Tom Frieden

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tom Frieden
16th Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
In office
June 8, 2009 – January 20, 2017
PresidentBarack Obama
Preceded byJulie Gerberding
Succeeded byBrenda Fitzgerald
Health Commissioner of New York City
In office
January 2002 – May 18, 2009
MayorMichael Bloomberg
Preceded byNeal Cohen
Succeeded byTom Farley
Personal details
Born (1960-12-07) December 7, 1960 (age 63)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
SpouseBarbara Chang
RelationsJeffry Frieden (brother)
EducationOberlin College (BA)
Columbia University (MPH, MD)

Thomas R. Frieden (born December 7, 1960) is an American infectious disease and public health physician. He serves as president and CEO of Resolve to Save Lives, a $225 million, five-year initiative to prevent epidemics and cardiovascular disease.[1][2][3][4][5]

He was the director of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and he was the administrator of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry from 2009 to 2017,[6][7] appointed by President Barack Obama.[8]

As a commissioner of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene from 2002 to 2009 he came to some prominence for banning smoking in the city's restaurants as well as the serving of trans fat.[9]


Frieden was born and raised in New York City. His father, Julian Frieden, was chief of coronary care at Montefiore Hospital and New Rochelle Hospitals in New York.[10] Frieden attended Oberlin College graduating with a BA degree in philosophy in 1982.[11] He was a community organizer for the Center for Health Services at Vanderbilt University in 1982, before he started studying medicine at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons and graduated with an MD degree in 1986. At the same time he attended Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health and obtained an MPH degree in 1986. He completed a residency in internal medicine at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center 1986–1989 followed by a one-year infectious diseases fellowship from 1989 to 1990 at Yale School of Medicine and Yale–New Haven Hospital.[12]


CDC, New York City Department of Health, WHO, 1990–2002[edit]

From 1990 to 1992, Frieden worked as an Epidemic Intelligence Service officer assigned by CDC in New York City.[13][14][15] From 1992 to 1996,[16] he was assistant commissioner of health and director of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Bureau of Tuberculosis Control, fostering public awareness and helping to improve city, state and federal public funding for TB control.[17][18] The New York City epidemic was controlled rapidly, reducing overall incidence by nearly half and cutting multidrug-resistant tuberculosis by 80%.[19] The city's program became a model for tuberculosis control nationally and globally.[20][21]

From 1995 to 2001, Frieden worked as a technical advisor for the World Bank, health and population offices.[12] From 1996 to 2002, Frieden worked in India, as a medical officer for the World Health Organization on loan from the CDC. He helped the government of India implement the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program.[22][23][24][25] The program's 2008 status report estimated that the nationwide program resulted in 8 million treatments and 1.4 million lives saved.[26] While in India, Frieden worked to establish a network of Indian physicians to help India's state and local governments implement the program[27] and helped the Tuberculosis Research Center in Chennai, India, establish a program to monitor the impact of tuberculosis control services.[28][29]

New York City Health Commissioner, 2002 to 2009[edit]

Frieden served as Commissioner of Health of the City of New York from 2002 to 2009. At the time of his appointment, the agency employed 6,000 staff and had an annual budget of $1.6 billion.[30]: 8  During Frieden's tenure as Commissioner, the Health Department expanded the collection and use of epidemiological data,[31] launching an annual Community Health Survey[32] and the nation's first community-based Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.[33][34]

Tobacco control, 2002 onward[edit]

Upon his appointment as Commissioner of Health, Frieden made tobacco control a priority,[35] resulting in a rapid decline[36] after a decade of no change in smoking rates. Frieden established a system to monitor the city's smoking rates, and worked with New York City Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg to increase tobacco taxes, ban smoking in workplaces including restaurants and bars, and run aggressive anti-tobacco ads and help smokers quit.[37] The program reduced smoking prevalence among New York City adults from 21% in 2002 to 17% in 2007 which represented 300,000 fewer smokers.[36][38] Smoking prevalence among New York City teens declined even more sharply, from 17.6% in 2001 to 8.5% in 2007, which was less than half the national rate.[39] The workplace smoking ban prompted spirited debate before the New York City Council passed it and Mayor Bloomberg signed it into law.[40] Over time, the measure gained broad acceptance by the public and business community in New York City.[41][42] New York City's 2003 workplace smoking ban followed that of California in 1994. Frieden supported increased cigarette taxes as a means of reducing smoking and preventing teens from starting, saying "tobacco taxes are the most effective way to reduce tobacco use."[30]: 23–38  He supported the 62-cent federal tax on each cigarette pack sold in the United States, introduced in April 2009.[43] One side effect of the increased taxes on tobacco in New York was a large increase in cigarette smuggling into the state from other states with much lower taxes, such as Virginia. The Tax Foundation estimated that "60.9% of cigarettes sold in New York State are smuggled in from other states".[44] In addition, some New Yorkers began to make their own cigarettes, and tobacco trucks were even hijacked. A 2009 Justice Department study found that "The incentive to profit by evading payment of taxes rises with each tax rate hike imposed by federal, state, and local governments".[45]

Waiving written consent for HIV testing, 2004[edit]

Frieden introduced the city's first comprehensive health policy, Take Care New York, which targeted ten leading causes of preventable illness and death for public and personal action.[46][47] By 2007, New York City had made measurable progress in eight of the ten priority areas.[48]

As Health Commissioner, Frieden sought to fight HIV and AIDS with public health principles used successfully to control other communicable diseases.[49] A very controversial aspect was the proposal to eliminate separate written consent for HIV testing. He believed the measure would encourage physicians to offer HIV tests during routine medical care,[50] as the CDC recommended.[51] Some community and civil liberties advocates fought this legislation, arguing it would undermine patients' rights and lead eventually to forced HIV testing.[52][53] In 2010, New York State passed a new law that eased the requirement for separate written consent in some circumstances.[54] Frieden's perspective is now widely accepted,[55] and on February 14, 2007, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene introduced the NYC Condom,[56][57] prompting Catholic League president Bill Donohue to respond, "What's next? The city's own brand of clean syringes?"[58] More than 36 million condoms were given away by the program in 2007.[59]

Diabetes test result reporting, 2006[edit]

Frieden worked to raise awareness about diabetes in New York City, particularly among pregnant women,[60] and established an involuntary, non-disclosed hemoglobin A1C diabetes registry which tracks patients' blood sugar control over several months and reports the information to treating physicians to help them provide better care.[61][62]

The New York City Board of Health's decision[63] to require laboratories to report A1C test results generated a heated debate among civil libertarians, who viewed it as a violation of medical privacy and an intrusion into the doctor-patient relationship. Although patients may elect not to receive information from the program, there is no provision enabling patients to opt out of having their glycemic control data entered in the database.[64][65]

Transfat plan, 2006[edit]

In September 2006, the city proposed to restrict trans fat served in New York restaurants.[66][67][68] New York City's trans fat ban followed mandatory labeling of trans fat by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), was credited with saving lives and preceded by more than a decade the FDA's action to ban trans fat from food throughout the United States.[69]

CDC Director, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Administrator, 2009–2017[edit]

In May 2009, the White House and the Department of Health and Human Services named Frieden director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and administrator of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry; positions he assumed in June 2009, from the acting head Richard E. Besser.[70][6][7] Frieden resigned effective January 20, 2017.[7][71]

On announcing Frieden's appointment, President Obama called him "an expert in preparedness and response to health emergencies" who in seven years as New York City's health commissioner was "at the forefront of the fight against heart disease, cancer and obesity, infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and AIDS, and in the establishment of electronic health records."[8]

Ebola epidemic, 2014[edit]

Frieden is decontaminated after visiting Ebola treatment unit in Liberia, August 2014

Frieden was prominently involved in the US and global response to the West African outbreak of Ebola. His visits to West Africa beginning in August 2014 and a September 2014 CDC analysis projecting that the Ebola epidemic could increase exponentially to infect more than 1 million people within four months[72] prompted him to press for an international surge response.[73] At the peak of the response, CDC maintained approximately 200 staff per day in West Africa and about 400 staff per day at its Atlanta headquarters; overall, about 1,900 CDC staff deployed to international and U.S. locations for about 110,000 total work days, and more than 4,000 CDC staff worked as part of the response.[74] In a Congressional hearing in October 2014, Frieden was asked about his handling of the Ebola crisis after the disease had spread to two nurses from a patient in the US.[75] The day prior, Rep. Tom Marino (R-PA) had called for Frieden's resignation,[76] though others rallied to his defense.[77][78]

Resolve to Save Lives[edit]

In 2017, Frieden started leading an initiative called "Resolve to Save Lives" to prevent cardiovascular disease and epidemics.[79] The effort is funded by Bloomberg Philanthropies, the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and housed at a nongovernmental organization in New York City.[80] Proposed strategies are being tried in various countries [81][82] including India,[83] China,[84] and Nigeria.[85] These strategies include working with the World Health Organization to eliminate trans fat[86][87][88] and reduce salt consumption worldwide.[89][90] The salt reduction effort is controversial, with some scientists stating that lower sodium intake may harm some people.[91][92] The initiative also works to make countries better prepared for epidemics and have funding to fill preparedness gaps.[93][94][95]

Frieden appeared widely in US and global media during the COVID-19 pandemic and became a leading voice sharing science-based analysis of the pandemic via Twitter, while advocating for increased pandemic preparedness, vaccine equity, and stronger public health systems.[96][97] He appeared on many news shows including The Today Show, CBS News, CNN, PBS, Good Morning America, BBC World News, MSNBC,[98][99][100][101][102][103] and was quoted in The New York Times,[104] The Wall Street Journal,[105] The Washington Post,[106] STAT,[107] The Hill,[108] and published articles in leading outlets including on pandemic preparedness,[109] global health security,[110] primary health care,[111] and cardiovascular health.[112] Frieden's op-eds on the pandemic were published in The New York Times,[113] The Wall Street Journal,[109] The Washington Post,[97] and Foreign Affairs.[114]

Frieden co-authored a commentary with Former CDC Directors Jeffrey Koplan, David Satcher, Julie Gerberding, and Richard Besser calling for public health to lead the response to the pandemic, and for a reform of the CDC and US public health system.[115][116]

In April 2022, Frieden led the transition of Resolve to Save Lives to become an independent, U.S.-based not-for-profit organization after five years of rapid expansion incubated at Vital Strategies.[117]

Working with the World Health Organization, Resolve to Save Lives partnered with countries to expand trans fat bans to more than 40% of the world population.[118][119][120] It is estimated that these bans will save millions of lives.[121][122] Frieden has noted that cardiovascular disease kills far more people than Covid, and called for more action to reduce its three leading preventable causes: tobacco use, hypertension, and air pollution.[123] The organization has highlighted unsung successes in public health, including Epidemics That Didn't Happen,[124] and proposed a global target[125] to reduce the risk of the next pandemic, 7-1-7:[126] 7 days to find every outbreak, 1 day to report it to public health, and 7 days to have all essential control measures in place.[127][128] Frieden is also Senior Fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations.[129]

Personal life[edit]

Frieden is married to Barbara Chang, whom he met in college, and has two children, one of whom, Michael Chang-Frieden is a graduate of Columbia University with the class of 2016.[130][131] His brother, Jeff Frieden, is professor and chair of the department of government at Harvard University.[132][133]

In 2017, Frieden was awarded an honorary Sc.D. degree from New York University.[134]


Frieden has published more than 200 peer reviewed articles.


  1. ^ Belluck P, Hoffman J (September 12, 2017). "Frieden's Next Act: Heart Disease and Preparing for New Epidemics". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
  2. ^ Sun LH (September 12, 2017). "Former CDC chief launches $225 million global health initiative". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
  3. ^ Branswell H (September 12, 2017). "Former CDC director Tom Frieden to launch new global health initiative". Stat. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
  4. ^ Cole D (September 12, 2017). "Tom Frieden's New Venture Combines 2 Disparate Health Threats". National Public Radio (NPR). Retrieved June 18, 2019.
  5. ^ "Dr. Tom Frieden to Lead New Global Health Initiative, Backed by $225 Million in Funding from Bloomberg Philanthropies, the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation". Bloomberg Philanthropies (Press release). Retrieved June 18, 2019.
  6. ^ a b "Thomas R. Frieden, MD, MPH, Begins Role as CDC Director and ATSDR Administrator" (Press release). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). June 8, 2009. Retrieved July 23, 2019.
  7. ^ a b c "Past CDC Directors/Administrators". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). January 31, 2018. Retrieved July 23, 2019.
  8. ^ a b Wilgoren D, Shear MD (May 16, 2009). "Obama Chooses NYC Health Chief to Head CDC". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
  9. ^ Khalife, Gabrielle (September 4, 2018). "Three Years After FDA Released Its Determination the U.S. Is Now Trans-Fat Free". NYC Food Policy. Hunter College New York City. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  10. ^ Thomas Frieden, 2010
  11. ^ Tom Nugent Life on the Cutting Edge Oberlin Alumni Magazine, Fall 2006 Vol. 102, No. 2
  12. ^ a b Dr Thomas R Frieden, MD, MPH Bio House of Representatives, Document Repository, July 16, 2014
  13. ^ Harris G (March 15, 2010). "At C.D.C., Obama's Appointee Wields a Big Broom". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 28, 2018.
  14. ^ Fuller J (October 16, 2014). "Meet the CDC's Swat Team". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved April 28, 2018.
  15. ^ "CDC Chief Tom Frieden Confronts Ebola Crisis Cool and Collected". NBC News. August 10, 2014. Retrieved April 28, 2018.
  16. ^ Begun, James; Malcolm, Jan (2014). Leading Public Health : a Competency Framework. New York: Springer Publishing Company. ISBN 9780826199072. OCLC 881417295.
  17. ^ Lobato MN, Wang YC, Becerra JE, Simone PM, Castro KG (2006). "Improved Program Activities Are Associated with Decreasing Tuberculosis Incidence in the United States". Public Health Reports. 121 (2): 108–115. doi:10.1177/003335490612100202. PMC 1525263. PMID 16528941.
  18. ^ Leff DR, Leff AR (November 1, 1997). "Tuberculosis Control Policies in Major Metropolitan Health Departments in the United States. VI. Standard of Practice in 1996". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 156 (5): 1487–1494. doi:10.1164/ajrccm.156.5.9704105. PMID 9372665.
  19. ^ TB Annual Summary (PDF). New York: New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. 2015. p. 22. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
  20. ^ World Health Organization Tuberculosis Programme (1995). "New York City's Success Story". Stop TB at the Source. Geneva: World Health Organization. ISBN 978-0-11-951529-9. OCLC 181876135.[page needed]
  21. ^ Steinhauer J (February 14, 2004). "Gladly Taking The Blame For Health In the City". The New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  22. ^ Drazen J.M. (October 2002). "A milestone in tuberculosis control". New England Journal of Medicine. 347 (18): 1444. doi:10.1056/NEJMe020135. PMID 12409549.
  23. ^ Khatri, G.R.; Frieden, T.R. (October 2002). "Controlling tuberculosis in India". New England Journal of Medicine. 347 (18): 1420–1425. doi:10.1056/NEJMsa020098. PMID 12409545.
  24. ^ Udwadia, Z.F.; Pinto, L.M. (2007). "Review series: the politics of TB: the politics, economics and impact of directly observed treatment (DOT) in India". Chronic Respiratory Disease. 4 (2): 101–106. doi:10.1177/1479972307707929. PMID 17621578. S2CID 22674236.
  25. ^ Chauhan, L.S.; Tonsing, J. (2005). "Revised National TB Control Programme in India". Tuberculosis. 85 (5–6): 271–276. doi:10.1016/ PMID 16253562.
  26. ^ TB India 2008: RNTCP Status Report: I am Stopping TB. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. March 2008. p. 3. ISBN 978-81-902652-3-2. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  27. ^ Frieden, T.R.; Khatri, G.R. (September 2003). "Impact of national consultants on successful expansion of effective tuberculosis control in India". International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 7 (9): 837–841. PMID 12971666.
  28. ^ Subramani, R.; Radhakrishna, S.; Frieden, T.R.; et al. (August 2008). "Rapid decline in prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis after DOTS implementation in a rural area of South India". International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 12 (8): 916–920. PMID 18647451.
  29. ^ Narayanan, P.R.; Garg, R.; Santha, T.; Kumaran, P.P. (2003). "Shifting the Focus of Tuberculosis Research in India". Tuberculosis. 83 (1–3): 135–142. doi:10.1016/S1472-9792(02)00068-9. PMID 12758203.
  30. ^ a b Farley, Tom (2015). Saving Gotham: A Billionaire Mayor, Activist Doctors, and the Fight for Eight Million Lives. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 978-0393071245.
  31. ^ Frieden, TR; Bassett, MT; Thorpe, LE; Farley, TA (2008). "Public health in New York City, 2002–2007: Confronting Epidemics of the Modern Era". International Journal of Epidemiology. 37 (5): 966–977. doi:10.1093/ije/dyn108. PMID 18540026.
  32. ^ "Community Health Survey". New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. February 2009. Retrieved July 9, 2009.
  33. ^ "NYC HANES Datasets and Related Documentation". New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Retrieved July 9, 2009.
  34. ^ Thorpe, L.E.; Gwynn, R.C.; Mandel-Ricci, J.; et al. (July 2006). "Study Design and Participation Rates of the New York City Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2004". Preventing Chronic Disease. 3 (3): A94. PMC 1637802. PMID 16776895.
  35. ^ Steinhauer J (February 15, 2002). "Commissioner Calls Smoking Public Health Enemy No. 1 and Asks Drug Firms for Ammunition". The New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  36. ^ a b Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (June 2007). "Decline in smoking prevalence – New York City, 2002–2006". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 56 (24): 604–608. PMID 17585290.
  37. ^ Frieden, T.R.; Mostashari, F.; Kerker, B.D.; Miller, N.; Hajat, A.; Frankel, M. (June 2005). "Adult Tobacco Use Levels After Intensive Tobacco Control Measures: New York City, 2002–2003". American Journal of Public Health. 95 (6): 1016–1023. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2004.058164. PMC 1449302. PMID 15914827.
  38. ^ "Michael Bloomberg and Bill Gates Join to Combat Global Tobacco Epidemic" (Press release). Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. July 23, 2008. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  39. ^ The Lancet (January 2008). "New York City's bold antitobacco programme". Lancet. 371 (9607): 90. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60078-1. PMID 18191665. S2CID 205949508.
  40. ^ Chang, C.; Leighton, J.; Mostashari, F.; McCord, C.; Frieden, T.R. (August 2004). "The New York City Smoke-Free Air Act: second-hand smoke as a worker health and safety issue". American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 46 (2): 188–195. doi:10.1002/ajim.20030. PMID 15273972.
  41. ^ Cooper M (October 23, 2003). "Poll Finds Smoking Ban Popular". The New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  42. ^ Rutenberg J, Lily Koppel (February 6, 2005). "In Barrooms, Smoking Ban Is Less Reviled". The New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  43. ^ Jonsson P (November 17, 2009). "Federal and state governments look to smokers for more tax revenue: Though they hit poor Americans hardest, stiff taxes on tobacco can reduce healthcare costs by billions". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved August 8, 2010.
  44. ^ Smith, Aaron (January 10, 2013). "60% of cigarettes sold in New York are smuggled: report". CNN Money. Retrieved December 4, 2014.
  45. ^ Mathias C (April 3, 2014). "Inside New York City's Dangerous, Multimillion-Dollar Cigarette Black Market". HuffPost. Retrieved December 4, 2014.
  46. ^ "Cause of Death or Illness, New York City, 2002, and Amenability to Intervention". Take Care New York: A Policy for a Healthier New York City. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. March 2004. pp. 57–61. CiteSeerX
  47. ^ Pérez-Peña R (March 24, 2004). "City sets goals for the health of New Yorker". The New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  48. ^ Take Care New York: A Policy for a Healthier New York City (Fourth Year Progress Report) (PDF). New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. December 2008. pp. 2–5. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
  49. ^ Frieden, T.R.; Das-Douglas, M.; Kellerman, S.E.; Henning, K.J. (December 2005). "Applying Public Health Principles to the HIV epidemic". New England Journal of Medicine. 353 (22): 2397–2402. doi:10.1056/NEJMsb053133. PMID 16319391.
  50. ^ Mandavilli, A. (April 2006). "Profile: Thomas Frieden". Nature Medicine. 12 (4): 378. doi:10.1038/nm0406-378. PMID 16598275. S2CID 12664860.
  51. ^ Branson, B.M.; Handsfield, H.H.; Lampe, M.A.; et al. (September 2006). "Revised recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in health-care settings". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 55 (RR–14): 1–17, quiz CE1–4. PMID 16988643.
  52. ^ Chan S (December 25, 2006). "Rifts Emerge on Push to End Written Consent for H.I.V.Tests". The New York Times. Retrieved July 9, 2009.
  53. ^ Fairchild, A.L.; Alkon, A. (August 2007). "Back to the future? Diabetes, HIV, and the boundaries of public health". Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law. 32 (4): 561–593. doi:10.1215/03616878-2007-017. PMID 17639012.
  54. ^ "HIV Testing Is Now a Routine Part of Health Care in New York" (Press release). New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. September 1, 2010. Retrieved February 8, 2011.
  55. ^ "Revised Recommendations for HIV Testing of Adults, Adolescents, and Pregnant Women in Health-Care Settings".
  56. ^ Chan S (February 15, 2007). "A New Condom in Town, This One Named 'NYC'". The New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  57. ^ "Health Department Launches The Nation's First Official City condom" (Press release). New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. February 14, 2007. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  58. ^ "NYC-Branded Condoms Are a Big Apple First". Gothamist. Archived from the original on January 25, 2016. Retrieved October 13, 2014.
  59. ^ "Health Department Releases New NYC Condom Wrapper" (Press release). New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. February 13, 2008. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  60. ^ Kleinfield, N.R. (February 22, 2006). "City to Warn New Mothers of Diabetes Risk". The New York Times. Retrieved July 9, 2009.
  61. ^ Steinbrook R. (February 2006). "Facing the Diabetes Epidemic – Mandatory Reporting of Glycosylated Hemoglobin Values in New York City". New England Journal of Medicine. 354 (6): 545–548. doi:10.1056/NEJMp068008. PMID 16467539.
  62. ^ Bloomgarden ZT (2006). "A1C in New York City". Medscape Diabetes & Endocrinology. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
  63. ^ Chamany, S.; Silver, L.D.; Bassett, M.T.; Driver, C.R.; Berger, D.K.; Neuhaus, C.E.; Namrata, K.; Frieden, T.R. (September 2009). "Tracking Diabetes: New York City's A1C Registry". Milbank Quarterly. 87 (3): 547–570. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0009.2009.00568.x. PMC 2881457. PMID 19751279.
  64. ^ Goldman, J.; Kinnear, S.; Chung, J.; Rothman, D.J. (2008). "New York City's Initiatives on Diabetes and HIV/AIDS: Implications for Patient Care, Public Health, and Medical Professionalism". American Journal of Public Health. 98 (5): 807–813. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2007.121152. PMC 2374815. PMID 18381989.
  65. ^ Frieden T.R. (September 2008). "New York City's Diabetes Reporting System Helps Patients And Physicians". American Journal of Public Health. 98 (9): 1543–1544, author reply 1544. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2008.142026. PMC 2509589. PMID 18633070.
  66. ^ "NYC To Revise Trans Fat Plan". Convenience Store News. November 17, 2006. Retrieved August 21, 2020.
  67. ^ Tavernise S (November 7, 2013). "F.D.A. Ruling Would All but Eliminate Trans Fats". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 19, 2019.
  68. ^ Novellino, Teresa (June 16, 2015). "First New York City bans trans fats—now it's the whole USA". The Business Journals. Retrieved June 19, 2019.
  69. ^ Bakalar N (April 12, 2017). "Trans Fat Bans Tied to Fewer Heart Attacks and Strokes". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 19, 2019.
  70. ^ "President Obama Appoints Dr. Thomas Frieden as CDC Director". May 15, 2009. Retrieved May 18, 2010 – via National Archives.
  71. ^ Steenhuysen J (December 30, 2016). "More work lies ahead to fight Zika, other threats: CDC chief". Reuters. Retrieved July 23, 2019. Frieden, appointed by President Barack Obama to run the CDC in 2009, will hand in his resignation on Jan. 20, the day of President-elect Donald Trump's inauguration.
  72. ^ Meltzer, Martin (2014). "Estimating the Future Number of Cases in the Ebola Epidemic – Liberia and Sierra Leone, 2014–2015" (PDF). MMWR Supplements. 63 (3). MMWR: 1–14. PMID 25254986. Retrieved January 6, 2017.
  73. ^ "Ebola outbreak: 'We need action now,' says CDC director Tom Frieden". CBC News. September 2, 2014. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  74. ^ Bell, Beth. "CDC's Response to the 2014–2016 Ebola Epidemic – West Africa and United States" (PDF). MMWR. Retrieved January 6, 2017.
  75. ^ Tavernise S (October 16, 2014). "Congress Scrutinizes Handling of Ebola Cases in Texas". The New York Times. Retrieved August 5, 2016.
  76. ^ "White House scrambles to ease concerns over Ebola, lawmakers demand changes: CDC". Fox News Channel. October 15, 2014.
  77. ^ Morrison, J. Stephen (2014). "Thomas Frieden And The U.S. Ebola Response". Project HOPE: The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc. doi:10.1377/forefront.20141020.042047.
  78. ^ Gottlieb S (October 17, 2014). "In The Ebola Fight, A Defense Of Embattled CDC Chief Thomas Frieden". Forbes. Retrieved January 6, 2017.
  79. ^ Lives, Resolve to Save. "Resolve to Save Lives: Dr. Tom Frieden". Retrieved June 19, 2019.
  80. ^ McKay B (September 12, 2017). "Former CDC Director Frieden Takes Aim at Heart Disease, Epidemics". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 23, 2019.
  81. ^ Frieden, Thomas R.; Jaffe, Marc G. (2018). "Saving 100 million lives by improving global treatment of hypertension and reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors". The Journal of Clinical Hypertension. 20 (2): 208–211. doi:10.1111/jch.13195. ISSN 1751-7176. PMC 8031351. PMID 29370471.
  82. ^ Lives, Resolve to Save. "Resolve to Save Lives: About us". Retrieved June 20, 2019.
  83. ^ Bureau, MediBulletin (July 31, 2019). "ICMR expands hypertension initiative to 100 districts, 15 crore people". MediBulletin. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  84. ^ Fang, Di. "Sino-US project targets high blood pressure –". China Daily. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  85. ^ "Expert advises FG to budget, spend effectively on Health". News Agency of Nigeria. August 8, 2019. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  86. ^ Stobbe, Mike (May 14, 2018). "UN health agency aims to wipe out trans fats worldwide". AP NEWS. Retrieved June 19, 2019.
  87. ^ Jacobs A (May 14, 2018). "Trans Fats Should be Eliminated Worldwide by 2023, W.H.O. Says". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 19, 2019.
  88. ^ Frieden, Thomas R.; Ghebreyesus, Tedros Adhanom (May 19, 2018). "REPLACE: a roadmap to make the world trans fat free by 2023". The Lancet. 391 (10134): 1978–1980. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31083-3. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 29773233. S2CID 21699318.
  89. ^ Barclay, Eliza (January 7, 2016). "We Eat Too Much Sodium Because Companies Keep Dumping It In Our Food". NPR. Retrieved June 20, 2019.
  90. ^ "Statement from Dr. Tom Frieden, President and CEO of Resolve to Save Lives, an initiative of Vital Strategies, on the release of the US report on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for Sodium and Potassium". Vital Strategies. March 5, 2019. Retrieved June 20, 2019.
  91. ^ Mente A, O'Donnell M, Rangarajan S, et al. Urinary sodium excretion, blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, and mortality: a community-level prospective epidemiological cohort study. Lancet. 2018;392(10146):496–506
  92. ^ Carroll AE (December 17, 2018). "Scant Evidence Behind the Advice About Salt". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 19, 2019.
  93. ^ Tom Frieden, M. D. (June 10, 2019). "Drs. Thomas Frieden, Margaret Hamburg: There's a limited window to make America safer from epidemics". Fox News Channel. Retrieved June 19, 2019.
  94. ^ "Home". Prevent Epidemics. Retrieved June 20, 2019.
  95. ^ Resolve to Save Lives. "Stepping Up to Prevent Epidemics" (PDF). Retrieved June 20, 2019.
  96. ^ "Former CDC director: We can prevent the next pandemic". CNN. April 27, 2021. Retrieved April 11, 2022.
  97. ^ a b "Opinion: Pfizer and Moderna's mRNA vaccines are our best chance to end this pandemic. Break up their duopoly". The Washington Post. October 12, 2021. Retrieved April 11, 2022.
  98. ^ "A 'highly virulent' HIV strain is 'no cause for alarm,' scientists say". The Today Show. February 3, 2022.
  99. ^ "As highly transmissible Omicron subvariant spreads, what do Americans need to know?". CBS News. March 25, 2022.
  100. ^ "More Infectious" and "No Less Deadly:" Fmr. CDC Director on New Variant". PBS. March 23, 2022.
  101. ^ "Concerns rising over Easter weekend gathering and Brazilian variant". Good Morning America. April 3, 2021.
  102. ^ "Former CDC Director, Dr Frieden: 'People want politics out of our health'". BBC World News. March 17, 2021.
  103. ^ "Former CDC Director explains drop in vaccinations, hesitancy across country". MSNBC. April 22, 2021.
  104. ^ "Biden's Pandemic Fight: Inside the Setbacks of the First Year". The New York Times. January 23, 2022. Retrieved April 11, 2022.
  105. ^ "CDC Director Aims to Improve Covid-19 Messaging, Data Collection". The Wall Street Journal. January 17, 2022.
  106. ^ "CDC director, under fire for confusing guidance, seeks to reshape messaging". The Washington Post. January 7, 2022.
  107. ^ "Why Covid-19 vaccines are a freaking miracle". STAT. February 14, 2022.
  108. ^ "Former CDC directors: Coordinating our nation's health data will save lives". The Hill. March 10, 2022.
  109. ^ a b "Will We Be Ready for the Next Pandemic?". The Wall Street Journal. February 12, 2021.
  110. ^ "Opinion: Why the Global Fund must take on pandemic preparedness". Devex. January 6, 2022.
  111. ^ "The Politics of Primary Health Care". Think Global Health. May 20, 2021.
  112. ^ "How to protect your heart without sacrificing taste: Eliminate trans fat from your food". USA Today. December 7, 2021.
  113. ^ "The Next Covid Wave Is Probably Already on Its Way". The New York Times. March 22, 2022.
  114. ^ Lee, Christopher T.; Frieden, Tom (March 29, 2021). "Why Even Well-Prepared Countries Failed the Pandemic Test". Foreign Affairs. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  115. ^ "We ran the CDC. No president ever politicized its science the way Trump has". The Washington Post. July 14, 2020. Retrieved April 11, 2022.
  116. ^ "Reforming the CDC and U.S. Public Health: Reflections from Former Directors of the CDC". YouTube. March 18, 2022.
  117. ^ "Five billion people unprotected from trans fat leading to heart disease". World Health Organization. January 23, 2023. Retrieved March 19, 2023.
  118. ^ "Five billion people unprotected from trans fat leading to heart disease". Retrieved March 19, 2023.
  119. ^ "Countdown to 2023: WHO report on global trans-fat elimination 2022". Retrieved March 19, 2023.
  120. ^ (March 17, 2023). "Progress made in eliminating trans-fats, but 5 billion still unprotected – WHO". Retrieved March 19, 2023.
  121. ^ Belluz, Julia (May 14, 2018). "The new global plan to eliminate the most harmful fat in food, explained". Vox. Retrieved March 19, 2023.
  122. ^ Kontis, Vasilis; Cobb, Laura K.; Mathers, Colin D.; Frieden, Thomas R.; Ezzati, Majid; Danaei, Goodarz (August 27, 2019). "Three Public Health Interventions Could Save 94 Million Lives in 25 Years: Global Impact Assessment Analysis". Circulation. 140 (9): 715–725. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.038160. ISSN 0009-7322. PMC 6727958. PMID 31177824.
  123. ^ Frieden, Tom (March 25, 2022). "Stopping a Pandemic Deadlier Than Covid". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 19, 2023.
  124. ^ "Epidemics That Didn't Happen". Prevent Epidemics. Retrieved March 19, 2023.
  125. ^ Frieden, Tom (February 12, 2021). "Will We Be Ready for the Next Pandemic?". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 19, 2023.
  126. ^ "7-1-7: Rapid Improvement for Early Disease Detection & Response". Prevent Epidemics. Retrieved March 19, 2023.
  127. ^ Frieden, Thomas R; Lee, Christopher T; Bochner, Aaron F; Buissonnière, Marine; McClelland, Amanda (2021). "7-1-7: an organising principle, target, and accountability metric to make the world safer from pandemics". Lancet. 398 (10300): 638–640. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01250-2. ISSN 0140-6736. PMC 9636000. PMID 34242563.
  128. ^ Frieden, Thomas R.; McClelland, Amanda (October 25, 2022). "Preparing for Pandemics and Other Health Threats: Societal Approaches to Protect and Improve Health". JAMA. 328 (16): 1585–1586. doi:10.1001/jama.2022.18877. ISSN 0098-7484. PMID 36206014. S2CID 252755169.
  129. ^ "Former CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden Joins CFR as Senior Fellow for Global Health". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved March 19, 2023.
  130. ^ Harris G (March 15, 2010). "At C.D.C., Obama's Appointee Wields a Big Broom". The New York Times. Retrieved July 23, 2019.
  131. ^ "Life on the Cutting Edge / Oberlin Alumni Magazine / Fall 2006". Retrieved July 10, 2021.
  132. ^ "Short Bio". Retrieved July 10, 2021.
  133. ^ Wolf, Douglas (Fall 2016). "Sending off the Class of 2020". Columbia College Today. Retrieved July 10, 2021.
  134. ^ Pharrell Williams, the Musician, Songwriter, and Producer, to Speak at NYU's Commencement - News release website of NYU

External links[edit]

Government offices
Preceded by Health Commissioner of New York City
Succeeded by
Preceded by Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Succeeded by