Tokugawa Yoshimune

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Tokugawa Yoshimune
Tokugawa Yoshimune.jpg
In office
Preceded byTokugawa Ietsugu
Succeeded byTokugawa Ieshige
Personal details
Born(1684-11-27)November 27, 1684
DiedJuly 12, 1751(1751-07-12) (aged 66)

Tokugawa Yoshimune (徳川 吉宗, November 27, 1684 – July 12, 1751) was the eighth shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, ruling from 1716 until his abdication in 1745. He was the son of Tokugawa Mitsusada, the grandson of Tokugawa Yorinobu, and the great-grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu.


Yoshimune was not the son of any former shōgun. Rather, he was a member of a cadet branch of the Tokugawa clan. Tokugawa Ieyasu, the founder of the Tokugawa shogunate, well aware of the extinction of the Minamoto line in 1219, had realized that his direct descendants might die out, leaving the Tokugawa family at risk of extinction. Thus, while his son Tokugawa Hidetada was the second shōgun, he selected three other sons to establish the gosanke, hereditary houses which would provide a shōgun if there were no male heir. The three gosanke were the Owari, Kii, and Mito branches.

Yoshimune was from the branch of Kii. The founder of the Kii house was one of Tokugawa Ieyasu's sons, Tokugawa Yorinobu. Ieyasu appointed him daimyō of Kii. Yorinobu's son, Tokugawa Mitsusada, succeeded him. Two of Mitsusada's sons succeeded him, and when they died, Tokugawa Yoshimune, Mitsusada's fourth son, became daimyō of Kii in 1705. Later, he became shōgun.

Yoshimune was closely related to the Tokugawa shōguns. His grandfather, Tokugawa Yorinobu, was a brother of second shōgun Tokugawa Hidetada, while Yoshimune's father, Tokugawa Mitsusada, was a first cousin of third shōgun Tokugawa Iemitsu. Yoshimune thus was a second cousin to the fourth and fifth shōguns (both brothers) Tokugawa Ietsuna and Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, as well as a second cousin to Tokugawa Tsunashige, whose son became shōgun Tokugawa Ienobu.

Early life (1684–1716)[edit]

Tokugawa Yoshimune was born in 1684 in the rich region of Kii, a region which was then ruled by his father, Tokugawa Mitsusada. Yoshimune's childhood name was Tokugawa Genroku (徳川 源六). At that time, his second cousin Tokugawa Tsunayoshi was ruling in Edo as shōgun. Kii was a rich region of over 500,000 koku, but it was still in debt. Even during Mitsusada's time, Kii was in deep debt and had a lot to pay back to the shogunate.

In 1697, Genroku underwent the rites of passage and took the name Tokugawa Shinnosuke (徳川 新之助). In 1705, when Shinnosuke was just 21 years old, his father Mitsusada and two older brothers died. Thus, the ruling shōgun Tokugawa Tsunayoshi appointed him daimyō of Kii. He took the name Tokugawa Yorimasa (頼方) and began to administer the province. Nonetheless, great financial debt which the domain had owed to the shogunate since his father's and even grandfather's time continued to burden the finances. What made things worse was that in 1707, a tsunami destroyed and killed many in the coastal areas of Kii Province. Yorimasa did his best to try to stabilize things in Kii, but relied on leadership from Edo.

In 1712, Shogun Ienobu died, and was succeeded by his son, the boy-shōgun Tokugawa Ietsugu. Yorimasa decided that he could not rely on conservative Confucianists like Arai Hakuseki in Edo and did what he could to stabilize Kii Domain. Before he could implement changes, shōgun Ietsugu died in early 1716. He was only seven years old, and died without an heir, rule thus shogunate selected the next shōgun from one of the cadet lines.


  • Father: Tokugawa Mitsusada
  • Mother: Oyuri no Kata later Jōenin [ja] (1655–1726)
  • Half siblings:
    • Tokugawa Tsunanori (1665–1705) 4th daimyō of Kishū and married Tsuruhime, daughter of 5th shōgun Tokugawa Tsunayoshi
    • Jirokichi
    • Tokugawa Yorimoto (1680–1705) 5th daimyō of Kishū
    • Sakae-Hime married Uesugi Tsunanori of Yonezawa Domain
    • Norihime married Ichijō Kaneteru
    • Tsunahime
    • Ikuhime married Satake Yoshimitsu
  • Wife: Fushimi-no-Miya Masako (1691–1710) later Kontokuin
  • Concubines:
    • Osuma no Kata (1688–1713) later Shintokuin
    • Okon no Kata (1696–1723) later Hontokuin
    • Oume no Kata later Shinshin'in (1700–1721)
    • Okume no Kata later Kakujuin (1697–1777)
    • Osatsu no Kata
  • Children:
  • Illegitimate Son: Tenichi (mother was Shirabyoshi; sentenced to death during Yoshimune's reign)
  • adopted daughters:

Shōgun (1716–1745)[edit]

Yoshimune succeeded to the post of the shōgun in Shōtoku-1 (1716).[1] His term as shōgun lasted for 30 years. Yoshimune is considered among the best of the Tokugawa shōguns.[2]

Yoshimune established the gosankyō to augment (or perhaps to replace) the gosanke. Two of his sons, together with the second son of his successor Ieshige, became the founders of the Tayasu, Hitotsubashi and Shimizu lines. Unlike the gosanke, they did not rule domains. Still, they remained prominent until the end of Tokugawa rule, and some later shōguns were chosen from the Hitotsubashi line.

Yoshimune is known for his financial reforms. He dismissed the conservative adviser Arai Hakuseki and he began what would come to be known as the Kyōhō Reforms.

Yoshimune also tried to resurrect the Japanese swordsmithing tradition. Since the beginning of the Edo period, it was quite difficult for smiths to make a living and to be supported by daimyōs, because of the lack of funds. But Yoshimune was quite unhappy with this situation, causing a decline of skills. And so, he gathered smiths from daimyō fiefs for a great contest, in 1721. The four winners who emerged were all great masters, Mondo no Shō Masakiyo (主水正正清), Ippei Yasuyo (一平安代), the 4th generation Nanki Shigekuni (南紀重国) and Nobukuni Shigekane (信国重包). But it did not work well to arouse interest, quite like tournaments in modern Japan.

Yoshimune also ordered the compilation of Kyōhō Meibutsu Chō (享保名物帳), listing the best and most famous swords all over Japan. This book allowed the beginning of the Shinshintō period of Nihontō history, and indirectly contributed to the Gassan school, who protected the Nihontō tradition before and after the surrender of Japan.

Although foreign books had been strictly forbidden since 1640, Yoshimune relaxed the rules in 1720, starting an influx of foreign books and their translations into Japan, and initiating the development of Western studies, or rangaku.[3] Yoshimune's relaxation of the rules may have been influenced by a series of lectures delivered before him by the astronomer and philosopher Nishikawa Joken.[3]

Ōgosho (1745–1751)[edit]

In 1745, Yoshimune retired, took the title Ōgosho and left his public post to his oldest son. The title is the one that Tokugawa Ieyasu took on retirement in favor of his son Hidetada, who in turn took the same title on his retirement.

Yoshimune died on the 20th day of the 5th month of the year Kan'en-4 (July 12, 1751).[4] His Buddhist name was Yutokuin and he was buried in Kan'ei-ji.

Notable descendants[edit]

Tokugawa Ieshige

Tokugawa Munetada

  • Yasuhime married Shimazu Shigehide
  • Sennosuke
  • Matsudaira Shigemasa
  • Kanejiro
  • Kenzaburo
  • Kuroda Haruyuki (1753–1781)
    • Morosaburo
  • Matsudaira Shigetomi
  • Tokugawa Harusada
    • Kiihime married Hosokawa Naritatsu
    • Tokugawa Ienari
    • Matsudaira Yoshisue (1785–1804)
    • Kuroda Naritaka (1777–1795)
    • Tokugawa Harukuni (1776–1793)
    • Tokugawa Nariatsu
      • Katsuchiyo
      • Tokugawa Narinori (1803–1830)
      • Nobunosuke
      • Rikihime married Arima Yorinori
      • Kikuhime married Okudaira Nobumasa
      • Tsunehime (1805–1858) married Shimazu Nariakira
        • Kikusaburo
    • Tokugawa Narimasa
      • Kinhime (1800–1830) married Tokugawa Narinori of Hitotsubashi-Tokugawa family
      • Shizuhime (1803–1803)
      • Tokugawa Masatoki (1805–1839)
      • Naohime (1807–1872) married Tokugawa Naritaka
      • Takeshisuke (1799–1800)
      • Tsuhime (1800–1801)
      • Hi-hime (1805–1860) married Matsudaira Sadamichi of Kuwana Domain
      • Aihime (1813–1832) married Tokugawa Nariharu
      • Tokugawa Yoshihisa (1823–1847) of Hitotsubashi-Tokugawa Family
      • Sonosuke (1824–1825)
      • Miru'in (1807–1807)
      • Kenzaburo (1814–1817)
      • Suruda-hime (1807–1820) betrothed to Tsugaru Nobuyuki
      • Kinhime (1809–1851) married Tsugaru Nobuyuki
      • Kihime (1811–1817) betrothed to Matsudaira Sadakazu of Kuwana Domain
      • San-sen hime (1818–1820)
      • Senjuhime (1821–1860) married Matsudaira Takeshige of Hamada Domain
      • Tsunehime (1815–1819)
      • Toshihime (1816–1818)
      • Tokugawa Narikura (1818–1837) of Hitotsubashi-Tokugawa Family
      • Junhime (1821–1906) married Tachibana Akitomo of Yanagawa Domain
      • Yaehime (1823–1826)
      • Ikunosuke (1825–1826)
      • Itarihime (1824–1826)
      • Matsudaira Shungaku
        • Rokunosuke (1872)
        • Naohime (1873)
        • Kotai (1875)
        • Yasuhime (1860–1865)
        • Sadahime (1865)
        • Setsuko (1876–1936) married Matsudaira Yasutaka
        • Matsudaira Yoshichika of Owari tokugawa branch
        • Chiyoko married Sanjo Kinyoshi
        • Matsudaira Yoshitami
          • Matsudaira Nagayoshi
        • Masako married Mori Goro
          • Mori Motoyoshi
        • Satoko (1878–1955) married Atsushi Tokugawa
          • Tokugawa Yoshihiro
          • Tokugawa Yoshitomi
          • Tokugawa Yoshinao
          • Tokugawa Yoshitomo
          • Tokugawa Hisako
          • Tokugawa Yoshikuni
          • Tokugawa Kiwako married Todo Toyotora
      • Tokugawa Yoshiyori of Tayasu-Tokugawa Family
        • Haruhime (1868–1868)
        • Okimaru (1871–1871)
        • Ryumaro (1862–1862)
        • Shizuhime (1866–1912) married Sakai Tadazumi
        • Kagahime (1867–1868)
        • Kikuhime (1856–1865)
        • Tokugawa Takachiyo
        • son later Shiun'in (1862–1862)
        • Tokugawa Iesato
        • Tokugawa Yorimichi (1872–1925) of Kii-Tokugawa Family
          • Senman
          • Tokugawa Haru
          • Tokugawa Yorisada
            • Tokugawa Yoriaki
            • Takako marries Tokugawa Tsuyoshi
        • Tokugawa Satotaka
          • Sumiko married Naoyoshi Mizoguchi by Kyoko
          • Tokiko married Tsuchiya Kennao
          • Tsuyako married Tachibana Kantoku
          • Keiko married Okubo Kan'ichi
          • Shuko married Tokugawa Takesada of Matsudo-Tokugawa Family
            • Tokugawa Hirotake
          • Satonari Tokugawa
            • Munefusa Tokugawa
            • Masako married Tokugawa Yoshiyasu of Owari-Tokugawa Family
            • Tokugawa Munemasa (1930–1999)
            • Tokugawa Munehiro
            • Sumiko married Hitoguchi Michiobu
            • Matsudaira Munetoshi (b. 1940)
              • Matsudaira Teruyasu
              • Matsudaira Satoko
              • Matsudaira Uketamasa
      • Ryohime (1808–1890) married Sakai Tadaaki
        • Sakai Tadamichi
          • Sakai Tadahisa
            • Kikuko married Sakai Tadaatsu
            • Masako married Saji Hidesato
            • Kimiko married Shimohara Hideo
            • Kokiko married Saeki Teruaki
            • Satoko married Takegawa Junpei
            • Kishiko married Saeki Tomoaki
            • Hisako
            • Kiwako
          • Sakai Tadanaga
            • Kiyoko married Nishio Nakamitsu
            • Kazuko married Omura Junyuki
            • Chizuyo married Sakai Tadayasu
              • Sumiko married Ogoshi Tsuyoshi
              • Tsuruko married Oguri Katsuhide
            • Sakai Tadaharu
            • Sakai Tadaakira
              • Sakai Tadahisa
              • Sakai Tadahito
              • Noriko married Fuji Mitsunaga
              • Mashiko married Ishihara Shigechika

Tokugawa Munetake

  • Mikuzumi (1747–1753)
  • Tanehime (1765–1794) married Tokugawa Harutomi
  • Sadahime (1767–1813) married Matsudari Haruyoshi
  • Otogiku (1752–1753)
  • Osamuhime (1756–1820) married Sakai Tadanori
  • Keijiro (1745–1753)
  • Tokugawa Haruaki
  • Makotohime (1741–1759) Date Shigemura's fiancée
  • Yuhime (1743–1743)
  • Tetsunosuke (1747–1752)
  • Shukuhime (1744–1815) married Nabeshima Shigeharu
  • Setsuhime (1756–1815) married Mori Haruchika
  • Nakahime (1751–1779) married Ikeda Shigenobu
    • Ikeda Haruyuki (1765–1781)
  • Matsudaira Sadakuni (1757–1804) inherited Iyo-Matsuyama Domain
    • Matsudaira Sadanori (1793–1803)
    • daughter married Sakai Tadayori
    • Matsudaira Sadamichi (1805–1835)
      • daughter married Matsudaira Katsushige of Hisamatsu-Matsudaira Family
  • Matsudaira Sadanobu
    • daughter married Katō Yasuzumi
    • daughter married Matsudaira Terutake
    • Fukuhime married Matsudaira Sadanori
    • daughter married Matsura Hiromu
    • Kotohime married Makino Tadatsune of Nagaoka Domain later married Naitō Nobuatsu
    • Sanada Yukitsura (1791–1852)
      • daughter married Kutsuki Tsunaeda of Fukuchiyama domain
      • Sanada Yukiyoshi (1814–1844)
        • Sadahime married Matsudaira Sadamichi of Kuwana Domain
        • Sanada Yukinori (1836–1869)
          • Masahime married Ishikawa Shigenori
          • Yoshihime married Honda Tadaatsu
          • Sanada Yukiyo (1870–1948)
            • Sanada Yukikuni
            • Sanada Yukikazu
    • daughter married Suwa Tadahiro
      • Suwa Tadamori
    • Matsudaira Sadanaga
      • Matsudaira Chikayoshi
      • Matsudaira Sadakazu (1812–1841)
        • Toyoko married Kuroda Nagatomo
        • Matsudaira Sadamichi (1834–1859)
          • Hatsuko married Matsudaira Sadaaki
          • Matsudaira Sadanori (1857–1899)
            • Eiko married Matsudaira Sadaharu
      • Itakura Katsukiyo
        • Itakura Katsukira
      • Toki Yoriyuki (1826–1873)
        • Sugoko married Ohara Shigetomo
        • Suzuko married Tamura Takaaki
        • Tori Yorioki (1848–1911)
          • daughter married Oyamada Nobukura
          • daughter married Okubo Tatsu
          • Tori Yoritoshi (d. 1911)
          • Tori Yuki (d. 1918)

Eras of Yoshimune's rule[edit]

The years in which Yoshimune was shōgun are more specifically identified by more than one era name or nengō.[1]



  1. ^ a b Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon, p. 417.
  2. ^ Screech, T. (2006). Secret Memoirs of the Shoguns: Isaac Titsingh and Japan, 1779–1822. pp. 99, 238.
  3. ^ a b Josephson, Jason (2012). The Invention of Religion in Japan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 106. ISBN 9780226412351.
  4. ^ Screech, p. 128.
  5. ^ "Genealogy". Reichsarchiv (in Japanese). Retrieved 4 July 2018.


Royal titles
Preceded by Lord of Kishū:
Tokugawa Yoshimune

Succeeded by
Military offices
Preceded by Shōgun:
Tokugawa Yoshimune

Succeeded by