Titanium(II) oxide

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Titanium(II) oxide
Titanium(II) oxide
Other names
Titanium monoxide
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.032.020 Edit this at Wikidata
Molar mass 63.866 g/mol
Appearance bronze crystals
Density 4.95 g/cm3
Melting point 1,750 °C (3,180 °F; 2,020 K)
Flash point Non-flammable
Related compounds
Titanium(III) oxide
Titanium(III,IV) oxide
Titanium(IV) oxide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Titanium(II) oxide (TiO) is an inorganic chemical compound of titanium and oxygen. It can be prepared from titanium dioxide and titanium metal at 1500 °C.[1] It is non-stoichiometric in a range TiO0.7 to TiO1.3 and this is caused by vacancies of either Ti or O in the defect rock salt structure.[1] In pure TiO 15% of both Ti and O sites are vacant.[1] Careful annealing can cause ordering of the vacancies producing a monoclinic form which has 5 TiO units in the primitive cell that exhibits lower resistivity.[2] A high temperature form with titanium atoms with trigonal prismatic coordination is also known.[3] Acid solutions of TiO are stable for a short time then decompose to give hydrogen:[1]

2 Ti2+(aq) + 2 H+(aq) → 2 Ti3+(aq) + H2(g)

Gas-phase TiO shows strong bands in the optical spectra of cool (M-type) stars.[4][5] In 2017, TiO was detected in an exoplanet atmosphere for the first time.[6] Additionally, evidence has been obtained for the presence of the diatomic molecule TiO in the interstellar medium.[7]


  1. ^ a b c d Holleman, Arnold Frederik; Wiberg, Egon (2001), Wiberg, Nils (ed.), Inorganic Chemistry, translated by Eagleson, Mary; Brewer, William, San Diego/Berlin: Academic Press/De Gruyter, ISBN 0-12-352651-5
  2. ^ Electrical and Magnetic Properties of TiO and VO, Banus M. D., Reed T. B., Strauss A. J., Phys. Rev. B 5, 2775 - 2784, (1972)doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.5.2775
  3. ^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8.
  4. ^ Jorgensen, Uffe G. (April 1994). "Effects of TiO in stellar atmospheres". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 284 (1): 179–186. Bibcode:1994A&A...284..179J.
  5. ^ http://www.stsci.edu/~inr/ldwarf.html
  6. ^ Sedaghati, Elyar; Boffin, Henri M.J.; MacDonald, Ryan J.; Gandhi, Siddharth; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Gibson, Neale P.; Oshagh, Mahmoudreza; Claret, Antonio; Rauer, Heike (14 September 2017). "Detection of titanium oxide in the atmosphere of a hot Jupiter". Nature. 549 (7671): 238–241. arXiv:1709.04118. Bibcode:2017Natur.549..238S. doi:10.1038/nature23651. PMID 28905896.
  7. ^ Dyck, H. M.; Nordgren, Tyler E. "The effect of TiO absorption on optical and infrared angular diameters of cool stars" Astronomical Journal (2002), 124(1), 541-545. doi:10.1086/341039