Tokusō

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Tokusō (得宗) was the title (post) held by the head of the mainline Hōjō clan, who also monopolized the position of shikken (regents to the shogunate) of the Kamakura shogunate in Japan during the period of Regent Rule (1199–1333). Its important to not confuse a regent to the shogunate with a regent to the Emperor (the latter are called Sesshō and Kampaku). Shikkens were the first regents to the shogunate.

The tokusō from 1256 to 1333 was the military dictator of Japan as de-facto head of the bakufu (shogunate); despite the actual shogun being merely a puppet. This implies that all other positions in Japan—the Emperor, the Imperial Court, Sesshō and Kampaku, and the shikken (regent of the shogun)—had also been reduced to figureheads.[1]

Origin[edit]

The name tokusō is said to have come from Tokushū (徳崇), the Buddhist name of Hōjō Yoshitoki, but Hōjō Tokimasa is usually regarded as the first tokusō. There were eight tokusō:

  1. Hōjō Tokimasa
  2. Hōjō Yoshitoki
  3. Hōjō Yasutoki
  4. Hōjō Tsunetoki
  5. Hōjō Tokiyori
  6. Hōjō Tokimune
  7. Hōjō Sadatoki
  8. Hōjō Takatoki

The political structure of the tokusō dictatorship was set up by Yasutoki and was consolidated by his grandson Tokiyori. The tokusō line held overwhelming power over the gokenin and the cadet lines of the Hōjō clan. Tokiyori often worked out policies at private meetings (寄合 yoriai) at his residence instead of discussing them at the Hyōjō (評定), the council of the shogunate. This made the tokusō's private retainers (御内人 miuchibito) stronger. In 1256 Tokiyori separated the positions of shikken and tokusō for the first time. Because of an illness, he installed his infant son Tokimune as the tokusō while Nagatoki, a collateral relative, was appointed shikken to assist Tokimune.

See also[edit]

Refs[edit]

  1. ^ 「執権 (一)」(『国史大辞典 6』(吉川弘文館1985年ISBN 978-4-642-00506-7

De Facto Rulers of Japan

Meiji oligarchy Tokugawa clan Toyotomi%20clan Daimyo Ashikaga clan Hojo%20clan Minamoto%20clan Taira%20clan Fujiwara clan Emperor of Japan Soga clan Heguri no Matori Prime Minister of Japan Home Ministry Shogun Sengoku period Shogun Tokusō Shikken Shogun Jōkō Sesshō and Kampaku Emperor of Japan Omi Omi

Notes:

  • Ōkimi was the ancient name for the Great Chieftain of Yamato confederacy, Ōkimi were posthumously named Emperors (Tennō) in later eras. There was considerable power sharing with regional chieftains, despite fuzzy (pre)history, the periods indicated Ōkimi are assumed to be de-facto rulers.
  • O+S means both Ōkimi and Sesshō.
  • Figurehead bar: 'No' is actually 'None known' (tiny text area)
  • Sesshō means imperial regent, an imperial prince or princess.
  • LoHA is Lord of Home Affairs(De Facto PM).