Tirupperunturai

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Avudaiyarkoil
Avk-1.jpg
Tirupperunturai is located in Tamil Nadu
Tirupperunturai
Location in Tamil Nadu
Geography
Coordinates 10°05′N 78°35′E / 10.09°N 78.59°E / 10.09; 78.59Coordinates: 10°05′N 78°35′E / 10.09°N 78.59°E / 10.09; 78.59
Country India
State Tamil Nadu
District Pudukkottai
Location India
Culture
Sanctum Athmanathar(Shiva)
Architecture
Architecture Dravidian architecture

Tirupperunthurai (also called the Athmanathaswamy temple) is located in Avudaiyarkoil.[1][2][3][4][5] It is a Shaiva temple situated near Aranthangi in the Pudukkottai district of Tamil Nadu. One of the sacred books of Tamil Saiva Siddhanta, Manikkavacakar's Tiruvacakam, originated from this shrine. Manikkavacakar is said to have converted the king to the religion of Shiva and built the temple with money that had been intended for war-horses.[6]

Legend[edit]

The temple is supposed to have been built by Manickavasagar. Being the prime minister, he spent all the money given to him by the Varaguna Pandya II king to buy horses in building the temple.[7] As he was bereft of money, Shiva displayed one of his Thiruvilayadal(holy prank) by transforming foxes to horses and once they were given to the king became foxes.[8]

Architecture[edit]

The presiding deity is formless (Atmanatar); there is no Shivalingam but only a pedestal {Avudayar} located in the sanctum, hence the name Avudayar Koil.[9] His consort is worshipped as Siva Yoga Nayaki (Yogambal) in iconless form. There is no Nandi bull icon. The God faces South in this temple ( Dakshinamurthy or Guru form). There is deep spiritual significance in the queerness. Hinduism allows deity worship only for beginners in the initial stage. As the devotee and his devotion matures, he has to realise the truth of formless. To illustrate the theology, the temple has been designed. This is the only Saivite shrine in whole of India to portray the supreme truth symbolically. Since the soul(athma) has no form, the deity is called Athmanathar.[10] There are multiple halls in the temple that has exquisite carvings. Some of the notable halls are Panchakasra Mandapam, Natana Sabha, Deva Sabha, each of which is named after Shaivite theological terms. There are five lamps in the sanctum indicating the five time scales and 27 lamps indicating the 27 stars.[8]

The temple is noted for the zephyr(granite) roof work. The ceiling of the Kanga sabhai(golden hall) is a grandeur creation in stone. The ropes, rafters and nails all are made of granite.[11] The bow wielding Muruga, Kali and Siva's rudra thandavam(wild dance) are the finest specimen in sculptural art.

The composite columns of Virabhadra holding sword and horn are found be additions of the Vijayanayagara kings during the early 1500s. Similar columns of Virabhadra are found in Adikesava Perumal Temple at Thiruvattaru, Meenakshi Temple at Madurai, Nellaiappar Temple at Tirunelveli, Kasi Viswanathar temple at Tenkasi, Krishnapuram Venkatachalapathy temple, Ramanathaswamy Temple at Rameswaram, Soundararajaperumal temple at Thadikombu, Srivilliputhur Andal temple, Srivaikuntanathan Permual temple at Srivaikuntam, Vaishnava Nambi and Thirukurungudivalli Nachiar temple at Thirukkurungudi.[12]

Many renovations have been carried out, much of the current structure dates to the fifteenth CCE. The temple covers an area of over 10 acres (40,000 m2) and faces south, constructed so that the setting sun strikes the sanctum even though it is cloistered within three circumambulatory paths. The thousand pillared hall has several delicately crafted pillars with depictions of the Oordhwa Tandavam of Shiva, Kaaraikkaal Ammaiyaar, Dhanurdhara Subramanya, etc.

Administration[edit]

As at Chidambaram and Tiruvanaikoil, here Vedic rituals are performed, unlike the Sivachariyar or Adhisaivar temples who follow Agama rituals. In this case the temple is administered by Nambiar Brahmins – a class of Vaideeka Brahmins said to be descendants of Rowshayadana, a saint who originated from Agni, and were taught the Vedas by Atmanatar himself. They are said to number three hundred and are also called Munnothioruvar. This agnivesha is also famous author of a magnificent ancient medical treatise called agnivesha kalpasutra spanning 77000 verses that discusses treatment for many types of diseases and medicines. They are said to number three hundred and are also called Munnothioruvar.

At Tirupperunthurai, as in Chidambaram temple, Aruvam (அருவம்.. அதாவது உருவமற்ற கடவுள் நிலை) is worshipped. Tirupperunthurai is also known as Kokozhi, Sivapuram, Akasha Kailasham, Vadavoor, Chatur-Veda-Mangalam and Adi Kailasam in Sangam literature and Atheetha Sabha as it has six Sabhas, the Kanaka Sabha, Chit Sabha, Sat Sabha, Ananda Sabha, Ratna Sabha and Deva Sabha in comparison to five Sabhas at Chidambaram. It is believed that Manikkavacakar himself built these six sabhas, and covered the Sabhas with 21600 plates of copper.

History[edit]

Many renovations have been carried out, much of the current structure dates to the fifteenth CCE. The temple covers an area of over 10 acres (40,000 m2) and faces south, constructed so that the setting sun strikes the sanctum even though it is cloistered within three circumambulatory paths. The thousand pillared hall has several delicately crafted pillars with depictions of the Oordhwa Tandavam of Shiva, Kaaraikkaal Ammaiyaar, Dhanurdhara Subramanya etc.

Festival[edit]

The annual festivals celebrated here are Aani Tirumanjanam and Maargazhi Tiruvaadirai as in Chidambaram Nataraja Temple. Worship or Pooja is done six times a day.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "New inscriptions confirm Manickavasagar built temple". thehindu.com. Retrieved 2014-02-03. 
  2. ^ http://tnmaps.tn.nic.in/vill.php?dcode=22&centcode=0009&tlkname=Avudayarkoil%20%20332209
  3. ^ http://pudukkottai.nic.in/taluks-avkoil.htm
  4. ^ http://tnmaps.tn.nic.in/district.php
  5. ^ http://pudukkottai.nic.in/blocks-avkoil.htm
  6. ^ Das, Sisir Kumar; Akademi, Sahitya (1991). A History of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. p. 574. ISBN 81-7201-006-0. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  7. ^ Footprint India.Roma Bradnock
  8. ^ a b V., Meena. Temples in South India. Kanniyakumari: Harikumar Arts. p. 18. 
  9. ^ Smith, David (2003). The Dance of Siva: Religion, Art and Poetry in South India. Cambridge University Press. p. 230. ISBN 0-521-52865-8. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  10. ^ Tourist Guide to Tamil Nadu
  11. ^ Concise classified dictionary of Hinduism.Kodayanallur Vanamamalai Soundara Rajan
  12. ^ Branfoot, Crispin (1 June 2008). "Imperial Frontiers: Building Sacred Space in Sixteenth-Century South India". The Art Bulletin. College Art Association. 90 (2): 186. Retrieved 15 August 2017 – via JSTOR. (Subscription required (help)). 

External links[edit]