-white semihyaline spots and streaks. Fore wing: interspace 1 two streaks, sometimes coalescent, with a spot beyond cell: a streak from base and an outwardly indented spot at its apex; a large oval spot at base of interspace 2, another at base of interspace 3, with a smaller spot beyond it towards termen; five obliquely placed preapical streaks, and somewhat irregular subterminal and terminal series of spots, the latter the smaller. Hind wing: interspaces 1b, 1a, and 1 with streaks from base, double in the latter two, cell with a forked broad streak, the lower branch with a hook, or spur-like slender loop, at base of 4 and 5 a broad elongate streak, and at base of 6 a quadrate spot; beyond these again a number of scattered unequal subterminal and terminal spots.

Underside: basal two-thirds of fore wing dusky black, the apex and hind wing olive-brown; the spots and streaks much as on the upperside, Antennae, head and thorax black, the latter two spotted and streaked with, white; abdomen dusky above, ochraceous spotted with white beneath. Male secondary sex-mark in form 1.[1]

Expanse: 98–106 mm

Life cycle[edit]

Food-plants[edit]

A mimic of the Blue Tiger, Common Mime Papilio clytia form dissimilis, a papilionid

The butterfly larva generally feed on plants of family Asclepiadaceae. The recorded host plants are:

Larva[edit]

Yellowish white; 3rd and 12th segments, each with a pair of fleshy filaments, black and greenish white; each of the segments with four transverse black bars, the second bar on all broader than the others, bifurcated laterally, a yellow longitudinal line on each side; head, feet and claspers spotted with black.[1] The larva is around 1.21 centimetres (0.48 in) in length and weighs around 5 milligrams (0.077 gr) initially, but grows double that size and four times that weight within 48 hours.

Pupa[edit]

"Green with golden scattered spots and beaded dorsal crescent" (Frederic Moore quoted in Bingham)

Range[edit]

South Asia and Southeast Asia.

Subspecies[edit]

Listed alphabetically.[2]

  • T. l. bentenga (Martin, 1910) – Selajar
  • T. l. conjuncta Moore, 1883 – Java, Bali, Kangean, Bawean, Lesser Sunda Is.
  • T. l. exotica (Gmelin, 1790) – United Arab Emirates
  • T. l. ino (Butler, 1871) – Sula
  • T. l. leopardus (Butler, 1866) – Ceylon, India - S.Burma
  • T. l. limniace (Cramer, [1775]) – S.China, Indo-China, Hainan, Taiwan
  • T. l. makassara (Martin, 1910) – S.Sulawesi
  • T. l. orestilla (Fruhstorfer, 1910) – Philippines (Luzon)
  • T. l. vaneeckeni (Bryk, 1937) – Timor, Wetar

Habits[edit]

Congregating with a Common Crow in Kolkata, West Bengal, India

This species migrates extensively during the monsoons in southern India. The migratory populations have been observed to consist nearly entirely of males.[3] It is also known to mud-puddle during migration.[4]

Gallery of life cycle[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Bingham, C. T. (1905) The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Butterflies Vol. 1
  2. ^ Tirumala limniace. funet.fi
  3. ^ Kunte, K. (2005). Species composition, sex-ratios and movement patterns in Danaine butterfly migrations in southern India. Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 102(3):280-286
  4. ^ Mathew, G.; Binoy, C.F. (2002). "Migration of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) in the New Amarambalam Reserve Forest of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve" (PDF). Zoos' Print Journal 17 (8): 844–847. doi:10.11609/jott.zpj.17.8.844-7. 

External links[edit]