The Lord of the Rings

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The Lord of the Rings
First Single Volume Edition of The Lord of the Rings.gif
The first single-volume edition (1968)

AuthorJ. R. R. Tolkien
CountryUnited Kingdom
PublisherAllen & Unwin
  • 29 July 1954 (The Fellowship of the Ring)
  • 11 November 1954 (The Two Towers)
  • 20 October 1955 (The Return of the King)
Media typePrint (hardback & paperback)
Preceded byThe Hobbit
Followed byThe Adventures of Tom Bombadil

The Lord of the Rings is an epic[1] high-fantasy book by the English author and scholar J. R. R. Tolkien; he called it a "heroic romance", denying that it was a novel.[T 1] The story began as a sequel to Tolkien's 1937 children's book The Hobbit, but eventually developed into a much larger work. Written in stages between 1937 and 1949, The Lord of the Rings is one of the best-selling books ever written, with over 150 million copies sold.[2]

The title names the story's main antagonist, the Dark Lord Sauron, who had in an earlier age created the One Ring to rule the other Rings of Power as the ultimate weapon in his campaign to conquer and rule all of Middle-earth. From quiet beginnings in the Shire, a hobbit land not unlike the English countryside, the story ranges across Middle-earth, following the course of the War of the Ring through the eyes of its characters, most notably the hobbits Frodo, Sam, Merry and Pippin.

Although generally known to readers as a trilogy, the work was initially intended by Tolkien to be one volume of a two-volume set, the other to be The Silmarillion, but this idea was dismissed by his publisher.[3][T 2] For economic reasons, The Lord of the Rings was published in three volumes over the course of a year from 29 July 1954 to 20 October 1955.[3][4] The three volumes were titled The Fellowship of the Ring, The Two Towers and The Return of the King. Structurally, the work is divided internally into six books, two per volume, with several appendices of background material at the end. Some editions print the entire work into a single volume, following the author's original intent. The Lord of the Rings has since been reprinted many times and translated into at least 56 languages.

Tolkien's work has been the subject of extensive analysis of its themes and origins. Although a major work in itself, the story was only the last movement of a much older set of narratives Tolkien had worked on since 1917 encompassing The Silmarillion,[5] in a process he described as mythopoeia.[a] Influences on this earlier work, and on the story of The Lord of the Rings, include philology, mythology, religion, earlier fantasy works, and his own experiences in the First World War. The Lord of the Rings in its turn has had a great effect on modern fantasy.

The enduring popularity of The Lord of the Rings has led to numerous references in popular culture, the founding of many societies by fans of Tolkien's works,[7] and the publication of many books about Tolkien and his works. The Lord of the Rings has inspired, and continues to inspire, artwork, music, films and television, video games, board games, and subsequent literature. Award-winning adaptations of The Lord of the Rings have been made for radio, theatre, and film. It has been named Britain's best novel of all time in the BBC's The Big Read.

Plot summary[edit]

The Fellowship of the Ring[edit]


The prologue explains that the book is "largely concerned with hobbits", and tells of their origins, migrating from the east; of how they smoke "pipe-weed"; of how the Shire where most of them live is organised; and how the narrative follows on from The Hobbit, in which the hobbit Bilbo Baggins finds the Ring, which had been in the possession of the creature Gollum.[T 3]

Book 1[edit]

The story begins in the Shire, where Frodo Baggins inherits the Ring from Bilbo, his cousin[b] and guardian.[T 4] Neither hobbit is aware of the Ring's nature, but Gandalf the Grey, a wizard and an old friend of Bilbo, suspects it to be the Ring lost by Sauron, the Dark Lord, long ago. Seventeen years later, after Gandalf confirms this is true, he tells Frodo the history of the Ring and counsels him to take it away from the Shire.[T 5] Frodo sets out, accompanied by his gardener, servant and friend, Samwise "Sam" Gamgee, and two cousins, Meriadoc "Merry" Brandybuck and Peregrin "Pippin" Took.[T 6][T 7][T 8] They are nearly caught by the Black Riders, but shake off their pursuers by cutting through the Old Forest. Pippin is trapped by Old Man Willow, but rescued by Tom Bombadil, a strange and merry fellow who lives with his wife Goldberry in the forest. They find that the Ring has no effect on him, nor does it prevent him from seeing its wearer.[T 9][T 10] Leaving, they are promptly caught by a barrow-wight, who traps them with evil spells in a barrow on the downs; Frodo, awakening, manages to call Bombadil, who frees them, and equips them with ancient swords from the barrow-wight's hoard.[T 11]

The hobbits reach the town of Bree, where they encounter a Ranger named Strider, whom Gandalf had mentioned in a letter. Strider persuades the hobbits to take him on as their guide and protector.[T 12] Together, they leave Bree after another close escape from the Black Riders, who they now know to be the Nazgûl, servants of Sauron.[T 13] On the hill of Weathertop, they are again attacked by the Nazgûl, who wound Frodo with a cursed blade.[T 14] Strider fights them off and leads the hobbits towards the Elven refuge of Rivendell. Frodo falls deathly ill from the wound. The Nazgûl nearly capture him at the Ford of Bruinen, but flood waters summoned by Elrond, master of Rivendell, rise up and overwhelm them.[T 15]

Book 2[edit]

Frodo recovers in Rivendell under Elrond's care.[T 16] The Council of Elrond discusses the history of Sauron and the Ring. Strider is revealed to be Aragorn, Isildur's heir. Gandalf reports that the chief wizard Saruman has betrayed them and is now working to become a power in his own right. The Council decides that the Ring must be destroyed, but that can only be done by sending it to the fire of Mount Doom in Mordor, where it was forged. Frodo takes this task upon himself.[T 17] Elrond, with the advice of Gandalf, chooses companions for him. The Company of the Ring, also called the Fellowship of the Ring, are nine in number: Frodo, Sam, Merry, Pippin, Aragorn, Gandalf, Gimli the Dwarf, Legolas the Elf, and the Man Boromir, son of Denethor, the Ruling Steward of the land of Gondor.[T 18]

After a failed attempt to cross the Misty Mountains over the Redhorn Pass, the Company take the perilous path through the Mines of Moria. They learn of the fate of Balin and his colony of Dwarves.[T 19] After surviving an attack, they are pursued by Orcs and by a Balrog, an ancient fire demon. Gandalf faces the Balrog, and both of them fall into the abyss.[T 20] The others escape and find refuge in the Elven forest of Lothlórien, where they are counselled by its rulers, Galadriel and Celeborn.[T 21] before they leave, Galadriel searches their hearts, and gives them individual, more or less magical, gifts to help them on their quest. She allows Frodo and Sam to look into her fountain, the Mirror of Galadriel, to see visions of past, present, and perhaps future.[T 22]

Celeborn gives the Fellowship boats, elven cloaks, and waybread, and the Company travel down the River Anduin to the hill of Amon Hen.[T 23][T 24] There, Boromir tries to take the Ring from Frodo, but Frodo puts it on and disappears. Frodo chooses to go alone to Mordor, but Sam guesses what he intends, intercepts him as he tries to take a boat across the river, and goes with him.[T 25]

The Two Towers[edit]

Book 3[edit]

Large Orcs, Uruk-hai, sent by Saruman and other Orcs sent by Sauron kill Boromir and capture Merry and Pippin.[T 26] Aragorn, Gimli and Legolas debate which pair of hobbits to follow. They decide to pursue the Orcs taking Merry and Pippin to Saruman.[T 27] In the kingdom of Rohan, the Orcs are slain by a company of horsemen, Riders of Rohan, led by Éomer.[T 28] Merry and Pippin escape into Fangorn Forest, where they are befriended by Treebeard, the oldest of the tree-like Ents.[T 29] Aragorn, Gimli and Legolas track the hobbits to Fangorn. There they unexpectedly meet Gandalf.[T 30]

Gandalf explains that he killed the Balrog. Darkness took him, but he was sent back to Middle-earth to complete his mission. He is clothed in white and is now Gandalf the White, for he has taken Saruman's place as the chief of the wizards. Gandalf assures his friends that Merry and Pippin are safe.[T 30] Together they ride to Edoras, capital of Rohan. Gandalf frees Théoden, King of Rohan, from the influence of Saruman's spy Gríma Wormtongue. Théoden musters his fighting strength and rides with his men to the ancient fortress of Helm's Deep, while Gandalf departs to seek help from Treebeard.[T 31]

Meanwhile, the Ents, roused by Merry and Pippin from their peaceful ways, attack and destroy Isengard, Saruman's stronghold, and flood it, trapping the wizard in the tower of Orthanc.[T 32] Gandalf convinces Treebeard to send an army of Huorns to Théoden's aid. Gandalf brings an army of Rohirrim to Helm's Deep, and they defeat the Orcs, who flee into the forest of Huorns, never to be seen again.[T 33] Gandalf, Theoden, Legolas, and Gimli ride to Isengard, and are surprised to find Merry and Pippin relaxing amidst the ruins.[T 34] Gandalf offers Saruman a chance to turn away from evil. When Saruman refuses to listen, Gandalf strips him of his rank and most of his powers.[T 35] After Saruman crawls back to his prison, Wormtongue throws down a hard round object to try to kill Gandalf. Pippin picks it up. Gandalf takes it, but Pippin steals it in the night. It is revealed to be a palantír, a seeing-stone that Saruman used to speak with Sauron, and that Sauron used to ensnare him. Pippin is seen by Sauron. Gandalf rides for Minas Tirith, chief city of Gondor, taking Pippin with him.[T 36]

Book 4[edit]

Frodo and Sam struggle through the barren hills and cliffs of the Emyn Muil. They become aware they are being watched and tracked; on a moonlit night they capture Gollum, who has followed them from Moria. Frodo makes Gollum swear to serve him, as Ringbearer, and asks him to guide them to Mordor.[T 37] Gollum leads them across the Dead Marshes. Sam overhears Gollum debating with his alter ego, Sméagol, whether to break his promise and steal the Ring.[T 38] They find that the Black Gate of Mordor is too well guarded, so instead they travel south through the land of Ithilien, once a fertile province of Gondor, to a secret way that Gollum knows.[T 39][T 40] On the way, they encounter Faramir, who, unlike his brother Boromir, resists the temptation to seize the Ring.[T 41] Gollum – who is torn between his loyalty to Frodo and his desire for the Ring – betrays Frodo by leading him to the great spider Shelob in the tunnels of Cirith Ungol.[T 42][T 43][T 44] Frodo falls to Shelob's sting. But with the help of Galadriel's gift to Frodo, a phial of the light of Elbereth's star, and the sword Sting, Sam fights off and seriously wounds the monster.[T 45] Believing Frodo to be dead, Sam takes the Ring to continue the quest alone. Orcs find Frodo; Sam overhears them and learns that Frodo is still alive.[T 46]

The Return of the King[edit]

Book 5[edit]

Sauron sends a great army against Gondor. Gandalf arrives at Minas Tirith to warn Denethor of the attack,[T 47] while Théoden musters the Rohirrim to ride to Gondor's aid.[T 48] Minas Tirith is besieged. The Lord of the Nazgûl brings an evil battering-ram, Grond, and destroy's the city's gates.[T 49] Denethor, deceived by Sauron, falls into despair. He burns himself alive on a pyre, nearly taking his son Faramir with him.[T 50] Aragorn, accompanied by Legolas, Gimli and the Rangers of the North, takes the Paths of the Dead to recruit the Dead Men of Dunharrow, who are bound by a curse which denies them rest until they fulfil their ancient oath to fight for the King of Gondor.[T 51]

Following Aragorn, the Army of the Dead strikes terror into the Corsairs of Umbar invading southern Gondor. Aragorn defeats the Corsairs and uses their ships to transport the men of southern Gondor up the Anduin,[T 52] reaching Minas Tirith just in time to turn the tide of battle.[T 53] Théoden's niece Éowyn, who joined the army in disguise,[T 48] kills the Lord of the Nazgûl with help from Merry; both are wounded. Together, Gondor and Rohan defeat Sauron's army in the Battle of the Pelennor Fields, though at great cost; King Théoden is among the dead.[T 54]

Aragorn leads an army of men from Gondor and Rohan, marching through Ithilien to the Black Gate to distract Sauron from his true danger.[T 52] His army for the Battle of the Morannon is vastly outnumbered by the great might of Mordor. Sauron attacks with overwhelming force.[T 55]

Book 6[edit]

Meanwhile, Sam rescues Frodo from the tower of Cirith Ungol.[T 56] They set out across Mordor.[T 57] Frodo and Sam reach the edge of the Cracks of Doom, but Frodo cannot resist the Ring any longer. He claims it for himself and puts it on his finger.[T 58] Gollum suddenly reappears. He struggles with Frodo and bites off Frodo's finger with the Ring still on it. Celebrating wildly, Gollum loses his footing and falls into the Fire, taking the Ring with him.[T 58] When the Ring is destroyed, Sauron loses his power forever. All he created collapses, the Nazgûl perish, and his armies are thrown into such disarray that Aragorn's forces emerge victorious.[T 59]

Aragorn is crowned King of Arnor and Gondor, and weds Arwen, daughter of Elrond.[T 60] Théoden is buried and Éomer is crowned King of Rohan. His sister Éowyn is engaged to marry Faramir, now Steward of Gondor and Prince of Ithilien. Éowyn gives Merry a horn to arouse his people at need, and dismay his enemies. Galadriel, Celeborn, and Gandalf meet and say farewell to Treebeard, and to Aragorn.[T 61]

The four hobbits make their way back to the Shire,[T 62] only to find that it has been taken over by men directed by one "Sharkey" (whom they later discover to be Saruman). Merry blows his horn; the hobbits raise a rebellion and scour the Shire of Sharkey's evil. Frodo stops the hobbits from killing the wizard after Saruman attempts to stab Frodo, but Gríma ("Wormtongue") turns on Saruman and kills him in front of Bag End, Frodo's home. He is killed in turn by hobbit archers, and the War of the Ring comes to its true end on Frodo's very doorstep.[T 63] Merry and Pippin are celebrated as heroes. Sam marries Rosie Cotton and uses his gifts from Galadriel to help heal the Shire. But Frodo is still wounded in body and spirit, having borne the Ring for so long. A few years later, in the company of Bilbo and Gandalf, Frodo sails from the Grey Havens west over the Sea to the Undying Lands to find peace.[T 64]


The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen tells how it came about that an immortal elf came to marry a man, as Arwen's ancestor Lúthien had done in the First Age, giving up her immortality.[T 65] It is told, too, that Sam gives his daughter Elanor the Red Book of Westmarch, which contains the story of Bilbo's adventures and the War of the Ring as witnessed by the hobbits. It is said there was a tradition that Sam crossed west over the Sea himself, the last of the Ring-bearers; and that some years later, after the deaths of Aragorn and Arwen, that Legolas and Gimli too sailed "over Sea".[T 66]


Tolkien presents The Lord of the Rings within a fictional frame-story where he is not the original author, but merely the translator of part of an ancient document, the Red Book of Westmarch.[8] That book is modelled on the real Red Book of Hergest, which similarly presents an older mythology. Various details of the frame-story appear in the Prologue, its 'Note on Shire Records', and in the Appendices, notably Appendix F. In this frame-story, the Red Book is the source of Tolkien's other works relating to Middle-earth: The Hobbit, The Silmarillion, and The Adventures of Tom Bombadil.[9]

Concept and creation[edit]


The Lord of the Rings started as a sequel to Tolkien's work The Hobbit, published in 1937.[10] The popularity of The Hobbit had led George Allen & Unwin, the publishers, to request a sequel. Tolkien warned them that he wrote quite slowly, and responded with several stories he had already developed. Having rejected his contemporary drafts for The Silmarillion, putting Roverandom on hold, and accepting Farmer Giles of Ham, Allen & Unwin continued to ask for more stories about hobbits.[11] So at the age of 45, Tolkien began writing the story that would become The Lord of the Rings.[12] The story was not finished until 12 years later, in 1949, and was not fully published until 1955, when Tolkien was 63 years old.[13]


Persuaded by his publishers, he started "a new Hobbit" in December 1937.[10] After several false starts, the story of the One Ring emerged. The idea for the first chapter ("A Long-Expected Party") arrived fully formed, although the reasons behind Bilbo's disappearance, the significance of the Ring, and the title The Lord of the Rings did not arrive until the spring of 1938.[10] Originally, he planned to write a story in which Bilbo had used up all his treasure and was looking for another adventure to gain more; however, he remembered the Ring and its powers and thought that would be a better focus for the new work.[10] As the story progressed, he brought in elements from The Silmarillion mythology.[14]

Writing was slow, because Tolkien had a full-time academic position teaching linguistics.[10] "I have spent nearly all the vacation-times of seventeen years examining [...] Writing stories in prose or verse has been stolen, often guiltily, from time already mortgaged..."[T 67] Tolkien abandoned The Lord of the Rings during most of 1943 and only restarted it in April 1944,[10] as a serial for his son Christopher Tolkien, who was sent chapters as they were written while he was serving in South Africa with the Royal Air Force. Tolkien made another major effort in 1946, and showed the manuscript to his publishers in 1947.[10] The story was effectively finished the next year, but Tolkien did not complete the revision of earlier parts of the work until 1949.[10] The original manuscripts, which total 9,250 pages, now reside in the J. R. R. Tolkien Collection at Marquette University.[15]


Unusually for 20th century novels, the prose narrative is supplemented throughout by over 60 pieces of poetry. These include verse and songs of many genres: for wandering, marching to war, drinking, and having a bath; narrating ancient myths, riddles, prophecies, and magical incantations; of praise and lament (elegy). Some, such as riddles, charms, elegies, and narrating heroic actions are found in Old English poetry.[16] Scholars have stated that the poetry is essential for the fiction to work aesthetically and thematically; it adds information not given in the prose; and it brings out characters and their backgrounds.[17][18] The poetry has been judged to be of high technical skill, which Tolkien carried across into his prose, for instance writing much of Tom Bombadil's speech in metre.[19]


Beowulf's eotenas [ond] ylfe [ond] orcneas, "ogres [and] elves [and] devil-corpses" helped to inspire Tolkien to create the Orcs and Elves of Middle-earth.[20]

Tolkien drew on a wide array of influences including language,[21] Christianity,[T 68] mythology,[22] archaeology especially at the Temple of Nodens,[23] ancient and modern literature, and personal experience. He was inspired primarily by his profession, philology;[T 69] his work centred on the study of Old English literature, especially Beowulf, and he acknowledged its importance to his writings.[20] He was a gifted linguist, influenced by Celtic,[24][22] Finnish,[25] Slavic,[26] and Greek language and mythology.[27] Commentators have attempted to identify literary and topological antecedents for characters, places and events in Tolkien's writings; he acknowledged that he had enjoyed adventure stories by authors such as John Buchan and Rider Haggard.[28][29] [30] Some writers were certainly important to him, including the Arts and Crafts polymath William Morris,[T 70] and he undoubtedly made use of some real place-names, such as Bag End, the name of his aunt's home.[31] Tolkien stated, too, that he had been influenced by his childhood experiences of the English countryside of Worcestershire near Sarehole Mill, and its urbanisation by the growth of Birmingham,[T 71] and his personal experience of fighting in the trenches of the First World War.[32]


Scholars and critics have identified many themes in the book, including a reversed quest,[33][34] the struggle of good and evil,[35] death and immortality,[36] fate and free will,[37] the danger of power,[38] and various aspects of Christianity such as the presence of three Christ figures, for prophet, priest, and king, as well as elements like hope and redemptive suffering.[39][40][41][42] There is a strong thread throughout the work of language, its sound, and its relationship to peoples and places, along with moralisation from descriptions of landscape.[43] Out of these, Tolkien stated that the central theme is death and immortality.[T 72] To those who supposed that the book was an allegory of events in the 20th century, Tolkien replied in the Foreword to the Second Edition that it was not, saying he preferred "history, true or feigned, with its varied applicability to the thought and experience of readers."[T 73]

Publication history[edit]

A dispute with his publisher, George Allen & Unwin, led to his offering the work to William Collins in 1950. Tolkien intended The Silmarillion (itself largely unrevised at this point) to be published along with The Lord of the Rings, but Allen & Unwin were unwilling to do this. After Milton Waldman, his contact at Collins, expressed the belief that The Lord of the Rings itself "urgently wanted cutting", Tolkien eventually demanded that they publish the book in 1952.[44] Collins did not; and so Tolkien wrote to Allen and Unwin, saying, "I would gladly consider the publication of any part of the stuff", fearing his work would never see the light of day.[10]

For publication, the work was divided into three volumes to minimize any potential financial loss due to the high cost of type-setting and modest anticipated sales: The Fellowship of the Ring (Books I and II), The Two Towers (Books III and IV), and The Return of the King (Books V and VI plus six appendices).[45] Delays in producing appendices, maps and especially an index led to the volumes being published later than originally hoped – on 29 July 1954, on 11 November 1954 and on 20 October 1955 respectively in the United Kingdom. In the United States, Houghton Mifflin published The Fellowship of the Ring on 21 October 1954, The Two Towers on 21 April 1955, and The Return of the King on 5 January 1956.[46]

The Return of the King was especially delayed as Tolkien revised the ending and preparing appendices (some of which had to be left out because of space constraints). Tolkien did not like the title The Return of the King, believing it gave away too much of the storyline, but deferred to his publisher's preference.[47] Tolkien wrote that the title The Two Towers "can be left ambiguous,"[T 74] but considered naming the two as Orthanc and Barad-dûr, Minas Tirith and Barad-dûr, or Orthanc and the Tower of Cirith Ungol.[T 75] However, a month later he wrote a note published at the end of The Fellowship of the Ring and later drew a cover illustration, both of which identified the pair as Minas Morgul and Orthanc.[48][49]

Tolkien was initially opposed to titles being given to each two-book volume, preferring instead the use of book titles: e.g. The Lord of the Rings: Vol. 1, The Ring Sets Out and The Ring Goes South; Vol. 2, The Treason of Isengard and The Ring Goes East; Vol. 3, The War of the Ring and The End of the Third Age. However these individual book titles were dropped, and after pressure from his publishers, Tolkien suggested the volume titles: Vol. 1, The Shadow Grows; Vol. 2, The Ring in the Shadow; Vol. 3, The War of the Ring or The Return of the King.[50][51]

Because the three-volume binding was so widely distributed, the work is often referred to as the Lord of the Rings "trilogy". In a letter to the poet W. H. Auden, who famously reviewed the final volume in 1956,[52], Tolkien himself made use of the term "trilogy" for the work[T 76] though he did at other times consider this incorrect, as it was written and conceived as a single book.[T 77] It is often called a novel; however, Tolkien objected to this term as he viewed it as a heroic romance.[T 1]

The books were published under a profit-sharing arrangement, whereby Tolkien would not receive an advance or royalties until the books had broken even, after which he would take a large share of the profits.[53] It has ultimately become one of the best-selling novels ever written, with 50 million copies sold by 2003[54] and over 150 million copies sold by 2007.[2] The work was published in the UK by Allen & Unwin until 1990, when the publisher and its assets were acquired by HarperCollins.[55][56]

Editions and revisions[edit]

In the early 1960s Donald A. Wollheim, science fiction editor of the paperback publisher Ace Books, claimed that The Lord of the Rings was not protected in the United States under American copyright law because Houghton Mifflin, the US hardcover publisher, had neglected to copyright the work in the United States.[57][58] Then, in 1965, Ace Books proceeded to publish an edition, unauthorized by Tolkien and without paying royalties to him. Tolkien took issue with this and quickly notified his fans of this objection.[59] Grass-roots pressure from these fans became so great that Ace Books withdrew their edition and made a nominal payment to Tolkien.[60][T 78]

Authorized editions followed from Ballantine Books and Houghton Mifflin to tremendous commercial success. Tolkien undertook various textual revisions to produce a version of the book that would be published with his consent and establish an unquestioned US copyright. This text became the Second Edition of The Lord of the Rings, published in 1965.[60] The first Ballantine paperback edition was printed in October that year, and sold a quarter of a million copies within ten months. On 4 September 1966, the novel debuted on The New York Times's Paperback Bestsellers list as number three, and was number one by 4 December, a position it held for eight weeks.[61] Houghton Mifflin editions after 1994 consolidate variant revisions by Tolkien, and corrections supervised by Christopher Tolkien, which resulted, after some initial glitches, in a computer-based unified text.[62]

In 2004, for the 50th Anniversary Edition, Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull, under supervision from Christopher Tolkien, studied and revised the text to eliminate as many errors and inconsistencies as possible, some of which had been introduced by well-meaning compositors of the first printing in 1954, and never been corrected.[63] The 2005 edition of the book contained further corrections noticed by the editors and submitted by readers. Yet more corrections were made in the 60th Anniversary Edition in 2014.[64] Several editions, including the 50th Anniversary Edition, print the whole work in one volume, with the result that pagination varies widely over the various editions.[65]

Posthumous publication of drafts[edit]

From 1988 to 1992 Christopher Tolkien published the surviving drafts of The Lord of The Rings, chronicling and illuminating with commentary the stages of the text's development, in volumes 6–9 of his History of Middle-earth series. The four volumes carry the titles The Return of the Shadow, The Treason of Isengard, The War of the Ring, and Sauron Defeated.[66]


The work has been translated, with varying degrees of success, into at least 56 languages.[67] Tolkien, an expert in philology, examined many of these translations, and made comments on each that reflect both the translation process and his work. As he was unhappy with some choices made by early translators, such as the Swedish translation by Åke Ohlmarks,[T 79] Tolkien wrote a "Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings" (1967). Because The Lord of the Rings purports to be a translation of the fictitious Red Book of Westmarch, with the English language representing the Westron of the "original", Tolkien suggested that translators attempt to capture the interplay between English and the invented nomenclature of the English work, and gave several examples along with general guidance.[68][69]



While early reviews for The Lord of the Rings were mixed, reviews in various media have been, on the whole, highly positive and acknowledge Tolkien's literary achievement as a significant one. The initial review in the Sunday Telegraph described it as "among the greatest works of imaginative fiction of the twentieth century".[70] The Sunday Times echoed this sentiment, stating that "the English-speaking world is divided into those who have read The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit and those who are going to read them."[70] The New York Herald Tribune seemed to have an idea of how popular the books would become, writing in its review that they were "destined to outlast our time".[71] W. H. Auden, a former pupil of Tolkien's and an admirer of his writings, regarded The Lord of the Rings as a "masterpiece", further stating that in some cases it outdid the achievement of John Milton's Paradise Lost.[72] Kenneth F. Slater wrote in Nebula Science Fiction, April 1955, "... if you don't read it, you have missed one of the finest books of its type ever to appear".[73][74]

Even within Tolkien's literary group, The Inklings, reviews were mixed. Hugo Dyson complained loudly at its readings.[75][76] However, another Inkling, C. S. Lewis, had very different feelings, writing, "here are beauties which pierce like swords or burn like cold iron. Here is a book which will break your heart."[5] Lewis observed that the writing is rich in that some of the 'good' characters have darker sides, and likewise some of the villains have "good impulses".[77] Despite the mixed reviews and the lack of a paperback until the 1960s, The Lord of the Rings initially sold well in hardback.[5]

In 1957, The Lord of the Rings was awarded the International Fantasy Award. Despite its numerous detractors, the publication of the Ace Books and Ballantine paperbacks helped The Lord of the Rings become immensely popular in the United States in the 1960s. The book has remained so ever since, ranking as one of the most popular works of fiction of the twentieth century, judged by both sales and reader surveys.[78] In the 2003 "Big Read" survey conducted in Britain by the BBC, The Lord of the Rings was found to be the "Nation's best-loved book". In similar 2004 polls both Germany[79] and Australia[80] chose The Lord of the Rings as their favourite book. In a 1999 poll of customers, The Lord of the Rings was judged to be their favourite "book of the millennium".[81] In 2019, the BBC News listed The Lord of the Rings on its list of the 100 most influential novels.[82]


Judith Shulevitz, writing in The New York Times, criticized the "pedantry" of Tolkien's literary style, saying that he "formulated a high-minded belief in the importance of his mission as a literary preservationist, which turns out to be death to literature itself".[83] The critic Richard Jenkyns, writing in The New Republic, criticized the work for a lack of psychological depth. Both the characters and the work itself were, according to Jenkyns, "anemic, and lacking in fibre".[84]

A few critics have found what they consider racial elements in the story, which are generally based upon their views of how Tolkien's imagery depicts good and evil, characters' race (e.g. Elf, Dwarf, Hobbit, Southron, Númenórean, Orc), and how the characters' race is seen as determining their behaviour.[85][86][87] However, counter-arguments note that race-focused critiques often omit relevant textual evidence,[88][89][90] cite imagery from adaptations rather than the work itself,[91] ignore the absence of evidence of racist attitudes or events in the author's personal life,[88][91][92] and claim that the perception of racism is itself a marginal view.[92] The opinions that pit races against each other most likely reflect Tolkien's criticism of war rather than a racist perspective. In The Two Towers, the character Sam sees a fallen foe, a man of colour, and considers the humanity of this fallen Southron.[T 80] The Tolkien scholar Sandra Ballif Straubhaar found Sam's reaction "[hard] to find fault with".[93]

Others have seen social class rather than race as the determining factor in the portrayal of good and evil.[88] Commentators such as science fiction author David Brin have interpreted the work to hold unquestioning devotion to a traditional hierarchical social structure.[94] In his essay "Epic Pooh", science fiction and fantasy author Michael Moorcock critiques the world-view displayed by the book as deeply conservative, in both the "paternalism" of the narrative voice and the power-structures in the narrative.[95] Tom Shippey cites the origin of this portrayal of evil as a reflection of the prejudices of European middle-classes during the inter-war years towards the industrial working class.[96]


The Lord of the Rings has been adapted for film, radio and stage.


The book has been adapted for radio four times. In 1955 and 1956, the BBC broadcast The Lord of the Rings, a 13-part radio adaptation of the story. In the 1960s radio station WBAI produced a short radio adaptation. A 1979 dramatization of The Lord of the Rings was broadcast in the United States and subsequently issued on tape and CD. In 1981, the BBC broadcast The Lord of the Rings, a new dramatization in 26 half-hour instalments.[97]


A variety of filmmakers considered adapting Tolkien's book, among them Stanley Kubrick, who thought it unfilmable,[98][99] Michaelangelo Antonioni, Heinz Edelmann,[100] and John Boorman.[101] Two film adaptations of the book have been made. The first was J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings (1978), by animator Ralph Bakshi, the first part of what was originally intended to be a two-part adaptation of the story; it covers The Fellowship of the Ring and part of The Two Towers.[102]

The second and more commercially successful adaptation was Peter Jackson's live action The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, produced by New Line Cinema and released in three instalments as The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001), The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (2002), and The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003). All three parts won multiple Academy Awards, including consecutive Best Picture nominations. The final instalment of this trilogy was the second film to break the one-billion-dollar barrier and won a total of 11 Oscars (something only two other films in history, Ben-Hur and Titanic, have accomplished), including Best Picture, Best Director and Best Adapted Screenplay.[103][104]

The Hunt for Gollum, a 2009 film by Chris Bouchard,[105][106] and the 2009 Born of Hope, written by Paula DiSante and directed by Kate Madison, are fan films based on details in the appendices of The Lord of the Rings.[107]


Rankin and Bass used a loophole in the publication of The Lord of the Rings (which made it public domain in the US) to make an animated TV special based on the closing chapters of The Return of the King. It came out in 1980 to mixed reviews.[108][109]

In 2017, Amazon acquired the global television rights to The Lord of the Rings for a multi-season television series of new stories set before The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings,[110] based on J.R.R. Tolkien's writings about events of the Second Age of Middle-earth.[111] Amazon said the deal included potential for spin-off series as well.[112][113] The show will apparently be set in the early second age, during the time of the Forging of the Rings,[114] and will allegedly be a prequel to the live-action films.[115]


In 1990, Recorded Books published an audio version of The Lord of the Rings,[116] read by the British actor Rob Inglis. A large-scale musical theatre adaptation, The Lord of the Rings was first staged in Toronto, Ontario, Canada in 2006 and opened in London in June 2007; it was a commercial failure.[117]


Influence on the fantasy genre[edit]

The enormous popularity of Tolkien's work expanded the demand for fantasy fiction. Largely thanks to The Lord of the Rings, the genre flowered throughout the 1960s, and enjoys popularity to the present day. The opus has spawned many imitators, such as The Sword of Shannara, which Lin Carter called "the single most cold-blooded, complete rip-off of another book that I have ever read".[118] Dungeons & Dragons, which popularized the role-playing game genre in the 1970s, features several races from The Lord of the Rings, including halflings (hobbits), elves, dwarves, half-elves, orcs, and dragons. However, Gary Gygax, lead designer of the game, maintained that he was influenced very little by The Lord of the Rings, stating that he included these elements as a marketing move to draw on the popularity the work enjoyed at the time he was developing the game.[119]

Because D&D has gone on to influence many popular role-playing video games, the influence of The Lord of the Rings extends to many of them as well, with titles such as Dragon Quest,[120][121] the Ultima series, EverQuest, the Warcraft series, and the Elder Scrolls series of games[122] as well as video games set in Middle-earth itself.


In 1965, the songwriter Donald Swann, best known for his collaboration with Michael Flanders as Flanders & Swann, set six poems from The Lord of the Rings and one from The Adventures of Tom Bombadil ("Errantry") to music. When Swann met with Tolkien to play the songs for his approval, Tolkien suggested for "Namárië" (Galadriel's lament) a setting reminiscent of plain chant, which Swann accepted.[123] The songs were published in 1967 as The Road Goes Ever On: A Song Cycle,[124] and a recording of the songs performed by singer William Elvin with Swann on piano was issued that same year by Caedmon Records as Poems and Songs of Middle Earth.[125]

Rock bands of the 1970s were musically and lyrically inspired by the fantasy-embracing counter-culture of the time. The British rock band Led Zeppelin recorded several songs that contain explicit references to The Lord of the Rings, such as mentioning Gollum and Mordor in "Ramble On", the Misty Mountains in "Misty Mountain Hop", and Ringwraiths in "The Battle of Evermore". In 1970, the Swedish musician Bo Hansson released an instrumental concept album entitled Sagan om ringen ("The Saga of the Ring", the title of the Swedish translation at the time).[126] The album was subsequently released internationally as Music Inspired by Lord of the Rings in 1972.[126] From the 1980s onwards, many heavy metal acts have been influenced by Tolkien.[127]

In 1988, the Dutch composer and trombonist Johan de Meij completed his Symphony No. 1 "The Lord of the Rings". It had 5 movements, titled "Gandalf", "Lothlórien", "Gollum", "Journey in the Dark", and "Hobbits".[128]

Impact on popular culture[edit]

"Welcome to Hobbiton" sign in Matamata, New Zealand, where Peter Jackson's film version was shot

The Lord of the Rings has had a profound and wide-ranging impact on popular culture, beginning with its publication in the 1950s, but especially during the 1960s and 1970s, when young people embraced it as a countercultural saga.[129] "Frodo Lives!" and "Gandalf for President" were two phrases popular amongst United States Tolkien fans during this time.[130] Its impact is such that the words "Tolkienian" and "Tolkienesque" have entered the Oxford English Dictionary, and many of his fantasy terms, formerly little-known in English, such as "Orc" and "Warg", have become widespread in that domain.[131] Among its effects are numerous parodies, especially Harvard Lampoon's Bored of the Rings, which has had the distinction of remaining continuously in print from its publication in 1969, and of being translated into at least 11 languages.[132]

In 1969, Tolkien sold the merchandising rights to The Lord of The Rings (and The Hobbit) to United Artists under an agreement stipulating a lump sum payment of £10,000[133] plus a 7.5% royalty after costs,[134] payable to Allen & Unwin and the author.[135] In 1976, three years after the author's death, United Artists sold the rights to Saul Zaentz Company, who now trade as Tolkien Enterprises. Since then all "authorised" merchandise has been signed off by Tolkien Enterprises, although the intellectual property rights of the specific likenesses of characters and other imagery from various adaptations is generally held by the adaptors.[136]

Outside any commercial exploitation from adaptations, from the late 1960s onwards there has been an increasing variety of original licensed merchandise, from posters and calendars created by illustrators such as Barbara Remington.[137]

The work was named Britain's best novel of all time in the BBC's The Big Read.[138] In 2015, the BBC ranked The Lord of the Rings 26th on its list of the 100 greatest British novels.[139]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Tolkien created the word to define a different view of myth from C. S. Lewis's "lies breathed through silver", writing the poem Mythopoeia to present his argument; it was first published in Tree and Leaf in 1988.[6]
  2. ^ Although Frodo referred to Bilbo as his "uncle", the character is introduced in "A Long-expected Party" as one of Bilbo's younger cousins. The two were in fact first and second cousins, once removed either way (his paternal great-great-uncle's son's son and his maternal great-aunt's son).



This list identifies each item's location in Tolkien's writings.
  1. ^ a b Carpenter 1981, letter #329 to Peter Szabó Szentmihályi (draft), October 1971
  2. ^ Carpenter 1981, letter #126 to Milton Waldman (draft), 10 March 1950
  3. ^ The Fellowship of the Ring "Prologue"
  4. ^ The Fellowship of the Ring book 1, ch. 1, "A Long-expected Party"
  5. ^ The Fellowship of the Ring book 1, ch. 2, "The Shadow of the Past"
  6. ^ The Fellowship of the Ring book 1, ch. 3, "Three is Company"
  7. ^ The Fellowship of the Ring book 1, ch. 4, "A Short Cut to Mushrooms"
  8. ^ The Fellowship of the Ring book 1, ch. 5, "A Conspiracy Unmasked"
  9. ^ The Fellowship of the Ring book 1, ch. 6, "The Old Forest"
  10. ^ The Fellowship of the Ring book 1, ch. 7, "In the House of Tom Bombadil"
  11. ^ The Fellowship of the Ring book 1, ch. 8, "Fog on the Barrow-downs"
  12. ^ The Fellowship of the Ring book 1, ch. 9, "At the Sign of the Prancing Pony"
  13. ^ The Fellowship of the Ring book 1, ch. 10, "Strider"
  14. ^ The Fellowship of the Ring book 1, ch. 11, "A Knife in the Dark"
  15. ^ The Fellowship of the Ring book 1, ch. 12, "Flight to the Ford"
  16. ^ The Fellowship of the Ring book 2, ch. 1, "Many Meetings"
  17. ^ The Fellowship of the Ring, book 2, ch. 2, "The Council of Elrond"
  18. ^ The Fellowship of the Ring book 2, ch. 3, "The Ring Goes South"
  19. ^ The Fellowship of the Ring book 2, ch. 4, "A Journey in the Dark"
  20. ^ The Fellowship of the Ring book 2, ch. 5, "The Bridge of Khazad-Dum"
  21. ^ The Fellowship of the Ring book 2, ch. 6, "Lothlórien"
  22. ^ The Fellowship of the Ring book 2, ch. 7, "The Mirror of Galadriel"
  23. ^ The Fellowship of the Ring book 2, ch. 8, "Farewell to Lórien"
  24. ^ The Fellowship of the Ring book 2, ch. 9, "The Great River"
  25. ^ The Fellowship of the Ring book 2, ch. 10, "The Breaking of the Fellowship"
  26. ^ The Two Towers, book 3, ch. 1 "The Departure of Boromir"
  27. ^ The Two Towers, book 3, ch. 3 "The Uruk-hai"
  28. ^ The Two Towers, book 3, ch. 2 "The Riders of Rohan"
  29. ^ The Two Towers, book 3, ch. 4 "Treebeard"
  30. ^ a b The Two Towers book 3, ch. 5, "The White Rider"
  31. ^ The Two Towers, book 3, ch. 6 "The King of the Golden Hall"
  32. ^ The Two Towers, book 3, ch. 9 "Flotsam and Jetsam"
  33. ^ The Two Towers, book 3, ch. 7 "Helm's Deep"
  34. ^ The Two Towers, book 3, ch. 8 "The Road to Isengard"
  35. ^ The Two Towers book 3, ch. 10, "The Voice of Saruman"
  36. ^ The Two Towers book 3, ch. 11, "The Palantír"
  37. ^ The Two Towers book 4, ch. 1, "The Taming of Sméagol"
  38. ^ The Two Towers book 4, ch. 2, "The Passage of the Marshes"
  39. ^ The Two Towers book 4, ch. 3, "The Black Gate is Closed"
  40. ^ The Two Towers book 4, ch. 4, "Of Herbs and Stewed Rabbit"
  41. ^ The Two Towers book 4, ch. 5, "The Window on the West"
  42. ^ The Two Towers book 4, ch. 6, "The Forbidden Pool"
  43. ^ The Two Towers book 4, ch. 7, "Journey to the Cross-Roads"
  44. ^ The Two Towers book 4, ch. 8, "The Stairs of Cirith Ungol"
  45. ^ The Two Towers book 4, ch. 9, "Shelob's Lair"
  46. ^ The Two Towers book 4, ch. 10, "The Choices of Master Samwise"
  47. ^ The Return of the King, book 5, ch. 1 "Minas Tirith"
  48. ^ a b The Return of the King, book 5, ch. 3 "The Muster of Rohan"
  49. ^ The Return of the King, book 5, ch. 4 "The Siege of Gondor"
  50. ^ The Return of the King, book 5, ch. 7 "The Pyre of Denethor"
  51. ^ The Return of the King, book 5, ch. 2 "The Passing of the Grey Company"
  52. ^ a b The Return of the King, book 5, ch. 9 "The Last Debate".
  53. ^ The Return of the King, book 5, ch. 5 "The Ride of the Rohirrim"
  54. ^ The Return of the King, book 5, ch. 6 "The Battle of the Pelennor Fields"
  55. ^ The Return of the King, book 5, ch. 10 "The Black Gate Opens"
  56. ^ The Return of the King book 6, ch. 1, "The Tower of Cirith Ungol"
  57. ^ The Return of the King book 6, ch. 2, "The Land of Shadow"
  58. ^ a b The Return of the King book 6, ch. 3, "Mount Doom"
  59. ^ The Return of the King, book 6, ch. 4 "The Field of Cormallen"
  60. ^ The Return of the King, book 6, ch. 5 "The Steward and the King"
  61. ^ The Return of the King book 6, ch. 6, "Many Partings"
  62. ^ The Return of the King book 6, ch. 7, "Homeward Bound"
  63. ^ The Return of the King, book 6, ch. 8, "The Scouring of the Shire"
  64. ^ The Return of the King book 6, ch. 9, "The Grey Havens"
  65. ^ The Return of the King, Appendix A: "Annals of the Kings and Rulers": 1 "The Númenórean Kings" (v) "Here follows a part of the Tale of Aragorn and Arwen"
  66. ^ The Return of the King Appendix B "The Tale of Years", "Later events concerning the members of the fellowship of the Ring"
  67. ^ Carpenter 1981, letter #17 to Stanley Unwin, 15 October 1937
  68. ^ Carpenter 1981, letter #142 to Robert Murray, S. J., 2 December 1953
  69. ^ Carpenter 1981, letter #165 to Houghton Mifflin, 30 June 1955
  70. ^ Carpenter 1981, letter #19 to Stanley Unwin, 31 December 1960
  71. ^ Carpenter 1981, letter #178 to Allen & Unwin, 12 December 1955, and #303 to Nicholas Thomas, 6 May 1968
  72. ^ Carpenter 1981, letter #211 to Rhona Beare, 14 October 1958
  73. ^ Lord of the Rings, "Foreword to the Second Edition"
  74. ^ Carpenter 1981, letter #140 to Rayner Unwin, 17 August 1953
  75. ^ Carpenter 1981, letter #143 to Rayner Unwin, 22 January 1954
  76. ^ Carpenter 1981, letter #163 to W. H. Auden, 7 June 1955
  77. ^ Carpenter 1981, letter #149 to Rayner Unwin, 9 September 1954
  78. ^ Carpenter 1981, letters #270, #273 and #277
  79. ^ Carpenter 1981, letters #228 and #229 to Allen & Unwin, 24 January 1961 and 23 February 1961
  80. ^ The Two Towers book 4, ch. 4 "Of Herbs and Stewed Rabbit"


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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]