Toba Qom language

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Native to Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia
Ethnicity Toba people
Native speakers
40,000 (2007)[1]
  • Southern
    • Toba
Language codes
ISO 639-3 tob
Glottolog toba1269[2]

Toba Qom is a Guaicuruan language spoken in South America by the Toba people. The language is known by a variety of names including Toba, Qom or Kom, Chaco Sur, and Toba Sur. In Argentina it is most widely dispersed in the eastern regions of the provinces of Formosa and Chaco where the majority of the approximately 19,810 (2000 WCD) speakers reside. The language is distinct from Toba-Pilagá and Paraguayan Toba-Maskoy. There are also 146 Toba speakers in Bolivia where it is known as Qom and in Paraguay where it is also known as Qob or Toba-Qom.

In 2010, the province of Chaco in Argentina declared Qom as one of four provincial official languages alongside Spanish and the indigenous Moqoit and Wichí.[3]



Bilabial Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Plosive p t k q ʔ
Fricative s ʃ ʒ ɣ~ɡ ʁ~ɢ h
Affricate t͡ʃ
Flap ɾ
Lateral l ʎ
Nasal m n ɲ
Approximant w j


Front Central Back
Close i iː
Mid e eː o oː
Open a aː

Both voiced uvular and velar fricatives may also be voiced stop sounds. [4]


  1. ^ Toba at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Toba". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Ley No. 6604 de la Provincia de Chaco, 28 de julio de 2010, B.O., (9092), Link
  4. ^ Censabella. 2002.

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