Tirumala limniace

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Blue tiger
Blue tiger (Tirumala limniace exoticus).jpg
Blue tiger (Tirumala limniace exoticus) male underside.jpg
underside of male
both in Kerala, India
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Clade: Euarthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Nymphalidae
Genus: Tirumala
Species: T. limniace
Binomial name
Tirumala limniace
(Cramer, [1775])

See text

Tirumala limniace - Distribution.png
  • Papilio limniace Cramer, [1775]
  • Danais limniace fruhstorferi van Eecke, 1915
  • Danaida limniace kuchingana Moulton, 1915

Tirumala limniace, the blue tiger,[1][2] is a butterfly found in South Asia and Southeast Asia[1][2] that belongs to the crows and tigers, that is, the danaid group of the brush-footed butterfly family. This butterfly shows gregarious migratory behaviour in southern India.


Upperside black, with bluish-white semihyaline spots and streaks. Forewing: interspace 1 two streaks, sometimes coalescent, with a spot beyond cell: a streak from base and an outwardly indented spot at its apex; a large oval spot at base of interspace 2, another at base of interspace 3, with a smaller spot beyond it towards termen; five obliquely placed preapical streaks, and somewhat irregular subterminal and terminal series of spots, the latter the smaller. Hindwing: interspaces 1b, 1a, and 1 with streaks from base, double in the latter two, cell with a forked broad streak, the lower branch with a hook, or spur-like slender loop, at base of 4 and 5 a broad elongate streak, and at base of 6 a quadrate spot; beyond these again a number of scattered unequal subterminal and terminal spots.[3]

Underside: basal two-thirds of forewing dusky black, the apex and hindwing olive brown; the spots and streaks much as on the upperside, Antennae, head and thorax black, the latter two spotted and streaked with, white; abdomen dusky above, ochraceous spotted with white beneath. Male secondary sex-mark in form 1.[3][4]

Wingspan 98–106 mm.

Life cycle[edit]

Food plants[edit]

The butterfly larva generally feed on plants of family Asclepiadaceae. The recorded host plants are:


Yellowish white; 3rd and 12th segments, each with a pair of fleshy filaments, black and greenish white; each of the segments with four transverse black bars, the second bar on all broader than the others, bifurcated laterally, a yellow longitudinal line on each side; head, feet and claspers spotted with black.[3] The larva is around 1.21 centimetres (0.48 in) in length and weighs around 5 milligrams (0.077 gr) initially, but grows double that size and four times that weight within 48 hours.


"Green with golden scattered spots and beaded dorsal crescent". (Frederic Moore quoted in Bingham)[3]


South Asia and Southeast Asia.[1][2]


Listed alphabetically:[2]

  • T. l. bentenga (Martin, 1910) – Selajar
  • T. l. conjuncta Moore, 1883 – Java, Bali, Kangean, Bawean, Lesser Sunda Islands
  • T. l. exotica (Gmelin, 1790) – United Arab Emirates
  • T. l. ino (Butler, 1871) – Sula
  • T. l. leopardus (Butler, 1866) – Ceylon, India - southern Burma
  • T. l. limniace (Cramer, [1775]) – southern China, Indochina, Hainan, Taiwan
  • T. l. makassara (Martin, 1910) – southern Sulawesi
  • T. l. orestilla (Fruhstorfer, 1910) – Philippines (Luzon)
  • T. l. vaneeckeni (Bryk, 1937) – Timor, Wetar


This species migrates extensively during the monsoons in southern India. The migratory populations have been observed to consist nearly entirely of males.[5] It is also known to mud-puddle during migration.[6]

Gallery of life cycle[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c R.K., Varshney; Smetacek, Peter (2015). A Synoptic Catalogue of the Butterflies of India. New Delhi: Butterfly Research Centre, Bhimtal & Indinov Publishing, New Delhi. doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.3966.2164. ISBN 978-81-929826-4-9. 
  2. ^ a b c d Savela, Markku. "Tirumala Moore, [1880] Blue Tigers". Lepidoptera Perhoset Butterflies and Moths. 
  3. ^ a b c d e One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a work now in the public domain: Bingham, Charles Thomas (1907). Fauna of British India. Butterflies Vol. 2. Taylor & Francis. p. 16. 
  4. ^ One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a work now in the public domain: Moore, Frederic (1890–1892). Lepidoptera Indica. Vol. I. London: Lovell Reeve and Co. pp. 30–33. 
  5. ^ Kunte, K. (2005). Species composition, sex-ratios and movement patterns in Danaine butterfly migrations in southern India. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 102(3):280-286
  6. ^ Mathew, G.; Binoy, C.F. (2002). "Migration of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) in the New Amarambalam Reserve Forest of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve" (PDF). Zoos' Print Journal. 17 (8): 844–847. doi:10.11609/jott.zpj.17.8.844-7. 

External links[edit]