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Tocharian royal family of the oasis city-state of Kucha (King, Queen and fair-haired young Princes), Cave 17, Kizil Caves. Circa 500 AD, Hermitage Museum.[1][2][3][4]
Regions with significant populations
Tarim Basin in 1st millennium AD
(modern-day Xinjiang, China)
Tocharian languages
Buddhism and others
Related ethnic groups
Afanasievo culture

The Tocharians or Tokharians (US: /tˈkɛəriənˌ -ˈkɑːr-/ toh-KAIR-ee-ən, -⁠KAR-;[5] UK: /tɒˈkɑːriən/ to-KAR-ee-ən)[6] were speakers of the Tocharian languages, Indo-European languages known from around 7,600 documents from around AD 400 to 1200, found on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (modern-day Xinjiang, China).[7] The name "Tocharian" was given to these languages in the early 20th century by scholars who identified their speakers with a people known in ancient Greek sources as the Tókharoi (Latin: Tochari), who inhabited Bactria from the 2nd century BC. This identification is now generally considered erroneous, but the name "Tocharian" remains the most common term for the languages and their speakers. Their actual ethnic name is unknown, although they may have referred to themselves as the Agni, Kuči, and Krorän or as the Agniya and Kuchiya known from Sanskrit texts.[8][clarification needed]

Agricultural communities first appeared in the oases of the northern Tarim circa 2000 BC. Some scholars have linked these communities to the Afanasievo culture found earlier (c. 3500–2500 BC) in Siberia, north of the Tarim or Central Asian BMAC culture. The earliest Tarim mummies date from c. 1800 BC, but it is unclear whether they are connected to the Tocharians of two millennia later.

By the 2nd century BC, these settlements had developed into city-states, overshadowed by nomadic peoples to the north and Chinese empires to the east. These cities, the largest of which was Kucha, also served as way stations on the branch of the Silk Road that ran along the northern edge of the Taklamakan desert.

For several centuries, the Tarim basin was ruled by the Xiongnu, the Han dynasty, the Tibetan Empire, and the Tang dynasty. From the 8th century AD, the Uyghurs – speakers of a Turkic language – settled in the region and founded the Kingdom of Qocho that ruled the Tarim Basin. The peoples of the Tarim city-states intermixed with the Uyghurs, whose Old Uyghur language spread through the region. The Tocharian languages are believed to have become extinct during the 9th century.



Around the beginning of the 20th century, archaeologists recovered a number of manuscripts from oases in the Tarim Basin written in two closely related but previously unknown Indo-European languages, which were easy to read because they used a close variation of the already deciphered Indian Middle-Brahmi script. These languages were designated in similar fashion by their geographical neighbours:[9]

  • A Buddhist work in Old Turkic (Uighur), included a colophon stating that the text had been translated from Sanskrit via toxrï tyly (Tωγry tyly, "The language of the Togari").[10][9][8]
  • Manichean texts in several languages of neighbouring regions used the expression "the land of the Four Toghar" (Toγar~Toχar, written Twγr) to designate the area "from Kucha and Karashar to Qocho and Beshbalik."[9]

Friedrich W. K. Müller was the first to propose a characterization for the newly discovered languages.[11][12] Müller called the languages "Tocharian" (German Tocharisch), linking this toxrï (Tωγry, "Togari")[8] with the ethnonym Tókharoi (Ancient Greek: Τόχαροι) applied by Strabo to one of the "Scythian" tribes "from the country on the other side of the Iaxartes" that overran the Greco-Bactrian kingdom (present day Afghanistan) in the second half of the 2nd century BC.[12][13][a] This term also appears in Indo-Iranian languages (Sanskrit Tushara/Tukhāra, Old Persian tuxāri-, Khotanese ttahvāra), and became the source of the term "Tokharistan" usually referring to 1st millennium Bactria, as well as the Takhar province of Afghanistan. The Tókharoi are often identified by modern scholars with the Yuezhi of Chinese historical accounts, who founded the Kushan Empire.[14][15]

Müller's identification became a minority position among scholars when it turned out that the people of Tokharistan (Bactria) spoke Bactrian, an Eastern Iranian language, which is quite distinct from the Tocharian languages. Nevertheless, "Tocharian" remained the standard term for the languages of the Tarim Basin manuscripts and for the people who produced them.[11][16] A few scholars argue that the Yuezhi were originally speakers of Tocharian who later adopted the Bactrian language.[17]

The name of Kucha in Tocharian B was Kuśi, with adjectival form kuśiññe. The word may be derived from Proto-Indo-European *keuk "shining, white".[18] The Tocharian B word akeññe may have referred to people of Agni, with a derivation meaning "borderers, marchers".[19] One of the Tocharian A texts have ārśi-käntwā as a name for their own language, so that ārśi may have meant "Agnean", though "monk" is also possible.[20]

Tocharian kings apparently gave themselves the title Ñäktemts soy (in Tocharian B), an equivalent of the title Devaputra ("Son of God") of the Kushans.[21][22]


Figure of Tocharian nobility, Cave 17, Kizil Caves, circa 500 AD

The Tocharian languages are known from around 7600 documents dating from about 400 to 1200 AD, found at 30 sites in the northeast Tarim area.[23] The manuscripts are written in two distinct, but closely related, Indo-European languages, conventionally known as Tocharian A and Tocharian B.[24] According to glotto-chronological data, Tocharian languages are closest to Western Indo-European languages such as proto-Germanic or proto-Italian, and being devoid of satemization predate the evolution of eastern Indo-European languages.[25]

Tocharian A (Agnean or East Tocharian) was found in the northeastern oases known to the Tocharians as Ārśi, later Agni (i.e. Chinese Yanqi; modern Karasahr) and Turpan (including Khocho or Qočo; known in Chinese as Gaochang). Some 500 manuscripts have been studied in detail, mostly coming from Buddhist monasteries. Many authors take this to imply that Tocharian A had become a purely literary and liturgical language by the time of the manuscripts, but it may be that the surviving documents are unrepresentative.[26]

Tocharian B (Kuchean or West Tocharian) was found at all the Tocharian A sites and also in several sites further west, including Kuchi (later Kucha). It appears to have still been in use in daily life at that time.[27] Over 3200 manuscripts have been studied in detail.[26]

The languages had significant differences in phonology, morphology and vocabulary, making them mutually unintelligible "at least as much as modern Germanic or Romance languages".[28][29] Tocharian A shows innovations in the vowels and nominal inflection, whereas Tocharian B has changes in the consonants and verbal inflection. Many of the differences in vocabulary between the languages concern Buddhist concepts, which may suggest that they were associated with different Buddhist traditions.[28]

The Tocharian script is very similar to the Indian Brahmi script from the Kushan period, with only slight variations in calligraphy. Tocharian language inscription: Se pañäkte saṅketavattse ṣarsa papaiykau "This Buddha was painted by the hand of Sanketava",[30][31] on a painting carbon dated to 245-340 AD.[32]

The differences indicate that they diverged from a common ancestor between 500 and 1000 years before the earliest documents, that is, sometime in the 1st millennium BC.[33] Common Indo-European vocabulary retained in Tocharian includes words for herding, cattle, sheep, pigs, dogs, horses, textiles, farming, wheat, gold, silver, and wheeled vehicles.[34]

Prakrit documents from 3rd century Krorän, Andir and Niya on the southeast edge of the Tarim Basin contain around 100 loanwords and 1000 proper names that cannot be traced to an Indic or Iranian source.[35] Thomas Burrow suggested that they come from a variety of Tocharian, dubbed Tocharian C or Kroränian, which may have been spoken by at least some of the local populace.[36] Burrow's theory is widely accepted, but the evidence is meagre and inconclusive, and some scholars favour alternative explanations.[23]


Tocharian Prince mourning the Cremation of the Buddha, in a mural from Maya Cave (224) in Kizil. He is cutting his forehead with a knife, a practice of self-mutilation also known among the Scythians.[37]

Most of the Tocharian inscriptions are based on Buddhist monastic texts, which suggests that the Tocharians largely embraced Buddhism. The pre-Buddhist beliefs of the Tocharians are largely unknown, but several Chinese goddesses are similar to the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European sun goddess and the dawn goddess, which implies that the Chinese were influenced by the pre-Buddhist beliefs of the Tocharians when they traveled on trade routes which were located in Tocharian territories.[38] Tocharian B has a noun swāñco derived from the name of the Proto-Indo-European sun goddess, while Tocharian A has koṃ, a loanword etymologically connected to the Turkic sun goddess Gun Ana. Besides this, they might have also worshipped a lunar deity (meñ-) and an earth one (keṃ-).[39]

The murals found in the Tarim Basin, especially those of the Kizil Caves, mostly depict Jataka stories, avadanas, and legends of the Buddha, and are an artistic representation in the tradition of the Hinayana school of the Sarvastivadas.[40] When the Chinese Monk Xuanzang visited Kucha in 630 AD, he received the favours of the Tocharian king Suvarnadeva, the son and successor of Suvarnapushpa, whom he described as a believer of Hinayana Buddhism.[41] In the account of his travel to Kucha (屈支国) he stated that "There are about one hundred convents (saṅghārāmas) in this country, with five thousand and more disciples. These belong to the Little Vehicle of the school of the Sarvāstivādas (zhuyiqieyoubu). Their doctrine (teaching of Sūtras) and their rules of discipline (principles of the Vinaya) are like those of India, and those who read them use the same (originals)."[42][43][44]

Proposed precursors


The route by which speakers of Indo-European languages reached the Tarim Basin is uncertain. A leading contender is the Afanasievo culture, who occupied the Altai region to the north between 3300 and 2500 BC.

Afanasievo culture

Indo-European migrations, with location of the Afanasievo culture (genetically identical to the Yamnaya culture of the Pontic steppes) and their probable Tocharian descendants.[45]
Chemurchek statue, Khukh uzuuriin dugui I - 1. Bulgan, Khovd, Mongolia[46]

The Afanasievo culture resulted from an eastern offshoot of the Yamnaya culture, originally based in the Pontic steppe north of the Caucasus Mountains.[47] The Afanasevo culture (c. 3500–2500 BC) displays cultural and genetic connections with the Indo-European-associated cultures of the Central Asian steppe yet predates the specifically Indo-Iranian-associated Andronovo culture (c. 2000–900 BC).

J. P. Mallory and Victor H. Mair argued that the Tarim Basin was first settled by Proto-Tocharian-speakers from an eastern offshoot of the Afanasievo culture, who migrated to the south and occupied the northern and eastern edges of the basin.[48] The early eastward expansion of the Yamnaya culture circa 3300 BC is enough to account for the isolation of the Tocharian languages from Indo-Iranian linguistic innovations like satemization.[49] Michaël Peyrot argues that several of the most striking typological peculiarities of Tocharian are rooted in a prolonged contact of Proto-Tocharian-speaking Afanasievans with speakers of an early stage of Proto-Samoyedic in South Siberia. Among others, this might explain the merger of all three-stop series (e.g., *t, *d, *dʰ > *t), which must have led to a huge amount of homonyms, as well as the development of an agglutinative case system.[50]

Chao Ning et al. (2019) found in burials from around 200 BC at the Shirenzigou site on the eastern edge of Dzungaria 20–80% Yamnaya-like ancestry, lending support to the hypothesis of a migration from Afanasievo into Dzungaria, which is just north of the Tarim Basin.[51]

Chemurchek culture


According to archaeologist Alexey Kovalev, the Chemurchek culture (2750-1900 BCE), an Altaic culture with many similarities with cultures of Western Europe and especially Southern France in burial and statuary styles, may have been associated with the Proto-Tokharians.[25] According to glotto-chronological data, proto-Tokharians must have migrated to the east around the same period, and their Western Indo-European language is closest to proto-Germanic and proto-Italic, corresponding to the broad geographical area encompassing southern France where the style most similar to those of the Chemurchek culture have been identified.[25] The language of the Chemurchek/Proto-Tokharians may have originated from the same general location in Western Europe, as did their burial and statuary styles.[25]

Tarim Basin


Early settlement


The Taklamakan Desert is roughly oval in shape, about 1,000 km long and 400 km wide, surrounded on three sides by high mountains. The main part of the desert is sandy, surrounded by a belt of gravel desert.[52] The desert is completely barren, but in the late spring the melting snows of the surrounding mountains feed streams, which have been altered by human activity to create oases with mild microclimates and supporting intensive agriculture.[52] On the northern edge of the basin, these oases occur in small valleys before the gravels.[52] On the southern edge, they occur in alluvial fans on the edge of the sand zone. Isolated alluvial fan oases also occur in the gravel deserts of the Turpan Depression to the east of the Taklamakan.[53] From around 2000 BC, these oases supported Bronze Age settled agricultural communities of steadily increasing sophistication.[54]

The necessary irrigation technology was first developed during the 3rd millennium BC in the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC) to the west of the Pamir mountains, but it is unclear how it reached the Tarim.[55][56] The staple crops, wheat and barley, also originated in the west.[57]

Tarim mummies

One of the Tarim mummies
"Loulan beauty"

The oldest of the Tarim mummies, bodies preserved by the desert conditions, date from 2000 BC and were found on the eastern edge of the Tarim basin. The mummies have been described as being both "Caucasoid" and "Mongoloid", and mixed-race individuals are also observed.[58] A genetic study of remains from the oldest layer of the Xiaohe Cemetery found that the maternal lineages were a mixture of east and west Eurasian types, while all the paternal lineages were of west Eurasian type.[59] It is unknown whether they are connected with the frescoes painted at Tocharian sites more than two millennia later, which also depict light eyes and hair color.

The mummies were found with plaid-woven tapestries that are notably similar to the weaving pattern of the "tartan" style of the Hallstatt culture of central Europe, associated with Celts; the wool used in the tapestries was found to come from sheep with European ancestry.[60]

A 2021 genetic study demonstrated that the Tarim mummies were unrelated to Afanasievo populations and instead were a genetic isolate descending mainly from Ancient North Eurasians.[61]

Later migrations


Later, groups of nomadic pastoralists moved from the steppe into the grasslands to the north and northeast of the Tarim. They were the ancestors of peoples later known to Chinese authors as the Wusun and Yuezhi.[62] It is thought that at least some of them spoke Iranian languages,[62] but a minority of scholars suggest that the Yuezhi were Tocharian speakers.[63][64]

During the 1st millennium BC, a further wave of immigrants, the Saka speaking Iranian languages, arrived from the west and settled along the southern rim of the Tarim.[65] They are believed to be the source of Iranian loanwords in Tocharian languages, particularly related to commerce and warfare.[66] The Subeshi culture is a candidate for the Iron Age predecessors of the Tocharians.[67]

Oasis states

Major oasis states of the ancient Tarim Basin

The first record of the oasis states is found in Chinese histories. The Book of Han lists 36 statelets in the Tarim basin in the last two centuries BC.[68] These oases served as waystations on the trade routes forming part of the Silk Road passing along the northern and southern edges of the Taklamakan desert.[69]

The largest were Kucha with 81,000 inhabitants and Agni (Yanqi or Karashar) with 32,000.[70] Next was the Loulan Kingdom (Krorän), first mentioned in 126 BC. Chinese histories give no evidence of ethnic changes in these cities between that time and the period of the Tocharian manuscripts from these sites.[71] Situated on the northern and southern edges of the Tarim, these small urban societies were overshadowed by nomadic peoples to the north and Chinese empires to the east. They became the object of rivalry between the Chinese and the Xiongnu. They conceded tributary relations with the larger powers when required, and acted independently when they could.[72]

Xiongnu and Han empires


In 177 BC, the Xiongnu drove the Yuezhi from western Gansu, causing most of them to flee west to the Ili Valley and then to Bactria. The Xiongnu then overcame the Tarim statelets, which became a vital part of their empire.[73] The Chinese Han dynasty was determined to weaken their Xiongnu enemies by depriving them of this area.[74] This was achieved in a series of campaigns beginning in 108 BC and culminating in the establishment of the Protectorate of the Western Regions in 60 BC under Zheng Ji.[75] The Han government used a range of tactics, including plots to assassinate local rulers, direct attacks on a few states (e.g. Kucha in 65 BC) to cow the rest, and the massacre of the entire population of Luntai (80 km east of Kucha) when they resisted.[76]

During the Later Han (25–220 AD), the whole Tarim Basin again became a focus of rivalry between the Xiong-nu to the north and the Chinese to the east.[77] In 74 AD, Chinese troops started to take control of the Tarim Basin with the conquest of Turfan.[78] During the 1st century AD, Kucha resisted the Chinese invasion, and allied itself with the Xiong-nu and the Yuezhi against the Chinese general Ban Chao.[79] Even the Kushan Empire of Kujula Kadphises sent an army to the Tarim Basin to support Kucha, but they retreated after minor encounters.[79]

In 124, Kucha formally submitted to the Chinese court, and by 127 China had conquered the whole of the Tarim Basin.[80] China's control of the Silk Road facilitated the exchange of art and the progation of Buddhism from Central Asia.[81] The Roman Maes Titianus is known to have visited the area in the 2nd century AD,[82] as did numerous great Buddhist missionaries such as the Parthian An Shigao, the Yuezhis Lokaksema and Zhi Qian, or the Indian Chu Sho-fu (竺朔佛).[83] The Han controlled the Tarim states until their final withdrawal in 150 AD.[84][85]

Kushan Empire (2nd century AD)

Tocharian kneeling devotees circa 300 AD, in the paintings of the Cave of the Hippocampi (Cave 118), Kizil Caves.[86]

The Kushan Empire expanded into the Tarim during the 2nd century AD, bringing Buddhism, Kushan art, Sanskrit as a liturgical language and Prakrit as an administrative language (in the southern Tarim states).[87] With these Indic languages came scripts, including the Brahmi script (later adapted to write Tocharian) and the Kharosthi script.[88]

From the 3rd century, Kucha became a center of Buddhist studies. Buddhist texts were translated into Chinese by Kuchean monks, the most famous of whom was Kumārajīva (344–412/5).[89][84] Captured by Lü Guang of the Later Liang in an attack on Kucha in 384, Kumārajīva learned Chinese during his years of captivity in Gansu. In 401, he was brought to the Later Qin capital of Chang'an, where he remained as head of a translation bureau until his death in 413.[90][91]

The Kizil Caves lie 65 km west of Kucha, and contain over 236 Buddhist temples. Their murals date from the 3rd to the 8th century.[92] Many of these murals were removed by Albert von Le Coq and other European archaeologists in the early 20th century, and are now held in European museums, but others remain in their original locations.[93]

An increasingly dry climate in the 4th and 5th centuries led to the abandonment of several of the southern cities, including Niya and Krorän, with a consequent shift of trade from the southern route to the northern one.[94] Confederations of nomadic tribes also began to jostle for supremacy. The northern oasis states were conquered by Rouran in the late 5th century, leaving the local leaders in place. The nearby area of Gaochang and the Jushi Kingdom were alternatively ruled as a Chinese Prefecture, taken over by the Northern Liang in 442 CE, conquered by the Rouran Khaganate in 460, and conquered by the Gaoju Turks in 488.

Flourishing of the oasis states

The Buddhist Cave with the Ring-Bearing Doves (Cave 123) at the Kizil Caves near Kucha, built circa 430-530 AD.

Kucha, the largest of the oasis cities, was ruled by royal families sometimes autonomously and sometimes as vassals of outside powers.[95] The Chinese named these Kuchean kings by adding the prefix Bai (白), meaning "White", probably pointing to the fair complexion of the Kucheans.[96] The government included some 30 named posts below the king, with all but the highest-ranking titles occurring in pairs of left and right. Other states had similar structures, though on a smaller scale.[97] The Book of Jin says of the city:

They have a walled city and suburbs. The walls are threefold. Within are Buddhist temples and stupas numbering a thousand. The people are engaged in agriculture and husbandry. The men and women cut their hair and wear it at the neck. The prince's palace is grand and imposing, glittering like an abode of the gods.

— Book of Jin, Chapter 97[98]
Monks from the Cave of the Painters circa 500 AD, Kizil Caves.

The inhabitants grew red millet, wheat, rice, legumes, hemp, grapes and pomegranates, and reared horses, cattle, sheep and camels.[99]

They also extracted a wide range of metals and minerals from the surrounding mountains.[100] Handicrafts included leather goods, fine felts and rugs.[100]

In the Kizil Caves appear portraits of Royal families, composed of the King, Queen and young Prince. They are accompanied by monks, and men in caftan.[1] According to Historian of Art Benjamin Rowland, these portraits show "that the Tocharians were European rather than Mongol in appearance, with light complexions, blue eyes, and blond or reddish hair, and the costumes of the knights and their ladies have haunting suggestions of the chivalric age of the West".[101]

Kucha ambassador are known to have visited the Chinese court of Emperor Yuan of Liang in his capital Jingzhou in 516–520 AD, at or around the same time as the Hepthalite embassies there. An ambassador from Kucha is illustrated in Portraits of Periodical Offering of Liang, painted in 526–539 AD, an 11th-century Song copy of which as remained.

Hephthalite conquest (circa 480–550 AD)

Ambassador from Kucha (龜茲國 Qiuci-guo), one of the main Tocharian cities, visiting the Chinese Southern Liang court in Jingzhou circa 516–520 AD at the time of Hephthalite domination over the region, with explanatory text. Portraits of Periodical Offering of Liang, 11th century Song copy.

In the late 5th century AD the Hephthalites, based in Tokharistan (Bactria), expanded eastward through the Pamir Mountains, which are comparatively easy to cross, as did the Kushans before them, due to the presence of convenient plateaus between high peaks.[102] They occupied the western Tarim Basin (Kashgar and Khotan), taking control of the area from the Rourans, who had been collecting heavy tribute from the oasis cities, but were now weakening under the assaults of the Chinese Wei dynasty.[103] In 479 they took the east end of the Tarim Basin, around the region of Turfan. In 497–509, they pushed north of Turfan to the Urumchi region. In the early years of the 6th century, they were sending embassies from their dominions in the Tarim Basin to the Wei dynasty. The Hephthalites continued to occupy the Tarim Basin until the end of their Empire, circa 560 AD.[104]

As the territories ruled by the Hephthalites expanded into Central Asia and the Tarim Basin, the art of the Hephthalites, with characteristic clothing and hairstyles, also came to be used in the areas they ruled, such as Sogdiana, Bamiyan or Kucha in the Tarim Basin (Kizil Caves, Kumtura Caves, Subashi reliquary).[105][106][107] In these areas appear dignitaries with caftans with a triangular collar on the right side, crowns with three crescents, some crowns with wings, and a unique hairstyle. Another marker is the two-point suspension system for swords, which seems to have been an Hephthalite innovation, and was introduced by them in the territories they controlled.[105] The paintings from the Kucha region, particularly the swordmen in the Kizil Caves, appear to have been made during Hephthalite rule in the region, circa 480–550 AD.[105][108] The influence of the art of Gandhara in some of the earliest paintings at the Kizil Caves, dated to circa 500 AD, is considered as a consequence of the political unification of the area between Bactria and Kucha under the Hephthalites.[109]

Göktürks suzerainty (560 AD)

King Suvarnapushpa of Kucha is historically known and ruled 600–625 AD. Cave 69, Kizil Caves.

The early Turks of the First Turkic Khaganate then took control of the Turfan and Kucha areas from around 560 AD, and, in alliance with the Sasanian Empire, became instrumental in the fall of the Hephthalite Empire.[110]

The Turks then split into Western and Eastern Khaganates by 580 AD.[111] Tocharian royal families continued to rule Kucha, as vassals of the Western Turks, to whom they provided tribute and troops.[111] Many surviving texts in Tocharian date from this period, and deal with a wide variety of administrative, religious and everyday topics.[112] They also include travel passes, small slips of poplar wood giving the size of the permitted caravans for officials at the next station along the road.[113]

Tocharian knights from Kizil Caves (Cave 16). Circa 600 AD

In 618, king Suvarnapushpa of Kucha sent an embassy to the court of the Tang dynasty acknowledging vassalship.[114][41][115]

In 630, the Chinese Buddhist monk Xuanzang visited the cities of the Tarim Basin on his pilgrimage to India. He later described the characteristics of Kucha (屈支国) in great detail in his Records of the Western Regions:[116][43][44]
1) "The style of writing is Indian, with some differences"
2) "They clothe themselves with ornamental garments of silk and embroidery. They cut their hair and wear a flowing covering (over their heads)"
3) "The king is of Kuchean race"[117]
4) "There are about one hundred convents (saṅghārāmas) in this country, with five thousand and more disciples. These belong to the Little Vehicle of the school of the Sarvāstivādas (Shwo-yih-tsai-yu-po). Their doctrine (teaching of Sūtras) and their rules of discipline (principles of the Vinaya) are like those of India, and those who read them use the same (originals)."
5) "About 40 li to the north of this desert city there are two convents close together on the slope of a mountain".[42]

Tang conquest and aftermath


In the 7th century, Emperor Taizong of Tang China, having overcome the Eastern Turks, sent his armies west to attack the Western Turks and the oasis states.[118] The first oasis to fall was Turfan, which was captured in 630 and annexed as part of China.[119]

Emperor Taizong's campaign against the oasis states

Next to the west lay the city of Agni, which had been a tributary of the Tang since 632. Alarmed by the nearby Chinese armies, Agni stopped sending Tribute to China and formed an alliance with the Western Turks. They were aided by Kucha, who also stopped sending tribute. The Tang captured Agni in 644, defeating a Western Turk relief force, and made the king of Kucha Suvarnadeva (Chinese: 蘇伐疊 Sufadie) resume tribute. When that king was deposed by a relative named Haripushpa (Chinese: 訶黎布失畢 Helibushibi) in 648, the Tang sent an army under the Turk general Ashina She'er to install a compliant member of the local royal family, a younger brother of Haripushpa.[120] Ashina She'er continued to capture Kucha, and made it the headquarters of the Tang Protectorate General to Pacify the West. Kuchean forces recaptured the city and killed protector-general, Guo Xiaoke, but it fell again to Ashina She'er, who had 11,000 of the inhabitants executed in reprisal for the killing of Guo.[121] It was also recorded about other cities that "he destroyed five great towns and with them many myriads of men and women... the lands of the west were seized with terror."[122]The Tocharian cities never recovered from the Tang conquest.[123]

The Tang lost the Tarim basin to the Tibetan Empire in 670, but regained it in 692, and continued to rule there until it was recaptured by the Tibetans in 792.[124] The ruling Bai family of Kucha are last mentioned in Chinese sources in 787.[125] There is little mention of the region in Chinese sources for the 9th and 10th centuries.[126]

The Uyghur Khaganate took control of the northern Tarim in 803. After their capital in Mongolia was sacked by the Yenisei Kyrgyz in 840, they established a new state, the Kingdom of Qocho with its capital at Gaochang (near Turfan) in 866.[127] Over centuries of contact and intermarriage, the cultures and populations of the pastoralist rulers and their agriculturalist subjects blended together.[128] Modern Uyghurs are the result of admixture between the Tocharians and the Orkhon Uyghurs from the 8th century CE.[129] Many Uyghurs converted to the Tocharian Buddhism or Nestorian Christianity,[130] and adopted the agricultural lifestyle and many of the customs of the oasis-dwellers.[131] The Tocharian language gradually disappeared as the urban population switched to the Old Uyghur language.[132]



Most of the texts known from the Tocharians are religious, except for one known love poem in Tocharian B (manuscript B-496, found in Kizil):[133]

Tocharian B manuscript B-496
Transliteration Inscription
(Tocharian script)

... for a thousand years however, Thou wilt tell the story Thy (...) I announce,
Heretofore there was no human being dearer to me than thee; likewise hereafter there will be no one dearer to me than thee.
Love for thee, affection for thee—breath of all that is life—and they shall not come to an end so long as there lasts life.
Thus did I always think: "I will live well, the whole of my life, with one lover: no force, no deceit."
The god Karma alone knew this thought of mine; so he provoked quarrel; he ripped out my heart from thee;
He led thee afar; tore me apart; made me partake in all sorrows and took away the consolation thou wast.

... mi life, spirit, and heart day-by-day...[134][135][136][137]


(...) Yaltse pikwala (...) watäṃ weṃt no

Mā ñi cisa noṣ śomo ñem wnolme lāre tāka mā ra postaṃ cisa lāre mäsketär-ñ.

Ciṣṣe laraumñe ciṣṣe ārtañye pelke kalttarr śolämpa ṣṣe mā te stālle śol-wärñai.


Taiysu pälskanoym sanai ṣaryompa śāyau karttse-śaulu-wärñai snai tserekwa snai nāte.

Yāmor-ñīkte ṣe cau ñi palskāne śarsa tusa ysaly ersate ciṣy araś ñi sälkāte,

Wāya ci lauke tsyāra ñiś wetke klyautka-ñ pāke po läklentas ciṣe tsārwo, sampāte.

(...) Śaul palsk araśñi, kom kom[134][135]

Tocharian B Love Poem, manuscript B496 (one of two fragments).

Known rulers


Names of the rulers of Kucha are known mainly from Chinese sources.

Prince Tottika, Kizil Cave 205.
  • Hong(洪, 弘), circa 16 AD
  • Chengde (丞德), circa 36 AD
  • Zeluo (则罗), circa 46 AD
  • Shen Du(身毒), circa 50 AD
  • Bin (宾), circa 72 AD
  • Jian (建), circa 73 AD
  • Youliduo 尤利多, circa 76 AD
  • Bai Ba(白霸), circa 91 AD
  • Bai Ying(白英), circa 110-127 AD
  • Bai Shan (白山), circa 280 AD
  • Long Hui(龙会), circa 326 AD
  • Bai Chun Chinese: 白纯 Baichun, ruled circa 383 AD
  • Bai Zhen Chinese: 白震 Baizhen, ruled circa 383 AD
  • Niruimo Zhunasheng Chinese: 尼瑞摩珠那胜 Niruimo Zhunasheng, ruled circa 520 AD
  • Tottika (ruled in Kucha in the end of the 6th century), Chinese: 托提卡 Tuotika
  • Bai Sunidie Chinese: 白苏尼咥 Bai Sunidie, circa 562 AD
  • Suvarnapuspa (ruled in Kucha, 600-625 AD), Chinese: 白苏伐勃𫘝 Bai Sufaboshi
  • Suvarnadeva (ruled in Kucha before 647), Chinese: 白蘇伐疊 Bai Sufadie
  • Haripushpa (ruled in Kucha from 647), Chinese: 白訶黎布失畢 Bai Helibushibi
  • Bai Yehu (白叶护)(648)
  • Bai Helibushibi(白诃黎布失毕)650
  • Bai Suji 白素稽 (659)
  • Yan Tiandie 延田跌(678)
  • Bai Mobi 白莫苾(708)
  • Bai Xiaojie 白孝节(719)
  • Bai Huan (ruled 731–789) Chinese: 白环, last ruler to be mentioned by Chinese sources.[125]

See also



  1. ^ "Most of the Scythians, beginning from the Caspian Sea, are called Dahae Scythae, and those situated more towards the east Massagetae and Sacae; the rest have the common appellation of Scythians, but each separate tribe has its peculiar name. All, or the greatest part of them, are nomads. The best known tribes are those who deprived the Greeks of Bactriana, the Asii, Pasiani, Tochari, and Sacarauli, who came from the country on the other side of the Iaxartes, opposite the Sacae and Sogdiani" (Strabo, 11-8-2)


  1. ^ a b References BDce-888、889, MIK III 8875, now in the Hermitage Museum."俄立艾爾米塔什博物館藏克孜爾石窟壁畫". www.sohu.com (in Chinese).
  2. ^ Image 16 in Yaldiz, Marianne (1987). Archèaologie unFd Kunstgeschichte Chinesisch-Zentralasiens (Xinjiang) (in German). BRILL. p. xv. ISBN 978-90-04-07877-2.
  3. ^ "The images of donors in Cave 17 are seen in two fragments with numbers MIK 8875 and MIK 8876. One of them with halo may be identified as king of Kucha." in Ghose, Rajeshwari (2008). Kizil on the Silk Road: Crossroads of Commerce & Meeting of Minds. Marg Publications. p. 127, note 22. ISBN 978-81-85026-85-5. "The panel of Tocharian donors and Buddhist monks, which was at the MIK (MIK 8875) disappeared during World War II and was discovered by Yaldiz in 2002 in the Hermitage Museum" page 65,note 30
  4. ^ Le Coq, Albert von; Waldschmidt, Ernst (1922). Die buddhistische spätantike in Mittelasien, VI. Berlin, D. Reimer [etc.] pp. 68–70.
  5. ^ "Definition of TOCHARIAN". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
  6. ^ "Tocharian definition and meaning | Collins English Dictionary". www.collinsdictionary.com. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
  7. ^ Mallory (2015), p. 4. "Our knowledge of the Tocharian languages derives essentially from c. 7600 documents found across about thirty sites in the eastern half of the greater Tarim Basin (Fig. 1). The documents date from c. 400 to 1200 CE"
  8. ^ a b c Namba Walter, Mariko (1998). "Tokharian Buddhism in Kucha: Buddhism of Indo-European Centum Speakers in Chinese Turkestan before the 10th Century C.E." (PDF). Sino-Platonic Papers. 85: 2, note 4.
  9. ^ a b c Beckwith (2009), pp. 380-381.
  10. ^ "Introduction to Tocharian". lrc.la.utexas.edu.
  11. ^ a b Krause, Todd B.; Slocum, Jonathan. "Tocharian Online: Series Introduction". University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  12. ^ a b Beckwith (2009), pp. 380-383.
  13. ^ Also Ptolemy VI, 11, 6, 2nd century AD
  14. ^ Mallory & Mair (2000), pp. 270–297.
  15. ^ Beckwith (2009), pp. 83–84.
  16. ^ Mallory & Adams (1997), p. 509.
  17. ^ Beckwith (2009), p. 381.
  18. ^ Adams (2013), p. 198.
  19. ^ Adams (2013), pp. 2–3.
  20. ^ Adams (2013), p. 57.
  21. ^ "According to linguists, the kings of Kucha called themselves "ñäktemts soy" (in Tocharian B), which is equivalent to Devaputra (an epithet commonly used by the Kuşāņa kings) meaning "Son of deva or God" in Pande, Anupa; Sharma, Mandira (2009). The Art of Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent in Cross-cultural Perspective. Aryan Books International. p. 133, note 22. ISBN 978-81-7305-347-4.
  22. ^ Skalmowski, Wojciech; Tongerloo, Alois van (1984). Middle Iranian Studies: Proceedings of the International Symposium Organized by the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven from the 17th to the 20th of May 1982. Peeters Publishers. pp. 197–198. ISBN 978-90-70192-14-3.
  23. ^ a b Mallory (2015), pp. 6–7.
  24. ^ Winter (1998), p. 154.
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  29. ^ Mallory (2015), p. 7.
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  31. ^ Le Coq, Albert von. Die Buddhistische Spätantike in Mittelasien : vol.5. p. 10.
  32. ^ Waugh (Historian, University of Washington), Daniel C. "MIA Berlin: Turfan Collection: Kizil". depts.washington.edu.
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  38. ^ Snow (2002), p. [page needed].
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  49. ^ Mallory & Mair (2000), pp. 294–296, 317–318.
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  51. ^ Ning, Chao; Wang, Chuan-Chao; Gao, Shizhu; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Xue; Wu, Xiyan; Zhang, Fan; Nie, Zhongzhi; Tang, Yunpeng; Robbeets, Martine; Ma, Jian; Krause, Johannes; Cui, Yinqiu (2019). "Ancient Genomes Reveal Yamnaya-Related Ancestry and a Potential Source of Indo-European Speakers in Iron Age Tianshan". Current Biology. 29 (15): 2526–2532.e4. Bibcode:2019CBio...29E2526N. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2019.06.044. PMID 31353181.
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  53. ^ Chen & Hiebert (1995), p. 248.
  54. ^ Chen & Hiebert (1995), pp. 250–272.
  55. ^ Chen & Hiebert (1995), p. 245.
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  57. ^ Mallory & Mair (2000), p. 269.
  58. ^ Shuicheng, Li (2003). Bulletin. Stockholm: Fälth & Hässler. p. 13. "Biological anthropological research indicates that the physical characteristics of those buried at Gumugou cemetery along the Kongque River near Lop Nur in Xinjiang are very similar to those of the Andronovo culture and Afanasievo culture people from Siberia in Southern Russia. This suggests that all of these individuals belong to the Caucasian physical type.¹² Additionally, excavations in 2002 by Xinjiang archaeologists at the site of Xiaohe cemetery, first discovered by the Swedish archaeologist Folke Bergman,¹³ uncovered mummies and wooden human effigies that clearly have Europoid features [Figure 6.1]. According to the preliminary excavation report, the cultural features and chronology of this site are said to be quite similar to those of Gumugou.¹⁴ Other sites in Xinjiang also contain both individuals with Caucasian features and ones with Mongolian features. For example, this pattern occurs at the Yanbulark cemetery in Xinjiang, but individuals with Mongoloid features are clearly dominant.¹³ The above evidence is enough to show that, starting around 2,000 B.C., some so-called primitive Caucasians expanded eastward to the Xinjiang area as far as the area around Hami and Lop Nur. By the end of the second millennium, another group of people from Central Asia started to move over the Pamirs and gradually dispersed in southern Xinjiang. These western groups mixed with local Mongoloids¹⁶ resulting in an amalgamation of culture and race in middle Xinjiang east to the Tianshan.
  59. ^ Li et al. (2010).
  60. ^ Fortson, Benjamin W. 2004. Indo-European Language and Culture. Blackwell Publishing. Page 352: "Adding to the various mysteries surrounding the Tocharians is the existence of extremely well-preserved mummies in the Takla Makan desert that have striking Europoid features and often red hair; some are nearly 4,000 years old. The mummies were found with tapestries woven in plaids that are similar in weaving style and pattern to tartans from the Hallstatt culture of central Europe, which was ancestral to the Celts... the wool used in weaving the tapestries comes from sheep of European ancestry..."
  61. ^ Zhang, F; Ning, C; Scott, A; et al. (2021). "The genomic origins of the Bronze Age Tarim Basin mummies". Nature. 599 (7884): 256–261. Bibcode:2021Natur.599..256Z. doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04052-7. PMC 8580821. PMID 34707286.
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  74. ^ Yü (1986), p. 407.
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  88. ^ Mallory & Mair (2000), p. 115.
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  90. ^ Millward (2021), pp. 27–28.
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  114. ^ "On the lunette of the front wall is painted a scene of the preaching of the Buddha in the Deer Park. On the left of the Buddha are painted the king and his wife; on the halo of the king is inscribed the dedication, which was interpreted by Pinault in his paper of 1994, 'Temple Constructed for the Benefit of Suvarnapousa by His Son' (this material is referred to in Kezier shiku neirong zonglu p. 2). From Chinese historical records it is known that this king reigned between the years 600 and 625, and his three sons died before 647: to date, this is the most accurate dating for the cave" in Vignato, Giuseppe (2006). "Archaeological Survey of Kizil: Its Groups of Caves, Districts, Chronology and Buddhist Schools". East and West. 56 (4): 405, note 71. ISSN 0012-8376. JSTOR 29757697.
  115. ^ "618年,汉名为苏伐勃駃(梵文Suvarna pushpa,意为金色的花朵)的库车王向隋场帝表示归顺。" in Grousset, René. 草原帝国 (L'Empire des Steppes). p. 138.
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  129. ^ Li, Hui; Cho, Kelly; Kidd, Judith R.; Kidd, Kenneth K. (December 2009). "Genetic Landscape of Eurasia and "Admixture" in Uyghurs". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 85 (6): 934–937. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.10.024. PMC 2790568. PMID 20004770. Historical records indicate that the present Uyghurs were formed by admixture between Tocharians from the west and Orkhon Uyghurs (Wugusi-Huihu, according to present Chinese pronunciation) from the east in the 8th century CE
  130. ^ Millward (2021), p. 63.
  131. ^ Hong, Sun-Kee; Wu, Jianguo; Kim, Jae-Eun; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu (25 December 2010). Landscape Ecology in Asian Cultures. Springer. p. 284. ISBN 978-4-431-87799-8. p.284: "The Uyghurs mixed with the Tocharian people and adopted their religion and their culture of oasis agriculture (Scharlipp 1992; Soucek 2000)."
  132. ^ Mallory & Mair (2000), p. 273.
  133. ^ Carling, Gerd (Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen). "Tocharian (p.16)" (PDF).{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  134. ^ a b Adams, Douglas Q.; Peyrot, Michaël; Pinault, Georges-Jean; Olander, Thomas; Rasmussen, Jens Elmegård (2013). "More Thoughts on Tocharian B Prosody" in "Tocharian and Indo-European Studies vol.14". Museum Tusculanum Press. pp. 26–28. ISBN 978-87-635-4066-7.
  135. ^ a b Chrestomathie tokharienne: Textes et grammaire, Georges-Jean Pinault. Peeters, 2008.
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Works cited


Further reading


Note: Recent discoveries have rendered obsolete some of René Grousset's classic The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia, published in 1939, which, however, still provides a broad background against which to assess more modern detailed studies.

  • Baldi, Philip. 1983. An Introduction to the Indo-European Languages. Carbondale. Southern Illinois University Press.
  • Barber, Elizabeth Wayland. 1999. The Mummies of Ürümchi. London. Pan Books.
  • Beekes, Robert. 1995. Comparative Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction. Philadelphia. John Benjamins.
  • Hemphill, Brian E. and J.P. Mallory. 2004. "Horse-mounted invaders from the Russo-Kazakh steppe or agricultural colonists from Western Central Asia? A craniometric investigation of the Bronze Age settlement of Xinjiang" in American Journal of Physical Anthropology vol. 125 pp 199ff.
  • Lane, George S. 1966. "On the Interrelationship of the Tocharian Dialects," in Ancient Indo-European Dialects, eds. Henrik Birnbaum and Jaan Puhvel. Berkeley. University of California Press.
  • Ning, Chao, Chuan-Chao Wang, Shizhu Gao, Y. Yang and Yinqiu Cui. "Ancient Genomes Reveal Yamnaya-Related Ancestry and a Potential Source of Indo-European Speakers in Iron Age Tianshan". In: Current Biology 29 (2019): 2526–2532.e4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.06.044
  • Walter, Mariko Namba 1998 "Tocharian Buddhism in Kucha: Buddhism of Indo-European Centum Speakers in Chinese Turkestan before the 10th Century C.E." Sino-Platonic Papers 85.
  • Xu, Wenkan 1995 "The Discovery of the Xinjiang Mummies and Studies of the Origin of the Tocharians" The Journal of Indo-European Studies, Vol. 23, Number 3 & 4, Fall/Winter 1995, pp. 357–369.
  • Xu, Wenkan 1996 "The Tokharians and Buddhism" In: Studies in Central and East Asian Religions 9, pp. 1–17. [1][permanent dead link]