Tom Bell (outlaw)

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Tom Bell
Born 1825 (1825)
Rome, Tennessee
Died October 4, 1856(1856-10-04) (aged 30–31)
Firebaugh, California
Cause of death Executed by hanging
Other names Outlaw Doc
Occupation Military surgeon, gambler, outlaw
Known for first stagecoach robbery in the United States
Conviction(s) robbery

Tom Bell (1825 – October 4, 1856) was a western outlaw and physician known as the "Outlaw Doc". He is the first outlaw to organize a stagecoach robbery in the United States.[citation needed]


Born Thomas J. Hodges in Rome, Tennessee he saw action in the Mexican-American War as a surgeon. Following the war he traveled to California during the California Gold Rush but was unsuccessful as a prospector, later drifting around California as a gambler and as a doctor at times for several years. In 1855 he was serving time in Angel Island Prison for robbery when he met Bill Gristy and successfully escaped several weeks later. With Gristy, Bell formed an outlaw gang of five men and began robbing stages for several months.

On August 12, 1856, after their spy spotted the Camptonville-Maryville stage carrying $100,000 worth of gold bullion, the gang unsuccessfully attempted to rob it. In an exchange of gunfire a woman passenger was killed and two male passengers were wounded before the gang was driven off by the stagecoach guards.

The robbery and death of the women passenger angered citizens, and both a sheriff's posse and citizen vigilantes conducted a massive search for the gang. By late September Gristy was captured. Under threat of being turned over to the irate lynch mob outside the jail, he confessed the location of Bell. The Stockton Sheriff raced to arrest him. When he found Bell near Firebaugh's Ferry on October 4, 1856, an impromptu posse commanded by Judge George Gordon Belt, a Merced River rancher, had already hanged him.

Despite the lack of success Bell had in his attempted stagecoach robbery, his example was soon followed by other outlaws with more success.

For Further Reading[edit]

See Gold Dust and Gunsmoke: Tales of Gold Rush Outlaws, Gunfighters, Lawmen, and Vigilantes (1999) by John Boessenecker.


  • Secrest, William B. California Desperadoes, Quill Driver books, 2000
  • Sinclair Drago, Road Agents and Train Robbers: Half a Century of Western Banditry, Dodd, New York, 1973
  • Sifakis, Carl. Encyclopedia of American Crime, New York, Facts on File Inc., 1982