Danau Toba (Indonesian)
Tao Toba (Batak Toba)
|Location||North Sumatra, Indonesia|
|Primary outflows||Asahan River|
|Max. length||100 km (62 mi)|
|Max. width||30 km (19 mi)|
|Surface area||1,130 km2 (440 sq mi)|
|Average depth||500 m (1,600 ft)|
|Max. depth||505 m (1,657 ft)|
|Water volume||240 km3 (58 cu mi)|
|Surface elevation||905 m (2,969 ft)|
Lake Toba (Indonesian: Danau Toba) is a large natural lake occupying the caldera of a supervolcano. The lake is about 100 kilometres long, 30 kilometres wide, and up to 505 metres (1,666 ft) deep. Located in the middle of the northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra, with a surface elevation of about 900 metres (2,953 ft), the lake stretches from to . It is the largest lake in Indonesia and also the largest volcanic lake in the world.
Lake Toba is the site of a massive supervolcanic eruption estimated at VEI 8 that occurred 69,000 to 77,000 years ago, representing a climate-changing event. It is the largest known explosive eruption on Earth in the last 25 million years. According to the Toba catastrophe theory, it had global consequences for human populations; it killed most humans living at that time and is believed to have created a population bottleneck in central east Africa and India, which affects the genetic make up of the human worldwide population to the present.
It has been accepted that the eruption of Toba led to a volcanic winter with a worldwide decrease in temperature between 3 to 5 °C (5.4 to 9.0 °F), and up to 15 °C (27 °F) in higher latitudes. Additional studies in Lake Malawi in East Africa show significant amounts of ash being deposited from the Toba eruptions, even at that great distance, but little indication of a significant climatic effect in East Africa.
The Toba caldera complex in Northern Sumatra, comprises four overlapping volcanic craters that adjoin the Sumatran "volcanic front." The fourth and youngest caldera is the world's largest Quaternary caldera (100 by 30 km (62 by 19 mi)) and intersects the three older calderas. An estimated 2,800 km3 (670 cu mi) of dense-rock equivalent pyroclastic material, known as the youngest Toba tuff, was released during one of the largest explosive volcanic eruptions in recent geological history. Following this eruption, a resurgent dome formed within the new caldera, joining two half-domes separated by a longitudinal graben.
At least four cones, four stratovolcanoes, and three craters are visible in the lake. The Tandukbenua cone on the northwestern edge of the caldera has only sparse vegetation, suggesting a young age of several hundred years. Also, the Pusubukit (Hill Center) volcano (1971 metres above sea level) on the south edge of the caldera is solfatarically active and is a Geology Sanctuary.
The Toba eruption (the Toba event) occurred at what is now Lake Toba about 75000±900 years ago. It was the last in a series of at least four caldera-forming eruptions at this location, with earlier calderas having formed around 788000±2200 years ago. This last eruption had an estimated VEI=8, making it the largest known explosive volcanic eruption within the last 25 million years.
Bill Rose and Craig Chesner of Michigan Technological University have estimated that the total amount of material released in the eruption was about 2,800 km3 (670 cu mi)—about 2,000 km3 (480 cu mi) of ignimbrite that flowed over the ground, and approximately 800 km3 (190 cu mi) that fell as ash mostly to the west. However, based on the new method (crystal concentration and exponential), Toba possibly erupted 3200 km³ of ignimbrite and co-ignimbrite. The pyroclastic flows of the eruption destroyed an area of least 20,000 km2 (7,722 sq mi), with ash deposits as thick as 600 m (1,969 ft) by the main vent.
The eruption was large enough to have deposited an ash layer approximately 15 cm (5.9 in) thick over all of South Asia; at one site in central India, the Toba ash layer today is up to 6 m (20 ft) thick and parts of Malaysia were covered with 9 m (30 ft) of ash fall. In addition it has been variously calculated that 10,000 million tonnes (1.1×1010 short tons) of sulfurous acid or 6,000 million tonnes (6.6×109 short tons) of sulfur dioxide were ejected into the atmosphere by the event.
The subsequent collapse formed a caldera that, after filling with water, created Lake Toba. The island in the center of the lake is formed by a resurgent dome.
The exact year of the eruption is unknown, but the pattern of ash deposits suggests that it occurred during the northern summer because only the summer monsoon could have deposited Toba ashfall in the South China Sea. The eruption lasted perhaps two weeks, and the ensuing volcanic winter resulted in a decrease in average global temperatures by 3.0 to 3.5 °C (5 to 6 °F) for several years. Greenland ice cores record a pulse of starkly reduced levels of organic carbon sequestration. Very few plants or animals in southeast Asia would have survived, and it is possible that the eruption caused a planet-wide die-off. However, the global cooling has been discussed by Rampino and Self. Their conclusion is that the cooling had already started before Toba's eruption. This conclusion was supported by Lane and Zielinski who studied the lake-core from Africa and GISP2. They concluded that there was no volcanic winter after Toba eruption and that high H2SO4 deposits do not cause long-term effects.
Evidence from studies of mitochondrial DNA suggests that humans may have passed through a genetic bottleneck around this time that reduced genetic diversity below what would be expected given the age of the species. According to the Toba catastrophe theory, proposed by Stanley H. Ambrose of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1998, the effects of the Toba eruption may have decreased the size of human populations to only a few tens of thousands of individuals. However, this hypothesis is not widely accepted because similar effects on other animal species have not been observed, and paleoanthropology suggests there was no population bottleneck.
More recent activity
Since the major eruption ~70,000 years ago, eruptions of smaller magnitude have also occurred at Toba. The small cone of Pusukbukit formed on the southwestern margin of the caldera and lava domes. The most recent eruption may have been at Tandukbenua on the northwestern caldera edge, suggested by a lack of vegetation that could be due to an eruption within the last few hundred years.
Some parts of the caldera have shown uplift due to partial refilling of the magma chamber, for example, pushing Samosir Island and the Uluan Peninsula above the surface of the lake. The lake sediments on Samosir Island show that it has risen by at least 450 m (1,476 ft) since the cataclysmic eruption. Such uplifts are common in very large calderas, apparently due to the upward pressure of below-ground magma. Toba is probably the largest resurgent caldera on Earth. Large earthquakes have recently occurred in the vicinity of the volcano, notably in 1987 along the southern shore of the lake at a depth of 11 km (6.8 mi). Such earthquakes have also been recorded in 1892, 1916, and 1920–1922.
Lake Toba lies near the Great Sumatran fault, which runs along the centre of Sumatra in the Sumatra Fracture Zone. The volcanoes of Sumatra and Java are part of the Sunda Arc, a result of the northeasterly movement of the Indo-Australian Plate, which is sliding under the eastward-moving Eurasian Plate. The subduction zone in this area is very active: the seabed near the west coast of Sumatra has had several major earthquakes since 1995, including the 9.1 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and the 8.7 2005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake, the epicenters of which were around 300 km (190 mi) from Toba.
Most of the people who live around Lake Toba are ethnically Bataks. Traditional Batak houses are noted for their distinctive roofs (which curve upwards at each end, as a boat's hull does) and their colorful decor.
Flora and fauna
The flora of the lake includes various types of phytoplankton, emerged macrophytes, floating macrophytes, and submerged macrophytes, while the surrounding countryside is rainforest including areas of Sumatran tropical pine forests on the higher mountainsides.
The fauna includes several species of zooplankton and benthic animals. Since the lake is oligotrophic (nutrient-poor), the native fish fauna is relatively scarce, and the only endemics are Rasbora tobana (strictly speaking near-endemic, since also found in some tributary rivers that run into the lake) and Neolissochilus thienemanni, locally known as the Batak fish. The latter species is threatened by deforestation (causing siltation), pollution, changes in water level and the numerous fish species that have been introduced to the lake. Other native fishes include species such as Aplocheilus panchax, Nemacheilus pfeifferae, Homaloptera gymnogaster, Channa gachua, Channa striata, Clarias batrachus, Barbonymus gonionotus, Barbonymus schwanenfeldii, Danio albolineatus, Osteochilus vittatus, Puntius binotatus, Rasbora jacobsoni, Tor tambra, Betta imbellis, Betta taeniata and Monopterus albus. Among the many introduced species are Anabas testudineus, Oreochromis mossambicus, Oreochromis niloticus, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cyprinus carpio, Osphronemus goramy, Trichogaster pectoralis, Trichopodus trichopterus, Poecilia reticulata and Xiphophorus hellerii.
Lake Toba featured in 1,000-rupiah banknote
- "LakeNet – Lakes".
- "Global Volcanism Program – Toba".
- Chesner, C.A.; Westgate, J.A.; Rose, W.I.; Drake, R.; Deino, A. (March 1991). "Eruptive history of Earth's largest Quaternary caldera (Toba, Indonesia) clarified" (PDF). Geology. Michigan Technological University. 19 (3): 200–203. Bibcode:1991Geo....19..200C. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1991)019<0200:EHOESL>2.3.CO;2. Retrieved 2008-08-23.
- Ninkovich, D.; N.J. Shackleton; A.A. Abdel-Monem; J.D. Obradovich; G. Izett (7 December 1978). "K−Ar age of the late Pleistocene eruption of Toba, north Sumatra". Nature. Nature Publishing Group. 276 (5688): 574–577. Bibcode:1978Natur.276..574N. doi:10.1038/276574a0.
- "When humans faced extinction". BBC. 2003-06-09. Retrieved 2007-01-05.
- Lane, Christine S.; Ben T. Chorn; Thomas C. Johnson (29 April 2013). "Ash from the Toba supereruption in Lake Malawi shows no volcanic winter in East Africa at 75 ka". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110 (20): 8025–8029. Bibcode:2013PNAS..110.8025L. doi:10.1073/pnas.1301474110. PMC . PMID 23630269.
- "Synonyms and Subfeatures: Toba". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
- "Gunung Pusukbuhit". March 3, 2013.
- Zielinski, G. A.; P.A. Mayewski; L.D. Meeker; S. Whitlow; M. Twickler; K. Taylor (1996). "Potential Atmospheric impact of the Toba mega-eruption ~71,000 years ago". Geophysical Research Letters. United States: American Geophysical Union. 23 (8): 837–840. Bibcode:1996GeoRL..23..837Z. doi:10.1029/96GL00706.
- "Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia". Oregon State University.
- "Supersized eruptions are all the rage!". USGS. April 28, 2005.
- Acharyya, S.K.; Basu, P.K. (1993). "Toba ash on the South Asia and its implications for correlation of late pleistocene alluvium". Quaternary Research. 40 (1): 10–19. Bibcode:1993QuRes..40...10A. doi:10.1006/qres.1993.1051.
- Scrivenor, John Brooke (1931). The Geology of Malaya. London: MacMillan. OCLC 3575130., noted by Weber.
- Huang, C.Y.; Zhao, M.X.; Wang, C.C.; Wei, G.J. (2001). "Cooling of the South China Sea by the Toba Eruption and correlation with other climate proxies ∼71,000 years ago". Geophysical Research Letters. 28 (20): 3915–3918. Bibcode:2001GeoRL..28.3915H. doi:10.1029/2000GL006113.
- Robock, A.; C.M. Ammann; L. Oman; D. Shindell; S. Levis; G. Stenchikov (2009). "Did the Toba volcanic eruption of ~74k BP produce widespread glaciation?". Journal of Geophysical Research. 114: D10107. Bibcode:2009JGRD..11410107R. doi:10.1029/2008JD011652.
- Bühring, C.; Sarnthein, M.; Leg 184 Shipboard Scientific Party (2000). "Toba ash layers in the South China Sea: evidence of contrasting wind directions during eruption ca. 74 ka.". Geology. 28 (3): 275–278. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(2000)028<0275:TALITS>2.3.CO;2.
- Lane, Christine S (2013). "Ash from the Toba supereruption in Lake Malawi shows no volcanic winter in East Africa at 75 ka". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110: 8025–8029. Bibcode:2013PNAS..110.8025L. doi:10.1073/pnas.1301474110. PMC . PMID 23630269.
- Zielinski, GA (1996). "Potential atmospheric impact of the Toba Mega‐Eruption∼ 71,000 years ago". Geophysical Research Letters. 23: 837–840. Bibcode:1996GeoRL..23..837Z. doi:10.1029/96GL00706.
- "Yellowstone Is a Supervolcano?". Biot Reports. Suburban Emergency Management Project (164). January 11, 2005. Retrieved 2008-02-21.
- Gathorne-Hardy, F. J., and Harcourt-Smith, W. E. H., "The super-eruption of Toba, did it cause a human bottleneck?", Journal of Human Evolution 45 (2003) 227–230.
- Petraglia, Michael D (2012). "The Toba volcanic super-eruption, environmental change, and hominin occupation history in India over the last 140,000 years". Quaternary International. 258: 119–134. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2011.07.042.
- "Toba volcano (Indonesia, Sumatra)". VolcanoDiscovery.com.
- "Significant Earthquakes of the World". United States Geological Survey (USGS).
- "Batak People". IndonesianMusic.com.
- "Danau Toba (Lake Toba)". International Lake Environment Committee.
- Lumbantobing, D. N. (2010). Four New Species of the Rasbora trifasciata-Group (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Northwestern Sumatra, Indonesia. Copeia 4: 644–670
- Saragih, B., and S. Sunito (2001). Lake Toba: Need for an integrated management system. Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management 6(3): 247–251.
- FishBase (2012). Species in Toba. Accessed 25 January 2012
- Rampino, Michael R. and Stephen Self (1993). "Climate-volcanism feedback and the Toba eruption of 74,000 Years Ago". Quaternary Research. 40 (3): 269–280. Bibcode:1993QuRes..40..269R. doi:10.1006/qres.1993.1081.
- Vazquez, Jorge A. and Mary R. Reid (2004). "Probing the accumulation history of the voluminous Toba Magma". Science. 305 (5686): 991–994. Bibcode:2004Sci...305..991V. doi:10.1126/science.1096994. PMID 15310899.
- Petraglia, M.; et al. (2007). "Middle Paleolithic Assemblages from the Indian Subcontinent Before and After the Toba Super-Eruption". Science. 317 (5834): 114–116. Bibcode:2007Sci...317..114P. doi:10.1126/science.1141564. PMID 17615356.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lake Toba.|
- Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia – Volcano.oregonstate.edu Accessed 11 December 2005
- Stanley H. Ambrose, Volcanic Winter, and Differentiation of Modern Humans Accessed 11 December 2005
- Joel Achenbach, Who Knew, National Geographic Accessed 11 December 2005
- (Lake Toba Ecosystem Management Plan) From laketoba.org
- Magma 'Pancakes' May Have Fueled Toba Supervolcano
- Lake Toba travel guide from Wikivoyage