The Tiyanak (also Tianak or Tianac) is a vampiric creature in Philippine mythology that takes on the form of a toddler or baby. Although there are various types, it typically takes the form of a newborn baby and cries in the jungle to attract unwary travelers. Once it is picked up by an unfortunate passerby, it reverts to its true form and attacks the victim. The tiyanak is also depicted to take malevolent delight in leading travelers astray, or in abducting children.
Appearance and characteristics
While various legends have slightly different versions of the tiyanak folklore, the stories all agree on its ability to mimic an infant, with its ability to imitate an infant's cries for luring victims. In some legends, the Tiyanak may take the form of a specific child.
- In one version, it retains the general shape of a baby but then forms sharp claws and fangs to attack its victim.
- In another, it shares certain similarities with dwarfs and is similarly associated with the earth. In this version, the "true" form of the tiyanak is that of a little old man with wrinkled skin, a long beard and mustache, a flat nose and eyes the size of peseta coins. The same story says that a tiyanak is relatively immobile because one leg is shorter than the other. This deformity forces it to move by leaping and/or crawling rather than walking, making it difficult to hunt or stalk victims, but its ability to mimic an infant's cry compensates for this disadvantage.
- In yet another story it is seen supernaturally flying through the forest (still in the form of a baby) and in a legend from the island of Mindoro it transforms into a black bird before flying away
- In another version from Central Luzon, especially in Pampanga, the tiyanak are described as small, nut-brown people who don't walk on the ground but rather float on air. They have large noses, wide mouths, large fierce eyes and sharp voices.
- In the Batangas version, the tiyanak are described as regular babies who were lost in the wild. They are believed to be babies who died without a name, aborted or otherwise. It also is said that when the cry of a tiyanak sounds soft, one is actually nearby, and conversely if the cry sounds loud, it is actually distant.
There are various stories on how tiyanaks came to being. The Mandaya people of Mindanao claim that the tiyanak is the spirit of a child whose mother died before giving birth. This caused it to be "born in the ground", thus gaining its current state. A similar supernatural creature in Malay folklore is the Pontianak, which was a woman who died before giving birth.
With the Spanish colonization of the Philippines in the 16th century, the tiyanak myth was integrated into Christianity. The tiyanak in the Christian version were supposedly the souls of infants that died before being baptized. In modern-day Philippines, this definition has extended to that of aborted fetuses that returned from death to seek revenge on those who deprived them of life. It is also said that Tiyanak cannot go to after life because of not having a name. This causes them to be Earth-bound creatures which wander around searching for someone to give them names.
In local belief, various countermeasures are supposedly effective against the tiyanak. Those that were led astray by the creature's cries are believed to be able to break the enchantment by turning their clothes inside out. The tiyanak finds the method humorous enough to let go of the traveler and go back to the jungles. Loud noises such as a New Year's celebration are also thought to be enough to drive the tiyanak away from the vicinity. Objects believed to repel Aswang (vampiric shape-shifters), like garlic and the rosary, are also commonly believed to be effective against the tiyanak. It is also believed that giving a name to these lost souls will bring them peace, and offering a white candle will help guide its spirit to afterlife.
In popular culture
The tiyanak is the subject of many Philippine movies:
- Tianak (1953)
- Tiyanak (1988)
- Juan Tanga, super naman, at ang kambal na tiyanak (1990)
- Impakto (1996)
- Tiyanaks (2007)
- Damiana L, Eugenio (2007). Philippine Folk Literature: An Anthology Volume 1 of Philippine Folk Literature Series. UP Press. p. 249. ISBN 9715425364.
- Paraiso, Salvador; Jose Juan Paraiso (2003). The Balete Book: A collection of demons, monsters and dwarfs from the Philippine lower mythology. Philippines: Giraffe Books. ISBN 971-8832-79-3.
- Ramos, Maximo D. (1971). Creatures of Philippine Lower Mythology. Philippines: University of the Philippines Press.
- Eugenio, Damiana (2002). Philippine Folk Literature: The Legends. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. p. 490. ISBN 971-542-357-4.
- Adelina Del Rosario (1975). "Isang Pag-aaral ng mga kuwentong bayan ng Oriental Mindoro". University of the Philippines.
- Gardner, Fletcher (1906). "Philippine (Tagalog) Superstitions". Superstitions Journal of American Folklore. The Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 19, No. 74. 19 (April–June): 191–204. doi:10.2307/534566. JSTOR 534566.
- Tianak on IMDb
- Tiyanak on IMDb
- Juan Tanga, super naman, at ang kambal na tiyanak on IMDb
- Tiyanaks on IMDb
- Otakultura.com (2011). "Malaya Map Revealed!". Retrieved on 2011-09-01. Archived October 3, 2011, at the Wayback Machine