|United States Senator
January 3, 2015
Serving with John Boozman
|Preceded by||Mark Pryor|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Arkansas's 4th district
January 3, 2013 – January 3, 2015
|Preceded by||Mike Ross|
|Succeeded by||Bruce Westerman|
|Born||Thomas Bryant Cotton
May 13, 1977
Dardanelle, Arkansas, U.S.
|Alma mater||Harvard University (A.B., J.D)|
Combat Infantryman Badge
|Service/branch||United States Army|
|Years of service||2005–2009 (Active Duty); 2010–2013 (Army Reserve)|
|Unit||101st Airborne Division|
Thomas Bryant "Tom" Cotton (born May 13, 1977) is an American politician who is the junior United States Senator from Arkansas. He was a member of the United States House of Representatives, representing Arkansas's 4th congressional district from 2013 until 2015. He is a member of the Republican Party. He is a U.S. Army veteran and a lawyer. Cotton was the Republican nominee for the 2014 U.S. Senate race in Arkansas, and won the election, defeating incumbent Democrat Mark Pryor. At age 37, he is the youngest current U.S. Senator.
- 1 Early life and education
- 2 Pre-political employment
- 3 Military service
- 4 U.S. House of Representatives
- 5 U.S. Senate
- 6 Letter to Iran's leaders
- 7 Military action against Iran
- 8 Personal life
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Early life and education
Cotton was born in Dardanelle, Arkansas, on May 13, 1977, son of Thomas Leonard Cotton and his wife Avis (née Bryant) Cotton, where he grew up on the family farm. Cotton graduated from Dardanelle High School in June 1995, He graduated from Harvard College, where he wrote for the Harvard Crimson, and was a member of the Harvard Republican Club.
The summer before his final undergraduate year at Harvard, Cotton was admitted to California's Claremont Institute Publius summer fellowship program, a conservative think tank. The institute’s president at the time, Larry Arnn, was also from a small town in Arkansas, and he took an immediate liking to Cotton.
After obtaining his BA from Harvard, Cotton returned to Claremont to pursue a master’s degree at Claremont Graduate University, but abandoned it after a year, finding academic life "too sedentary"; but, conversely, he then immersed himself in three more years of academia when he enrolled in Harvard Law School. He received his J.D. degree in June 2002.
Cotton initially pursued a career in law and immediately after finishing law school served as a clerk at the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit for Judge Jerry Edwin Smith from 2002-2003. Thereafter, Cotton entered private practice Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher for a few months, and Cooper & Kirk from 2003-2004.
In December 2004, Cotton's law career ended after one year of practice when he joined U.S. Army. He did not continue his career in law as a military JAG officer; with his education he would have commissioned with the rank of captain. Instead, in January 2005, Cotton entirely quit all legal work, and entered the Army with the intent of becoming an infantry officer. In March 2005 he entered Officer Candidate School and was commissioned as a 2nd Lieutenant on June 30, 2005. In September 2009, after 1 year of military training, 2 years performing memorial ceremonies, and 16 months deployed overseas (one tour each in Iraq and Afghanistan), Cotton left the Army but did not return to the practice of law. Instead, Cotton did sporadic consulting work at a business management firm, McKinsey & Company, working in various cities wherever the consultant work was needed.
Thereafter, Cotton returned to the agricultural management of his family ranch, while also continuing his military service through the United States Army Reserve. During this time he would also commence his political career. In 2009, Cotton's prior Publius Fellowship mentor, Larry Arnn, introduced him to a fellow alum, colleague and former congressman named Chris Chocola. Mr Chocola was the president of Club for Growth, one of the most influential republican PACs and an advocate of a staunch free-market philosophy and the radical reduction of the size and influence of government. With the influence and support of his education mentor at the The Club for Growth and others like the republican blog Power Line, Cotton was quickly promoted to political interests, with an attempt to draft him for Arkansas’s 2010 Senate race. In 2011, when the 12 year Arkansas Democratic congressman had retired, Cotton ran for office. Of the $2.2 million Cotton would raise for that campaign, the Club for Growth donors were responsible for $315,000 and were his largest supporters.
Despite his many years of legal training, Cotton abandoned his work in law, and joined the United States Army with the intent of becoming a commissioned officer, serving both Active duty (2005-2009) and Reserves (2010-2013). On January 11, 2005, Cotton joined the Active duty Armed Forces. According to his recruiter, LTC Roger Jones, commander of Army Recruiting Battalion Houston, Cotton decided not to pursue a commission as an officer at the rank of Captain in the Judge Advocate General's Corps, United States Army - the typical rank and specialty for a person with his education and training. Instead, Cotton chose to enlist under the US Army's Officer/Warrant Officer Enlistment Program, Enlistment Opti9D at the rank of Specialist or Corporal, with the guaranteed opportunity to Officer Candidate School and pursue a commission as a military officer. Cotton's relationship with his enlisted basic training drill Sergeant Master SGT Gordon Norton remained so good that years later Cotton would hire Norton to assist with his political campaign.
In March 2005, Cotton entered Officer Candidate School, and on June 2005 was commissioned as a 2nd Lieutenant in the U.S. Army. As a newly commissioned 2nd Lieutenant, Cotton was first stationed at Fort Benning, GA where he entered a 14 week Officer’s Basic Course; completing this in November 2005. Cotton then continued with more military training while he attended both the U.S. Army Airborne School and Ranger School but was not assigned to a Ranger Battalion.
In May 2006, one year and 4 months after enlistment and subsequent officer training, 2LT Cotton deployed to Baghdad as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom as a platoon leader with the 101st Airborne Division. In Iraq, 2LT Cotton was responsible for a 41-man air assault infantry platoon in the 506th Infantry Regiment, who planned and performed daily combat patrols.
In December 2006, Cotton was promoted to 1st Lieutenant after nearly two years as 2LT. After the completion of his first 6 month deployment 1LT Cotton did not return to deployment active combat, instead became a member of the prestigious 3rd US Infantry Regiment's The Old Guard at Arlington National Cemetery; again as a platoon leader. After nearly two years ceremonial duties, 1LT Cotton was allowed to return to his professed passion: active duty deployment.
In October 2008, 1LT Cotton deployed to eastern Afghanistan. 1LT Cotton was stationed within the Regional Command East at its Gamberi Forward operating base located in one of the command's fourteen province locations, Laghman Province. The overall mission at 1LT Cotton's duty station - the Gamberi FOB from April 2008 to June 2009, during Operation Enduring Freedom IX - included military logistics, civil reconstruction engineering, government organization, and training from a Joint Task Force. The Joint Task Force at Gamberi FOB included Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (GIRoA), the 101st Airborne Division, NATO, International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), Interagency Partners, and CJTF-101/Regional Command East Forces. These joint forces secured the citizenry governance, and helped reconstruct a sutainable economy in order to extend Afghanistan (GIRoA) authority as the legitimate government of the Afghan people. According to Cotton's biography, he stated his assigned duty was as a military logistics officer of a Provincial Reconstruction Team, where he also helped plan logistical operations for counter-insurgency. Cotton's eleven-month deployment to Gamberi FOB in Laghan province ended when he returned from Afghanistan on July 20, 2009.
In September 2009, CPT Cotton was honorably discharged from Active Duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. One year later in July 2010, according to Cotton's military service record brief, Officer Cotton re-enlisted in the United States Army Reserve. Cotton's military record shows his final discharge from both Active duty and Reserve duty was in May 2013.
Final rank and awards
CPT Cotton's final military record brief states during his service in active and reserve U.S. Armed Forces he was awarded the Bronze Star Medal(non V), and earned the following: Ranger Training Tab (without active service in Ranger unit), Combat Infantryman Badge, Parachutist Badge, Air Assault Badge, Afghanistan Campaign Medal, and Iraq Campaign Medal.
New York Times "espionage letter" scandal
In June 2006, during his first deployment while stationed in Iraq, 2LT Cotton gained international public attention after he wrote an open letter to The New York Times criticizing the paper's publication of an article detailing a Bush administration secret program monitoring terrorists' finances in which he called for three journalists, including the Times ' editor, Bill Keller, to be imprisoned for espionage. The article was widely circulated online and reprinted in full in several newspapers. A few days after the letter was published and subsequently widely circulated, Cotton finally realized his actions were greatly problematic, especially since he learned of the anger from his company commander, battalion commander, and the brigade commander. The letter had reached GEN Peter Schoomaker Chief of Staff of the United States Army, and he forwarded it via e-mail to all his generals, stating: "Attached for your information are words of wisdom from one of our great lieutenants in Iraq ..." Before meeting with his command superiors, Cotton stated in an interview that he was "nervous and worried all night long" about losing his position and even worse, possibly being court-martialed. Cotton was given reprimands for lack of discipline, lack of adherence to protocol, and refusing respect his chain of command; but he claims he was also praised, despite the immature attempt, for his loyalty to his soldiers.
U.S. House of Representatives
Cotton ran for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives as a Republican in Arkansas' 4th congressional district in the 2012 election, vacant as a result of Democratic U.S. Congressman Mike Ross' retirement.
During the primary, in September 2011, the Democratic Party of Arkansas attacked Cotton for an article written 13 years earlier in his school newspaper, in which he questioned the value of the Internet as a teaching tool in the classroom. Cotton has since stated that he believes the Internet has matured significantly over the past decade and has become a "vital tool for education and daily life" unlike the Internet of 1998.
Beth Anne Rankin, the 2010 Republican nominee, and John David Cowart, who carried the backing of the Louisiana businessman and philanthropist Edgar Cason, were the only other Republican candidates in the race after candidate Marcus Richmond dropped out in February 2012. In the primary on May 22, Cotton won the nomination, with 57% of the vote to Rankin's 38%.
On January 3, 2013, Cotton was sworn into the U.S. House by House Speaker John Boehner. As a freshman, he has been considered as a rising star in the Republican Party. Politico named him "most likely to succeed."
In January 2014, Cotton voted against the Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013, also known as the Farm Bill, a $1 trillion bill expanding crop insurance by $7 billion over the next decade and creating new subsidies for rice and peanut growers that would kick in when prices drop.
In August 2013, Cotton voted against federal student loan legislation in Congress. Cotton said that his vote was based on his opposition to the nationalization of the student-loan business which he wrote had been a component of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Cotton stated, "I'm committed to bringing affordable higher education to every Arkansan and ending the federal-government monopoly on the student-lending business."
Cotton has stated his support for the repeal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. In June 2013, Cotton voted in favor of the Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act, a bill to ban abortions that would take place 20 or more weeks after fertilization.
In September 2014, Cotton said he would vote for the Arkansas Minimum Wage Initiative, a November 2014 statewide ballot initiative that calls for raising Arkansas' minimum wage from $6.25 an hour to $8.50 an hour by 2017.
In 2013 Cotton introduced legislative language to prohibit trade with relatives of individuals subject to U.S. sanctions against Iran. According to Cotton, this would include "a spouse and any relative to the third degree," such as, "parents, children, aunts, uncles, nephews, nieces, grandparents, great grandparents, grandkids, great grandkids." When Cotton's amendment came under harsh criticism regarding the constitutionality of the amendment, he withdrew it.
- Committee on Financial Services
- Committee on Foreign Affairs
On August 6, 2013 Cotton officially announced he would challenge incumbent U.S. Senator Mark Pryor. Stuart Rothenberg of Roll Call called Pryor the most vulnerable Senator seeking re-election. Cotton was endorsed by former Presidential nominee Mitt Romney, the fiscally conservative Club for Growth PAC, Senator Marco Rubio, and the National Federation of Independent Business. Romney campaigned for Cotton in the state.
Cotton defeated Pryor in the general election, 56.5% to 39.5%.
Cotton was sworn into office on January 6, 2015.
- Joint Economic Committee
- Select Committee on Intelligence
- Special Committee on Aging
- Armed Services Committee
- Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Committee
Letter to Iran's leaders
On or about March 9, 2015, Senator Cotton wrote and sent a letter to the leadership of the Islamic Republic of Iran, signed by 47 of the Senate's 54 Republicans, attempting to cast doubt on the Obama administration's authority to engage in nuclear-proliferation negotiations with Iran. The open letter was released in English as well as a poorly-translated Persian version (which "read like a middle schooler wrote it" according to Foreign Policy). Within hours, commentators suggested that the letter prepared by Cotton constituted a violation of the Logan Act. Questions also were raised as to whether it reflected a flawed interpretation of the Treaty Clause of the United States Constitution.
President Barack Obama mocked the letter, referring to it as an "unusual coalition" with Iran's hard-liners as well as an interference with the then-ongoing negotiations of a comprehensive agreement on the Iranian nuclear program. In addition, during a Vice News Interview, President Barack Obama said "I'm embarrassed for them, for them to address a letter to the Ayatollah the Supreme Leader of Iran, who they claim is our mortal enemy and their basic argument to them is: don't deal with our president, because you can't trust him to follow through on an agreement... That's close to unprecedented."
Iran's Foreign Minister, Javad Zarif, responded to the letter by saying "[the Senators'] letter in fact undermines the credibility of thousands of such mere executive agreements that have been or will be entered into by the US with various other governments". Zarif pointed out that the nuclear deal is not supposed to be an Iran–US deal, but an international one, saying that "change of administration does not in any way relieve the next administration from international obligations undertaken by its predecessor in a possible agreement about Iran's peaceful nuclear program". He continued, "I wish to enlighten the authors that if the next administration revokes any agreement with the stroke of a pen, as they boast, it will have simply committed a blatant violation of international law".
Senator Cotton on March 15, 2015 defended the letter he and fellow Senate Republicans sent to Iranian leaders about their nuclear negotiations with the United States, amid criticism that it undermined the president's efforts. "It's so important we communicated this message straight to Iran," he told CBS News' Face the Nation "No regrets at all," and "they already control Tehran, increasingly they control Damascus and Beirut and Baghdad and now Sana’a as well." He continued to defend his action in an interview with MSNBC by saying, "There are nothing but hardliners in Iran. They’ve been killing Americans for 35 years. They kill hundreds of troops in Iraq. Now they control five capitals in the Middle East. There’re nothing but hardliners in Tehran and if they do all those things without a nuclear weapon, imagine what they’ll do with a nuclear weapon."
Military action against Iran
Sen. Tom Cotton accused President Obama of holding up a "false choice" between his framework deal on Iran's nuclear program and war. He also seemed to diminish what military action against Iran would entail. Sen Cotton also said: "the president is trying to make you think it would be 150,000 heavy mechanized troops on the ground in the Middle East again as we saw in Iraq. That's simply not the case." "Several days' air and naval bombing against Iraq's weapons of mass destruction facilities for exactly the same kind of behavior. For interfering with weapons inspectors and for disobeying Security Council resolutions."
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- "Understanding War Regional Command List". Retrieved 22 March 2015.
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- "Tom and Anna Cotton are expecting a baby boy".
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:
- U.S. Senator Tom Cotton official U.S. Senate site
- Tom Cotton at DMOZ
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Profile at Project Vote Smart
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Legislation sponsored at The Library of Congress
|United States House of Representatives|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Arkansas's 4th congressional district
|Party political offices|
Title last held byTim Hutchinson
|Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from Arkansas
|United States Senate|
|U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Arkansas
Served alongside: John Boozman
|Baby of the Senate
|United States order of precedence (ceremonial)|
|United States Senators by seniority