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Spiritual Capital of Andhra Pradesh
Clockwise from top: Tirumala Venkateswara Temple, Tirumala ghat road, City skyline and Chandragiri fort
Clockwise from top: Tirumala Venkateswara Temple, Tirumala ghat road, City skyline and Chandragiri fort
Tirupati is located in Andhra Pradesh
Location in Andhra Pradesh, India
Coordinates: 13°39′N 79°25′E / 13.65°N 79.42°E / 13.65; 79.42Coordinates: 13°39′N 79°25′E / 13.65°N 79.42°E / 13.65; 79.42
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
Region Rayalaseema
District Chittoor
Municipality 1 April 1886[1]
Municipal corporation 2 March 2007
Boroughs 4 SuburbsTirumala, Tiruchanur, Renigunta, Chandragiri
 • Type Municipal Corporation
 • Body Tirupati Municipal Corporation (MCT)
 • MLA M.Suguna (Telugu Desam Party)
 • MP Varaprasad Rao Velagapalli
 • Municipal Commissioner Vinay Chand[2]
 • City 24.00 km2 (9.27 sq mi)
Population (2011)[4]
 • City 287,482
 • Rank 156th (India)
9th (Andhra Pradesh)
 • Density 12,000/km2 (31,000/sq mi)
 • Metro[5] 461,900
 • Official Telugu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 517501
Telephone code +91–877
Vehicle registration AP 03
Website Tirupati Mucnicipal Corporation

Tirupati is a city in Chittoor district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is a municipal corporation and the headquarters of Tirupati (urban) mandal, and of the Tirupati revenue division.[7] As of 2011 census, it had a population of 287,035, making it the ninth most populous city in Andhra Pradesh.[4] It is the seventh most urban agglomerated city in the state, with a population of 459,985.[5] Tirupati is considered one of the holiest Hindu pilgrimage sites because of Tirumala Venkateswara Temple, besides other historical temples, and is referred to as the "Spiritual Capital of Andhra Pradesh".[8]

Tirupati is also home to many educational institutions and universities. For the year 2012-13, India's Ministry of Tourism named Tirupati as the "Best Heritage City".[9]


The word Tirupati is said to have been derived been from Tripathi. Tri is a sanskrit word referring to Lord of Tripathy of the sacred hill. In Tamil translation, Thiru means Sacred and also referred to as Goddess Lakshmi and Pathi means Husband. So, it is known as the Sacred abode of Vishnu. Malayalam manuscripts of 1802 referred as Tripati and Teeropaty.[10] Tirupati is sometimes referred to as Lower Tirupati, and nearby Tirumala as Upper Tirupati.[10]


Ancient History[edit]

Tirumala (Upper Tirupati)

According to Varaha Purana, during Treta Yugam, Lord Sri Rama resided here along with Sita Devi and Lakshmana on his return from Lankapuri.[11]

The town was an established center of Vaishnavism around the 5th century A.D. during which it was praised by Alvars. The temple rites were formalized by the Vaishnavite saint Ramanujacharya in the 11th century AD.[12][13] Tirupati survived the Muslim and British invasions. During the Muslim invasion of South India, the deity of Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, Srirangam was brought to Tirupati for safekeeping.

The temple was built and upgraded in parts by various kingdoms. The inscriptions in the temple were found in Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu and Kannada languages of which majority are in Tamil followed by Telugu , Kannada and Sanskrit[14][15] which specify the contributions of the Pallava Kingdom around the 9th century AD, Chola Kingdom around the 10th century AD and the Vijayanagara Empire in the 14th century AD.[16] During the 15th century, Sri Tallapaka Annamacharya sung many songs in praise of the holy town in Telugu. He compared it to be divine, including the rocks, streams, trees, animals, and adds that it is heaven on the earth. One example of such a song is:[17]

kaTTedura vaikunTamu kANAchaina konDa
teTTalAya mahimalE tirumala konDa ||
vEdamulE Silalai velasinadi konDa
yEdesa puNya rAsulE yErulainadi konDa
gAdili brahmAdi lOkamula konalu konDa
Sree dEvuDunDETi SEshAdri konDa ||

Tirupati (Lower Tirupati)

Sri Govindaraja Swamy Temple Galigopuram in Tirupati

There was no human settlement at Lower Tirupati until 1500 year. With the growing importance of Upper TIrupati a village is formed at the present day Kapilatheertham Road area and was named as "kotturu" . It was later shifted to the vicinity of Govinda Raja Swamy Temple which was consecrated around the year 1130 CE. Later the village was grown into its present-day form around Govindaraja Swamy Temple which is now the heart of the city.[10]

Modern History[edit]

In 1932, Tirumala Venkateswara Temple was handed over to Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams by the TTD Act of 1932. In 2006, Tirupati Urban Development Authority(TUDA) and TTD together conducted "Tirupati Utsavam" which focused on the history of development of Tirupati town, kings who visited Tirumala and their contribution for development of the temple.[18] The fourth World Telugu Conference, a conference for furtherance of Telugu language, was conducted at Tirupati during December, 2012 for three days.[19]



Tirupati is located at 13°39′N 79°25′E / 13.65°N 79.42°E / 13.65; 79.42 in the Chittoor District of South Indian State of Andhra Pradesh. It lies at the foot of Seshachalam Hills of Eastern Ghats which were formed during Precambrian era.One of its suburbTirumala which is the home to Sri Venkateswara Temple is also located within the hills. Tirupati Urban agglomeration includes Tirupati(City) and its suburbs Tirumala, Tiruchanur, Chandragiri, Renigunta. Tirupati is surrounded by Srikalahasti towards east, Puttur towards South, Poothalapattu towards west and Seshachalam hills towards North.

A board in Tirumala hills briefing details of Eparchaean Unconformity


At 12 km point on the Tirupati - Tirumala Ghat road, there is a major discontinuity of stratigraphic significance that represents a period of remarkable serenity in the geological history of the Earth. This is referred to as Eparchaean Unconformity. This Unconformity separates the Proterozoic Nagari Quartazite and Archean granite representing a time gap of 800 Ma.[20] In 2001, the Geological Survey of India(GSI) declared the Eparchaean Unconfirmity to be one of the 26 "Geological Monuments of India".

Silathoranam, a Natural arch and a distinctive geological wonder is located in Tirumala Hills at a distance of 1 km from Tirumala Venkateswara Temple. The Arch measures 8 metres in width and 3 metres in height and is curved out of quartizite of Cuddapah Supergroup of Middle to Upper Proterozoic(1600 to 570 Ma) by waethering agents like water and wind.[21]

Flora and Fauna[edit]

Sri Venkateswara National Park[22]

Sri Venkateswara National Park is a national park and biosphere reserve which is part of Seshachalam Hills. The total area of the park is 353 km2. The park is home for about 1,500 vascular plant species belonging to 174 families. Some of the rare and endemic plant species like red sanders, Shorea talura, Shorea thumburggaia, Terminalia pallida, sandalwood, Syzygium alternifolium, Psilotum nudum occur in this region. Cycas beddomei is a species of cycad in the genus Cycas is found only in the Tirumala Hills.About 178 species of birds from this national park have been identified which includes the globally threatened yellow-throated bulbul, Pompadour green pigeon, critically endangered Oriental white-backed vulture, large hawk-cuckoo, blue-faced malkoha, yellow-browed bulbul, Indian scimitar-babbler and Loten's sunbird. Among predators the leopard is quite common, along with the wild dog. Among reptiles, the most interesting species is the gliding lizard, found in some deep forested valleys. Another important reptile of this national park is the golden gecko.

Sri Venkateswara Zoological Park [23]

Established in 1987, Tirupati Zoo or Sri Venkateswara Zoological Park is a zoo located at Tirupati and is Asia's Second largest Zoo with an area of 5500 acres. It is built on the concept of Hindhu Mythology. It exhibits only animals that are mentioned in our ancient epics like Ramayana, Mahabharatha, Panchatantra. The enclosures are also named based on Indian Mythology. It hosts wide range of animals, Reptiles and Birds like Deers, Monkeys, Lions, Tigers, Bears, Elephants, Peafowl, Grey pelican, Marsh crocodile, Starred tortoise etc.

Sri Venkateswara Gosamrakshana shala

It is home for Cattle received as a donation(Godanam). It was established in the year 1956 by TTD and later renamed to S.V. Gosamrakshana Shala during 2004. It is located at Chandragiri Road, Tirupati. It is maintained by Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams based on the funds received under Sri Venkateswara Gosamrakshana Shala Trust. Activities of the Trust includes providing good environment, management, feeding to the Cattle. The milk and its products produced here are being used by TTD for daily rituals at Sri Venkateswara Temple and other TTD Temples.[24]


Monsoon remains moderate and summer experiences temperatures ranging from 35 to 40 degrees Celsius. In winter the minimum temperatures will be between 18 and 20 degrees Celsius. Usually summer lasts from March to June, with the advent of rainy season in July, followed by winter which lasts till the end of February.The city experiences maximum rainfall in November during northeast monsoon season.

Climate data for Tirupati, India
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29.9
Average low °C (°F) 18.7
Average precipitation mm (inches) 17.9
Source: Indian Meteorological Department[25]


As of 2011 Census of India, the city had a population of 287,035. The total population constitute, 145,977 males and 141,058 females — a sex ratio of 966 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 940 per 1000.[26] 24,643 children are in the age group of 0–6 years, of which 12, 869 are boys and 11,744 are girls. The average literacy rate stands at 87.55% (male 92.74%; female 82.21%), significantly higher than the national average of 73%.[4][27] The Urban agglomeration had a population of 459,985, of which males constitute 231,456, females constitute 228,529 — a sex ratio of 987 females per 1000 males and 41,589 children are in the age group of 0–6 years. There are a total of 356,558 literates with an average literacy rate of 85.22%.[5]

Telugu is the official language while Tamil is also spoken due to the large number of visiting pilgrims.[28] Hinduism is the major religion and most of the temples in Tirupati are of Dravidian architecture.



The city celebrates all major Hindu festivals including Sankranti, Ugadi, Maha Shivaratri, Ganesh Chaturthi, Deepavali, Rama Navami, Kartik Poornima etc., with great splendour. While, Sri Venkateswara Brahmotsavams, a nine-day event, which is celebrated every year during months of September and October, is the most important festival in Tirupati. During brahmotsavams the processional deity Malayappa of Venkateswara Temple, Tirumala, along with his consorts SriDevi and BhuDevi, is taken in a procession in four mada streets around the temple on different Vahanams. Vahanams include Dwajarohanam, Pedda Sesha Vahanam, Chinna Sesha Vahanam, Hamsa Vahanam, Simha Vahanam, Muthaypu pandiri Vahanam, Kalpavriksha Vahanam, Sarava Bhoopala Vahanam, Mohini Avataram, Garuda Vahanam, Hanumantha Vahanam, Swarna Rathotsavam(Golden Chariot, Gajavahanam, Rathotsavam(Chariot), Ashwa Vahanam, Chakra Snanam. During Brahmotsavams, The temple will witness lakhs of devotees particularly on Garuda vahanam.[29] Vaikunta Ekadasi, the day on which it is believed that Vaikunta Dwarams will be opened and the most important Vasihnavite festival, is celebrated in Tirumala with grandeur.[30] Rathasapthami is another festival, celebrated during February, when Lord Venkateswara's processional deity, (Malayappa) is taken in a procession around the temple on seven different vahanas from early morning to late night.[31] Tirupati also celebrates a carnival named as Tirupati Ganga Jatara, held during second week of May every year. This is a week long festival where Goddess Gangamma (Grama Devatha) is worshiped.[32] The tank behind the temple of Padmavathi Temple, Tiruchanur has Padma Pushkarini, where Chakra Snanam will be held on last day of Annual Padmavathi Brahmotsavams (Panchami Teertham) which will witness lakhs of Devotees taking a dip in the holy waters.[33] Sri Krishna janmastami also known as Gokulashtami is celebrated with great fervor at Tirupati. The Lotus Temple belonging to International Society for Krishna Consciousness(ISKCON) will be illuminated with lamps and paintings displaying themes from Srimad Bhagavatham. The celebrations include offering prayers to Sri Krishna, Utlotsavam, Annamayya Kirtana alapana, Geetha Parayanam etc. On this day 'Gokulashtami Asthanam' will be held at Tirumala Venkateswara Temple. TTD will also celebrate the janmastami at Sri Venkateswara Gosamrakshana Shala where prayers will be offered to cows, horses and elephants.[34][35] The Maha Shivaratri and Kartik Poornima are the most auspicious occasions celebrated in Kapila Theertham.[36]


Tirupati is known for world famous Tirupati Laddu. It is the prasadam at Venkateswara Temple, Tirumala. Tirupati Laddu had got Geographical indication tag which entitles only Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams to make or sell it.[37][38]

Arts, crafts and architecture

Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams established Sri Venkateswara Musueum, one at Tirumala and the other at Tirupati. It has a wonderful collection of Tirupati temple architecture and historical artefacts, such as ancient weaponry, pooja items and idols. It has a comprehensive photo gallery that gives a unique insight into the Tirupati region's culture and traditions. It also boasts a meditation centre.[39] In 1988-89 Archaeological Survey of India had established an Archaeological Museum in the Chandragiri fort at Chandragiri. It exhibits rich collection of stone and metal sculptures of Hindu gods and other cultural vestiges retrieved from other historical places like Gudimallam, Gandikota and Yaganti. It also includes galleries for medieval weaponry swords and daggers, coins and paper documents.[40]


Religious sites[edit]

Ananda Nilayam Vimanam, Venkateswara Temple, Tirumala
Padma Temple tank and Sri Padmavathi Temple (background), Tiruchanur, Tirupati

Tirumala Venkateswara Temple is one of the world‍ '​s richest and famous Vaishnavite temple dedicated to Lord Venkateswara.[41] The temple is situated at an elevation of 853 metres on Tirumala Hills of Seshachalam Hill ranges. It is believed to be as old as 300 BC.[citation needed] The temple is visited by about 50,000 to 100,000 pilgrims daily (30 to 40 million people annually on average), while on special occasions and festivals, like the annual Brahmotsavam, the number of pilgrims shoots up to 500,000, making it the most-visited holy place in the world.[42]

Beside Venkateswara Temple the city is known for many other ancient Temples. Padmavathi Temple at Tiruchanur is the temple dedicated to Goddess Alamelu (Padmavathi) or Alamelumanga, the wife of Lord Venkateswara. Tiruchanur, a suburb of Tirupati is at a distance of 5 km. There is also a temple dedicated to Lord Surya Narayana in front of Pushkarini. "Govindaraja Temple" is the temple dedicated to Sri Govindaraja Swamy who is believed to be brother of Lord Venkateswara. The temple was consecrated in the year 1130 AD by Vaishnavite, Saint Ramanujacharya. Before Sri Govindaraja Swamy, Sri Parthasarathy Swamy was the presiding deity of the temple. The temple was situated at the heart of the city. It has tall seven storied outer Gopuram with 11 kalasas and dated back to 14-15th century. This temple is one of the huge temples in Chittoor district.[43]

Kapila Theertham Water falls from Seshachalam Hills during November 2015 with Kapileswara Temple towards right

"Kapila Theertham" is the holy water falls in Tirupati named after Kapila Muni. It hosts Kapileswara Temple which is dedicated to Lord Shiva and the deity is referred to as Kapileswara. The water falls directly fall from the hill rocks into the pond opposite to the temple. The temple and the falls are considered highly devotional. The greatness of the temple deity was found in the Kulothunga Chola Inscriptions of the 10th century. The temple is under the administration of Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams. "Thathayyagunta Gangamma Temple" is the temple dedicated to Goddess Gangamma, Gramadevata of Tirupati. The temple is one of the ancient and is at the heart of the ciy. Tirupati Ganga Jatara celebrated every year in the month of may is the most auspiciuos occasion celebrated in this temple. Other famous temples in Tirupati include "Sri Kodandarama Swamy Temple", "Sri Kalyana Venkateswara Swamy Temple", "Alipiri Padala mandapam", ISKCON "Hare Krishna Temple".

Chandragiri Fort[edit]

Chandragiri Fort is the historical Fort located at Chandragiri, a suburb of Tirupati. The fort complex which was built in 11th Century in Indo-Sarcen style includes Rajmahal, Rani mahal, compund wall, ponds etc. The fort was constructed using stone, brick, lime mortar and devoid of timber. Chandragiri was the fourth capital of Vijayanagara Empire. At present the Fort open for public and is under the control of Archaeological Survey of India.The Rajmahal is converted into a archaeological museum.[44]

Sri Venkateswara Zoological Park which is the second largest zoo park in Asia, Regional Science centre are the places known in and around the city.[45][46]


Tirupati Assembly constituency is one of the 175 assembly constituencies of Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly, India. Tirupati is part of Tirupati (Lok Sabha constituency). Varaprasad Rao Velagapalli of YSR Congress Party is the sitting Member of Parliament for Tirupati (Lok Sabha constituency) and M Suguna of Telugu Desam Party is the sitting Member of Legislative Assembly for Tirupati (Assembly constituency).[47]

Civic administration[edit]

Tirupati Municipal Corporation[edit]

Tirupati Municipal Corporation (TMC) oversees the administration of the city. Tirupati was constituted as a municipality on 1 April 1886; it was upgraded to a second grade municipality on 1 October 1962, to a first grade municipality on 12 December 1965, to special grade municipality on 13 February 1970, and to selection grade municipality on 7 October 1998. Tirupati Municipality was upgraded to a municipal corporation on 2 March 2007. The area of the municipal corporation at the time of formation was 16.59 square kilometres (6.41 sq mi).[48] The area was expanded in July 2013 to 24 square kilometres (9.3 sq mi).[citation needed]

Tirupati Urban Development Authority[edit]

Tirupati Urban Development Authority (TUDA) is the urban planning authority. It was constituted in the year 1981, with Tirupati town and 89 villages under its jurisdiction. In 2008, it included Srikalahasti, Puttur and 69 surrounding villages. At present TUDA covers an area of 1,211.51 km2 (467.77 sq mi).[49]

Utility services[edit]

Electricity to the city is distributed by Andhra Pradesh Southern Power Distribution Limited (APSPDCL), headquartered at Tirupati.[50] The city mostly depends on groundwater for its needs,[51] though it also gets water from Telugu Ganga canal and Kalyani dam.[52] There are five dams in the vicinity: Kalyani Dam, Papavinasanam Dam, Gogurbham Dam, Pasupudara Dam, Kumaradara Dam, Akasa Ganga.[53] all in the Tirumala Hill ranges. Of these dams Papavinasanam, Gogurbham, Pasupudara, kumaradara, and Akasa Ganga completely cater the water needs of Tirumala and Venkateswara Temple while 49% of Kalyani Dam water is being supplied to Tirumala and remaining water will be supplied to Tirupati.[53][54]

Tirupati fals under the Tirupati Telecom District of the Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited.[55] BSNL is planning to establish 27 Wi-Fi hotspots in the city.[55] The city also had a Regional Passport Seva Kendra(PSK).[56] PSK-Tirupati will cover Prakasam, Nellore, Chittoor, Kadapa, Kurnool and Anantapur districts of Andhra Pradesh and will come under Hyderabad Passport Office.[56]

According to the National Urban Sanitation Policy, the city was ranked 117th in the country in 2009–10, with a total of 39.363 points.[57] As a part of 'Swachh Tirupati', Tirupati Municipal Corporation has started household waste segregation programme.[58] As of May 2015, 150 Tonnes of waste is being collected per day from households within the municipal limits.[58]

Public health[edit]

Tirupati is a medical hub with major hospitals situated in its vicinity. Many of these are either run under State government or run/funded by Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams (TTD).

Sri Venkateswara Ram Narayan Ruia government hospital(SVRR) is one of the largest in the state of Andhra Pradesh, and the main government hospital for the Rayalaseema region. It is started in the year 1962 with a donation of Rs.5 lakhs from Sri Radha Krishna N. Ruia and 15 lakhs from Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams. At present it has 750 beds.[59] Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences(SVIMS) is another major medical institute, founded in 1986.[60]

Balaji Institute of Surgery, Research and Rehabilitation(BIRRD) for the Disabled has 250 beds; it was established in 1985 by TTD to treat patients suffering from polio myelitis, cerebral palsy, congenital anomalies, spinal injuries, and the orthopaedically handicapped. A non-profit organisation, it is run with funds from Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams and donations from the public.[61] Government Maternity Hospital(GMH) in Tirupati is the largest maternity hospital in the state of Andhra pradesh in terms of number of deliveries.[62] Established 50 years ago, GMH is thronged by Pregnant woman from Chittoor, YSR kadapa, Nellore, Anantapur districts of Andhra Pradesh and few areas of Tamil Nadu.[62] GMH bagged "Best hospital award" under "sterilization and institutional deliveries category" from the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare for the year 2013.[62] Aswini Hospital in Tirumala is a general hospital in Tirumala maintained by TTD.

Public safety[edit]

Sapthagiri Security Zone at Alipiri-Tirupati

Tirupati has the status of Urban Police District; it has 25 police stations.[63] Tirupati temple was deployed with 100 Octopus (Organisation For Counter Terrorist Operations) commandos to look over its security. This was formed by Government of Andhra Pradesh in the year 2012. The elite commando force has been specially trained for in house intervention, hostage rescue and Israeli combat technique Krav Maga.[64]

At Alipiri, security zone was established to screen vehicles and pilgrims entering Tirumala, to safeguard the hills from terrorists and anti-social elements.[65] To assure more safety in Tirumala-Tirupati, the government of Andhra Pradesh started a project called "Safe City-Tirupati": the Tirupati temple and the city will be placed under 24*7 CCTV surveillace with 3000 CCTV cameras, monitored from acommand-and-control centre. Baggage scanners and Explosive detectors are installed at several places.[66]


Tourism is the major industry in Tirupati.[67][68][69] Entire economy is directly or indirectly depends on Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams(TTD). TTD is headquartered at Tirupati. Established in 1932, TTD is an independent Trust which manages Tirumala Venkateswara Temple and other temples in Tirupati and all over the world. It is also involved in several social activities. Being a major religious tourist destination, Hospitality Industry is also a major industry in Tirupati which includes many 3 star hotels and lodges.[68][69] Andhra Pradesh Southern Power Distribution Company Limited(APSPDCL) is also headquartered at Tirupati. Gandhi Road, Prakasam Road, V.V Mahal Road, AIR Bypass Road are highly commercial areas in the City. Major brands of Automobile, Textile, Mobile, Electrical and Electronic companies have their outlets in Tirupati.[70] APIIC Industrial Park is located at Gajulamandyam, Renigunta. Industries like Sri Venkateswara Cooperative Sugar Factory Limited, AshwiniBio Pharma Ltd and others are situated in this park. Amara Raja factory is located at Karakambadi, Renigunta. Lanco cement factory is located at Eerpedu mandal. The majority of the city residents are employed under TTD.

Sri Venkateswara Mobile & Electronics Manufacturing Hub is planned to be established in Tirupati and a foundation stone had been laid by Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi on 22 October 2015. The Hub is spread over 122 acres (49 ha) Acres out of which Celkon will be established in 20 acres (8.1 ha) acres, Micromax in 15 acres (6.1 ha) acres, Karbonn in 15.28 acres (6.18 ha) acres and Lava in 20 acres (8.1 ha) acres with a total investment of Rupees 2000 crores.[71][72]



Tirupati Central Bus station complex is one of the largest in the state and has three mini bus stands within it based on destinations. Edukondalu Bus station is dedicated for the buses connecting Tirupati and Tirumala, Srinivasa Bus Station is for west-bound destinations and Sri Hari bus station is for east bound destinations.[73] Tirupati Bus station Complex has direct bus services to major towns across South India. Balaji Link Bus Station (BLBS) is another bus terminal located at Alipiri for buses only to Tirumala.[74] A number of buses are operated by government operator APSRTC and private operators connecting Tirupati to other major cities and towns such as Vijayawada, Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabad, Visakhapatnam etc. Due to its close proximity with Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, buses from KSRTC, TNSTC and SETC also operate to Tirupati. APSRTC runs express buses, popularly known as 'Sapthagiri Express', from Tirumala to Tirupati and other major destinations around the city.[75] Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams runs free buses from railway station and Central bus stand to Alipiri for pilgrims.

National Highways NH71 from Madanapalli, NH140 from Puthalapattu, NH716 from Chennai Terminates at Tirupati. Recently the Section(SH61) between Naidupet and Tirupati is given National Highway Status. There is a proposal for a new National Highway between Renigunta, Andhra Pradesh and Sironcha, Maharastra.[76] Constructed one in 1944 and the other in 1974, there are two all-weather, asphalt Ghat Roads between Tirupati and Tirumala.[74] There is a total of 290 km of Roads within the Tirupati Municipal Corporation Limits.[77]

Tirumala foot steps

There are two footpaths from Tirupati to Tirumala. These paths are called Sopanamargas and are mostly used by pilgrims. The first (and oldest) path starts from Alipiri and has 3550 steps, totaling 11 km. At Alipiri there is a temple dedicated to Lord Venkateswara called Padalamandapam. There are four Gopurams (temple towers) along the way. The other path, called Sri Vari Mettu starts from Srinivasa Mangapuram and is 6 km long. Both paths are completely roofed and pass through seven hills (part of Seshachalam Hills).[78][79]


Tirupati Main is under the jurisdiction of Guntakal railway division of South Central Railway zone.[80] It is also connected to Chennai Suburban Railway's North Line.[citation needed] Renigunta Junction which lies on the Chennai - Mumbai rail corridor is 15 km away from Tirupati main station. Other stations in the city include Chandragiri, Tirupati West Halt, Tiruchanur.


Tirupati Airport is located 15 km from the city center and has regular flights to Coimbatore, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Mumbai, New Delhi, Vijayawada and Visakhapatnam. The closest international airport is Chennai International Airport which is 130 km (81 mi) from Tirupati. Tirupati Airport is being upgraded to international airport. The new Terminal was inaugurated on 22 October 2015 by Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi.[81]


Tirupati is a major educational hub in Andhra Pradesh. There are several peculiar universities and colleges including state government and Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanam sponsored medical, pharmacy, agricultural and engineering colleges in the city. Majority of them are named after presiding deity of Tirupati temple, Lord Venkateswara and his concert Goddess Padmavati.

Universities and Colleges

  • Sri Venkateswara University established in 1954.
    Sri Venkateswara University Main Entrance, Tirupati
  • Sri Padmavati Mahila Visvavidyalayam is a dedicated women's university situated in Tirupati.
  • Medical colleges include Sri Venkateswara Medical College, and Sri Padmavathi Medical College for Women.[82] Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences(SVIMS) is also a medical institute noted for conducting various DM, MCh, MD courses.
  • Sri Venkateswara Vedic University to preserve, foster and promote oral traditions of Vedic, Agamic and Cognate Literature, with focus on right intonations.[83]
  • Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, a University established for higher learning in Sanskrit studies, Traditional Sastras and Pedagogy.[84]
  • Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University to strengthen education and services in the fields of Veterinary Science, Dairy Technology and Fishery Science in the State of Andhra Pradesh.[85]
  • Sri Venkateswara Institute of Traditional Sculpture and Architecture (SVITSA) run by TTD is one of the two institutions in India offering courses in traditional sculpture and architecture to students. Seven different Diploma Courses are offered in subjects such as Temple Architecture, Stone Sculpture, Sudai Sculpture, Metal Sculpture, Wood Sculpture, Traditional Painting and Traditional Kalamkari Art.[86]
  • Indian Institute of Technology Tirupati (IIT Tirupati) is set to start classes from 5th, August, 2015.[87]

The city is set to get an culinary institute sponsored by the Ministry of Tourism (India) and Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research(IISER) which were allotted by Government of India to the state of Andhra Pradesh.[88]


  • Sri Venkateswara Medical College, Tirupati is selected for establishment of Multidisciplinary Research Units (MRUs),Model rural Health Research Units (MRHRU) by The Indian Council of Medical Research(ICMR).[89]
  • Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences(SVIMS), Tirupati is selected for establishment of college level Viral Diagnostic Research Labs[89]
  • A sub-centre for All India Coordinated Research Project(AICRP) on groundnut is established at the Regional Agricultural Research Station(RARS), Tirupati to conduct research activities on new high. The research will help to meet the needs of the country’s 100 arid districts which receive less than 500 mm rainfall. RARS has so far developed 12 groundnut varieties.[90]
  • A research centre for indigenous Cows had been established by TTD at its Diary form named Sri Venkateswara Gosamrakshanashala. The purpose of the Research centre is to protect the indigenous Cows and also to share the rare breeds among similar organisations. The Gosamrakshanashala already had distinctive high-worth breeds like Ongole breed of cows, while it is also trying to gather Sahiwal breed of cows from Punjab, Gir cows of Gujarat to the Centre, Tharparker and Kankrej cows from karnataka.[91]


Sri Venkateswara Bhakti Channel(SVBC), the first 24-hour Telugu devotional channel dedicated to broadcast Hindu devotional programmes and live telecasts of poojas performed at Tirumala Venkateswara Temple, is being Telecasted from Tirupati. Started in 1949, Sapthagiri is a spiritual monthly magazine based at Tirupati and is published in Telugu, Sanskrit, Hindi, English, Tamil and Kannada languages.[92] Both SVBC channel and Sapthagiri Magazine are run by Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams.[93] Telugu newspapers – Andhra Bhoomi, Saakshi, Eenadu, Vaartha, Andhra Jyothi, Andhra Prabha, Tamil newspapers - Dinamalar, Dinakaran, Daily Thanthi and English newspapers – Deccan Chronicle, The Hindu, Indian Express, Times of India, The Hans India are available in the city. Tirupati has All India Radio station and is served by FM stations like 92.7 Big FM, 93.5 Red FM.

See also[edit]


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External links[edit]