Tom Leykis (right) in 1998
|Born||Thomas Joseph Leykis
August 1, 1956
The Bronx, New York City, New York
|Other names||"Dad", "The Professor"|
|Known for||The Tom Leykis Show|
Thomas Joseph "Tom" Leykis (pronounced: //; born August 1, 1956) is an American talk radio personality best known for hosting The Tom Leykis Show from 1994 to 2009 (nationally syndicated), and April 2012 to the present (internet streamcast/podcast). The show follows the hot talk format, which brought Leykis much success, particularly in the Southern California radio market. Due to the provocative nature of the show, Leykis has often been described as a shock jock. The show's best-known feature is "Leykis 101", in which he purports to teach men "how to get laid" while spending the least amount of time, money, and effort.
He is also the host of The Tasting Room with Tom Leykis, a most-weekly lifestyle program dealing with fine food and drink, airing weekends mainly in West Coast markets.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Career
- 3 The Tom Leykis Show
- 4 Personal life
- 5 Notes
- 6 External links
Tom Leykis was born August 1, 1956, at a time when his parents, Harry and Laura (née O'Mara), lived in the Bronx. Leykis spent his early childhood in The Bronx, New York City, New York and has two sisters (Terry, Anne) and a brother (Jim). Tom is of Irish, Jewish and Ukrainian descent. His Jewish grandfather, who originated in Kiev, Ukraine, emigrated to Lithuania and later to the United States at the turn of the 20th century presumably to escape the historical anti-Semitic pogroms in the Russian Empire. Tom Leykis has repeatedly stated that his lineage is irrelevant to his life and his accomplishments in the radio business. His father was a union leader at The New York Post. At a point in Leykis' childhood, he moved with his family to Selden, Long Island, where he completed high school and graduated at 16 from Newfield High School. He then moved away from the family home to study broadcasting at Fordham University and dropped out due to financial issues.
Leykis began his radio career in the state of New York in 1970. At the age of 14, he was once a fill-in host for WBAB later working in 1979 for Mark Simone's WPIX talk show comedy titled The Simone Phone where he was featured as the host's sidekick. In the mid-1970s Leykis hosted one of the first public access TV shows on Long Island's Cablevision system, "The Graffiti Hour", a call-in program. Leykis eventually left WPIX, later went to WBAI leaving in the fall of 1981 to go to Albany to work at WQBK-AM. Leykis also contributed to a show called The Phonebooth on WABC that ended in 1981. After his departure from WABC, Leykis was offered a full-time radio hosting job in Staunton, Virginia.
Leykis credits his defining moment to seriously pursue a career in radio to an incident that occurred in the early 1980s, in which his then-girlfriend locked him out of their residence because she believed he didn't earn enough money; he has since stated that this was one of the most important events of his life.
On Monday, February 27, 1984, the Tom Leykis Show aired on WNWS in Miami to replace the WNWS night show hosted by talk radio personality Neil Rogers. Rogers, who had previously signed conflicting employment contracts with both WNWS (790 AM) and WINZ (940 AM), had just won permission from a Miami court to take his act to WINZ and hoped leaving WNWS would be devastating to Leykis' program. Rogers and Leykis became rivals and, in June 1984, just after Denver radio talk show host Alan Berg was assassinated, Leykis told listeners Neil Rogers' real name and urged callers to harass his on-air rival. By January 1985, Leykis had the top-ranking evening talk show in the market. In September 1985, Leykis abruptly left his WNWS job over concern about the pending WNWS-WGBS merger and began work at Phoenix's KFYI.
As program director at KFYI, Leykis constructed a politically well-rounded host lineup inserting himself as a "left leaning libertarian" in the afternoons. Leykis was known for his method of gathering new callers for the station by provoking rival station KTAR. In 1987, Leykis abruptly left KFYI because of differences with station management that still have a shroud of secrecy surrounding the details. As of the late 1990s, KFYI hosts were prohibited from discussing the details of Leykis' departure from the station. While still in Phoenix, Leykis also had a local Public-access television show called Backstage Pass.
After leaving Phoenix, Leykis moved on to Los Angeles to work for KFI, where he hosted a talk-radio program from 1988 to 1992, as a liberal counterpart to Rush Limbaugh. During this time, KFI was hit with a $6,000 Federal Communications Commission (FCC) indecency fine over Leykis' on-air comments; however, the fine was paid in full from contributions by listeners. During Leykis' tenure at KFI, KFI host Geoff Edwards was suspended and then resigned over an incident related to steamrolling a massive collection of Cat Stevens' work sent in by listeners, which was motivated by Leykis' denouncement of Cat Stevens' comments about Salman Rushdie. A local Nazi historian likened the stunt as being reminiscent of a Nazi book burning.
On September 29, 1992, KFI management dismissed Leykis with only an hour's notice, based on what Leykis claims they called "a business decision"; KFI assumed the obligation of paying him his contracted salary, estimated at $400,000 per year, for the remaining six months of his contract.
Leykis next moved on to Boston and WRKO. He later left the Boston station for a new job in Los Angeles after a publicized domestic disturbance with then-wife Susan at the end of 1993. In March 1994, pretrial probation was granted and the charges stemming from that assault were dropped in exchange for his attendance in a program for batterers.
In 1994, Leykis began the nationally syndicated program, The Tom Leykis Show on Westwood One from Culver City, California. The final years of the show were produced from Paramount Pictures studios in Hollywood.
The Tom Leykis Show
|Running time||3–4 hours (including commercials)|
|Home station||KMPC (1994–96), none (1996–97); KLSX (1997–2009); The New Normal Network (2012–)|
|Announcer||Joe Cipriano (1997–2009); Howard Hoffman (2012–present)|
|Producer(s)||Mike Dooley (1994–2000); Dean J. "Dino" DeMilio (2000–present)|
|Exec. producer(s)||Eric Stanger (1994–97); Eric Bravermann (1997); Gary Zabransky (1997–present)|
|Air dates||April 4, 1994 – March 30, 2007 (Westwood One); April 2, 2007 to February 20, 2009 (CBS); April 2, 2012 – present (New Normal Network)|
|Opening theme||Enter Sandman by Metallica (1994–2009); untitled custom composition for the show by Taylor Locke and The Roughs (2012–present)|
|Podcast||The Tom Leykis Show podcast|
The Tom Leykis Show began in 1994 broadcasting from Los Angeles. Originally the show was often political in nature, a fact Leykis highlighted at the start of every episode by proclaiming his show the only radio talk show that is "not hosted by a right-wing wacko or a convicted felon", references to radio hosts Rush Limbaugh and G. Gordon Liddy, respectively. In addition to politics, the host commonly discussed relationships, religion (Leykis is an atheist), and other issues. On Fridays, listeners were allowed to call in and talk about anything they wanted, in contrast to other days when Leykis established a single topic for each hour of the show.
Friday was also the usual day for live appearances in cities around the U.S., when Leykis would broadcast from a bar or other public place with an audience present. The free-for-all subject matter and large crowds led to a rowdy atmosphere on Friday shows, and it was in this context that "Flash Fridays" began.
In 1997, Leykis's show was picked up by KLSX, an FM talk station in Los Angeles that also carried The Howard Stern Show. The station became the flagship for the show and Leykis began to tone down the political aspect of the show around this time, and started the "Leykis 101" segment soon after.
In 2002, The Tom Leykis Show was briefly heard on an irregular basis in New York City on WNEW. Leykis was moved to afternoons from nights to replace the recently fired Opie and Anthony of The Opie and Anthony Show. Leykis later reflected on his comparative lack of success in the New York market, explaining that the station never truly got behind him, "We were talking to [WNEW Show Director Mark Chernoff] about the show being on the station on a regular basis. He said, “This show will never work in New York.” Now, that may be true or it may not be true but how do you know until the people have had a chance to listen to it?".
In addition to his weekday show, Leykis began hosting a new syndicated weekend show called The Tasting Room in February 2005, covering lifestyle topics such as wine and spirits, luxury cars, and high-end technology.
With the departure of Howard Stern to satellite radio in January 2006, KLSX became known on-air as "97.1 Free FM" – so-called to highlight that its stations broadcast free-to-air, funded by commercials, whereas satellite radio requires a subscription fee. The station was produced by CBS Radio as part of its Free FM format, and The Tom Leykis Show was broadcast in a number of affiliate markets nationwide including but not limited to Portland, Dallas, Seattle, Phoenix, Las Vegas as well as multiple California markets in addition to its Los Angeles flagship such as San Diego and San Francisco. Talkers Magazine, analyzing Arbitron data, show that Leykis has an estimated listening minimum weekly cume of over 1.75 million for Spring 2007, based on a national sample.
On February 20, 2009, KLSX changed its format to Top 40 (CHR) under economic pressures, and The Tom Leykis Show aired its final broadcast. The show ran Monday through Friday, 3:00 PM to 8:00 PM PT from Paramount Studios and 2:00 PM to 6:00 PM Saturdays in Hollywood, California and was heard in a number of major metropolitan markets on the West Coast of the United States.
Leykis' show returned on his podcast/streamcast network The New Normal Network at 3PM pacific time, April 2, 2012 – one day after his CBS contract ended. The new uncensored show includes a new theme song, fewer commercials, and "Leykis 101" news at the top of each hour. The new show is financed through both advertising and a premium subscription service that offers a less-compressed stream and podcast-on-demand ability. It is produced by Gary Zabransky along with associate producer Dean "Dino" DeMilio, and engineered by Mike Timpson, who recently replaced Art Webb after his departure in 2013.
Typically, Leykis discusses one topic per hour. He will introduce the topic by reading a news article or peer-reviewed study, or by discussing a personal anecdote or experience. He will then accept callers for discussion and debate.
The cornerstone of the program is the Thursday broadcast of "Leykis 101", in which the program is set up as an ad hoc lecture and question and answer session, over which Leykis presides as a self-styled "professor". The subject of the "101" segments are how men can spend less money on women, while achieving greater sexual and personal success. The intent of his advice is to serve as a father figure for his mostly-male listeners, many of whom were raised without a father. Thus, many callers address Leykis as "Dad" or "Father".
Along with general information on life for young men, Leykis's 101 advice mostly consists of his principles of looking out for oneself. He argues that the institution of marriage is flawed and that family court systems are often corrupt because DNA testing after childbirth is not mandatory to prevent paternity fraud, and because courts have forced men to pay child support even after DNA testing has established that a man was not actually a child's father. Other examples of Leykis 101 guidelines include never dating single mothers or co-workers; never cohabiting with a woman; using birth control during each sexual encounter; and immediately ending a relationship if a woman issues an ultimatum.
Leykis constantly recommends that young men pursue their career or educational goals and not be distracted by serious relationships or marriage at a young age as he was. Leykis describes many women as "dream killers" (i.e., he argues that, in dating or marriage, women will typically prioritize their desires above a man's, and will actively discourage men's ambitions for fear of him leaving the relationship if he attains success). Furthermore, Leykis urges men to live frugally, including avoiding consumer debt (what Leykis describes as "renting money"); never spending more than $40 for a date; and saving cash and investing for the future. He has described men who neglect their bills as "immoral".
A popular and long-running feature of the show is "Flash Friday", in which men are encouraged to drive with their headlights on and women are encouraged to expose their breasts to such vehicles. The feature began as a one-time bit; while on the air, Leykis recalled a radio host he listened to as a child, who asked his listeners in New York apartments to flash their lights on and off and then to look outside to see how many neighbors were doing the same, as a way to gauge the audience size. Leykis asked his listeners to do the same with their car headlights, and a few minutes later, jokingly suggested that women flash their breasts. A listener called in to report that he saw a woman flashing fellow drivers, and it became a regular feature of the show. Both women and men commonly call during the Friday broadcast to alert other listeners as to their location, and to recount stories of flashing or being flashed, respectively.
The show also uses sound clips which callers generally request after long conversations. Callers make requests to be "taken out" in some style, meaning for a specific desired sound effect or audio to be played to end the call; e.g., "take me out with a bong hit?" or "take me out Kobe style." The practice of "taking people out" with use of a sound clip dates back to the early days of the show, when Leykis was working at a small radio station in Albany, New York. Leykis would dispose of undesirable or tiresome callers by playing the sound of a toilet flushing while hanging up on them (i.e., "flushing the caller"). The station manager found this offensive, and when Leykis refused to stop, removed the cart from the studio. Leykis retaliated by re-recording the sound on another cart that he purposely mis-labeled as "dog barking", and continued to play it. The station manager became frustrated and began harassing the host about it, so Leykis began "blowing callers up" instead (i.e., playing an explosion sound effect).
After some time, the practice became such a commonplace one that as callers ended their on-air conversation with Leykis they began asking for the sound clip to be played as they hung up by saying "Blow me up, Tom." This phrase in turn became so popular it was soon synonymous with The Tom Leykis Show and its host. Since then, it has been used on all sorts of Leykis merchandise, as the name of his official website, and as the title of a 2001 documentary film about the host and his show.
Over the years, as more and more sound clips were brought into use, the explosion sound saw less air time and eventually became referred to simply by the phrase "old school", and the original toilet flush clip in turn became "old- old school", terms both still used whenever callers wish to be "taken out" with those sound effects.
In July 1998, Tom Leykis and the production company Westwood One were sued by Karen Carpenter of Juneau, Alaska. She claimed to have suffered post-traumatic stress from disparaging and sexual comments Leykis made about her on the air. Leykis has stated on air that the case occupied much of his attention in the winter of 2002.
On June 25, 2003, Marty Ingels, a voice actor, called into Leykis' show and tried to challenge him on moral grounds. Ingels, who was much older than the typical caller to Leykis's show, was subjected to some rude remarks by the call screener who said that he was too old and should not be on the air. But Ingels was placed on the air, and Leykis also disparaged Ingels, stating "you're not just older than my demographic, you're the grandfather of my demographic". Leykis explained that he didn't want older callers because he was selling advertising aimed at younger listeners. Ingels sued the show for age discrimination. Ingels's first lawsuit got dismissed by an anti-SLAPP statute (CCP S 425.16) that protected against lawsuits that protects First Amendment rights and another judge claimed that the show had the right to control its content. Further, it was noted that Ingels couldn't really complain he was discriminated against because his call was in fact put on the air. As for Ingels, the actor was ordered to pay $25,000 in attorney's fees to Leykis.
On-air murder confession
Another widely publicized event took place in November 2006 when Leykis invited callers to make confessions about their wrongdoing or escapades which were never discovered. A listener from the Phoenix, Arizona area called the show and confessed to shooting the father of her child when he refused to pay child support. The caller described herself as a nurse who went by her middle name, Sue, and said that she shot the man in the heart with a 9 mm because she "knew how to aim for it", and moreover asserted that she made the shooting look like a suicide. Leykis asked if the woman was serious, and the woman explained how she "got away with it" because police believed "a blubbering, crying woman" and that she was never arrested or charged. Leykis informed her that she'd made a murder confession live on the air, that the call-screener had her phone number, and that they would turn her information over to police. The woman ended her call.
Leykis denied allegations that the call was part of a hoax set up by the show, and producers turned over all information they had about the caller to police who began an investigation. Leykis discussed the confession on subsequent episodes of his show, urging listeners to phone a toll-free number if they had possibly relevant information, and offering a cash reward for information leading to conviction of the woman for murder. About a month later, former talk show host Geraldo Rivera asked Leykis about the incident on his Geraldo at Large syndicated television program. Geraldo: "So what was your first reaction when you got this call?" Leykis: "I was shocked. You know, people call talk shows and say all kinds of things, but they never confess to murder."
On August 7, 2008, Leykis interviewed an officer involved in the investigation. Evidence was presented to the Maricopa County Attorney's Office and charges were considered against Megan Suzanne Vice of El Mirage, Arizona. Her ex-boyfriend, Tortsen Rockwood, died of a gunshot wound in 2001, and, while the death was originally ruled a suicide, police later named Vice as their suspect in the case. Sometime after the murder confession was made on Leykis's show, Vice filed a police report stating that her cell phone had been stolen. In 2009, it was revealed that police reviewed the death of Rockwood and determined that all the evidence was consistent with suicide and that Vice would not be charged with murder; however, she was charged with filing a false police report for claiming that her cell phone was stolen.
Cease and desist order
||This section of a biography of a living person does not include any references or sources. (June 2008)|
In the fall of 2006, the show relocated to a new broadcast studio on the Paramount Pictures lot in Hollywood. As of July 23, 2007, Leykis has been prohibited from including the name of the film studio as a part of his pre-taped intro sequence. According to Leykis, Paramount Pictures contacted CBS Radio and objected to having the studio linked to the show.
Originally, when beginning the day's broadcast or returning from a commercial break at the start of a new hour, the announcer would introduce the show's studio and location ("From Paramount Studios in Hollywood, it's the Tom Leykis Show"). Since the "cease and desist" order from Paramount, the new introduction announces the broadcast location in many different ways, satirizing the situation. Some versions replace the words "Paramount Studios" with "the back of the backlot at a movie studio" or "soidutS tnuomaraP" (Paramount Studios, spoken in reverse), and even more simply "a secret location" or the common audio "bleep" normally used for removing expletives.
In 2003, Leykis raised controversy by revealing the name of Katelyn Faber, the accuser in the Kobe Bryant sexual assault case. Other media outlets elected to reveal details of the alleged victim such as race and masked photographs while excluding her name, as was the standard practice at that time, raising privacy questions.
Major media outlets generally and voluntarily withhold names like these due to their adherence to journalism ethics and standards. However, the policy in practice only applies to alleged victims, allowing for the release of names of alleged offenders, a policy which Leykis disagrees with and does not follow, as he regularly states he is "not a journalist". Leykis contends that either all names in a case (the alleged offender(s) and the alleged accuser) should be protected or all should be public.
The radio show host has caused considerable controversy over the years for his practice of identifying such individuals by name on-air. Other such individuals he has named include:
- Vanessa Perhach, who accused Marv Albert of forcible sodomy (biting) in 1997.
- Angela Song, a woman associated with the Christian Coalition of America who tried to commit suicide by jumping off a bridge in Seattle, Washington.
- An accused child molester in SeaTac.
- Vili Fualaau, the 13-year-old victim of statutory rape by teacher Mary Kay Letourneau.
- Kenneth Pinyan, the Boeing Co. employee dropped off at a Seattle hospital dead from a perforated colon, later found to have engaged in bestial sexual intercourse with a horse.
- Crystal Gail Mangum, a stripper, escort, and student at North Carolina Central University, who falsely accused three Duke University students (members of the lacrosse team) of rape, battery, and sodomy in what became known as the 2006 Duke University lacrosse case.
For early 2008, Leykis had announced radio ratings at various angles. Among the 81 radio stations in Southern California the show was #9 overall, #6 in English stations, and #1 for time spent listening. Among men ages 18+, adults ages 18–34, and "the money demo" ages 25–54, the show was #1 in time spent listening with an average of over 4 hours per week, in addition to being #1 in share for men aged 18+.
End of terrestrial radio broadcast
The Tom Leykis Show had its last regular terrestrial broadcast on Friday, February 20, 2009, and ended at 5 p.m., the middle of its usual time slot. Leykis took calls until the last five minutes. At that point, the host mentioned that people had asked him how he was going to end the show. Saying "Let's tell the truth", Leykis commented that he knew since the previous summer that it was possible the flagship station (KLSX, which originated the broadcast of the show) would switch format. Saying he "tossed and turned", he thought about it and asked himself: "What could I say that would wrap this all up? And then I one day heard this song … and I realized – the lyrics of this song … are about me." With that, Leykis rolled into Joe Jackson's "I'm the Man" (the title track of Jackson's 1979 album). By the time the song was over, the studio was filled with people—as could be seen by the live online video broadcast on the station website. The host thanked his producers, the program director, the crowd in the studio, and everyone in southern California who made it "12 great years", and he finished with "Let's do this thing one more time..." The crowd yelled "Blow me up, Tom" one last time to end the show and mark the end of KLSX as "The FM Talk Station" in what coincidentally became a strikingly appropriate catch phrase to be had: The phrase "blow up the station" is a radio term for ending a particular format or station run. After a much longer than usual explosion sound effect, the crowd cheered and KLSX changed format from hot talk to CHR/Top 40.
When Leykis' show went off the air in 2009, he was in the middle of a 5-year contract with CBS. This contract included the rights to his show over terrestrial radio, internet rights, and specific to airing on KLSX; this kept Leykis from appearing on any other CBS station. In addition, CBS also would not allow podcasts for them, as they were concentrating on other online ventures at the time. Despite all this, Leykis has no regrets over his contract terms, and still speaks highly of CBS.
During his show's hiatus, he created The New Normal Network in 2010, a network consisting of both podcast shows and online streams, in order to take the media into his own hands. After setting up his new network, Leykis announced on the network's website that his show would return on April 2, 2012, one day after the conclusion of his contract with CBS.
On the first day of the show's return, there were some streaming issues that were rectified within the first 30 minutes, due to a far greater influx of listeners than he was expecting. After receiving data from his analytic sources, Leykis announced on the air that in the first week of the show, over 401,000 different IP addresses tuned into the show.
Leykis's weekend show, The Tasting Room, airs mostly on such West Coast stations as KGIL in Los Angeles, California and KFBK in Sacramento, California. It is also currently produced by The New Normal Network.
His second marriage was to television reporter Christina Gonzalez. Leykis alleges that he discovered that she was cheating on him after he investigated some hotel receipts he found. Another marriage, which lasted one year, was with a Seattle woman in 1989, who was a listener of his show.
His fourth wife, Susan Drew Leykis, who first met Leykis at a Los Angeles Kings game, filed a police report against him while they were married and living in Boston in 1993. On December 22 of that year, she alleged that Leykis assaulted and threatened to kill her during a fight after they returned home from a radio station Christmas party. He was subsequently charged with "felony assault and battery and threatening to commit a crime"; a police officer found bruises and scratches on the woman. In March 1994, Leykis was sentenced to a year of probation and ordered to attend a domestic violence class. He completed both, and the charges were dropped, although Leykis did not admit guilt as part of the agreement. The couple have since divorced.
In August 2004, Leykis was attacked outside a Seattle bar and all-night diner, The 5 Point Cafe. In the assault, he was kicked in the face and knocked down to the ground, causing him to require 17 stitches over one eye, and leaving him with scratches and bruises on his knees. The assailant reportedly had an accomplice who accused Leykis of calling him a name and hanging up on him when he called the show. The suspects left by taxi prior to police arriving on scene and were jailed. Leykis refused to prosecute due to the distance and he felt that having a few days in jail was enough.
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- Tom Leykis Show
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- "Women call Tom Leykis to support Flash Friday".
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- The Associated Press (2002-01-27). "Radio tirade ends in court: Juneau listener sues 'shock-jock' host". The Seattle Times. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
- Chambers, Mike (2002-01-26). "Radio 'shock jock' sued by former Juneau listener". Anchorage Daily News. Retrieved 2008-06-27.[dead link]
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- Excerpts from the Ingels call: SV Media Law website. Retrieved on March 5, 2008.
- Hastings, Hon. J. Gary. (May 26, 2005) Court of Appeal, Second District, Division 4, California Ingels v. Westwood One Broadcasting Services, Inc. 129 Cal.App.4th 1050, 28 Cal.Rptr.3d 933 Cal.App. 2 Dist. (review denied August 24, 2005 by the California Supreme Court)
- Lewis, Antwan (2006-11-10). "Valley woman confesses to murder on radio". azfamily.com. Archived from the original on 2008-04-07. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
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- Rivera, Geraldo. (December 26, 2006) FOX 5 WNYW-NY Geraldo at Large 18:00
- CBS/AP (2003-07-24). "Kobe's Accuser Named — Twice". CBS News. Retrieved 2008-06-28.
- "Bryant Case Highlights Privacy Issues in Rape Cases". Family Violence Prevention Fund. 2003. Retrieved 2008-06-28.[dead link]
- "Tom Leykis". NNDB. Retrieved 2008-02-29.
- "PLUS: PRO BASKETBALL; Bryant Accuser Is Named on Radio". New York Times. 2003-07-23. Retrieved 2008-02-12.
- See also Rape shield law.
- "TRANSCRIPTS – CNN RELIABLE SOURCES – Should Kobe Bryant's Accuser Be Named?; Has BBC Suffered Serious Credibility Blow?". CNN. 2003-07-27. Retrieved 2008-02-13.
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- "[Friday]". [Tom Leykis Show]. 2006-04-21.
- "Overview of Duke Lacrosse Scandal". dukelacrosse.us. 2006-07-04. Retrieved 2008-06-28.
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- "Art Webb", Twitter. Retrieved on September 27, 2012.
- Wagoner, Richard (April 16, 2014). "Leykis returns to airwaves for one day". Los Angeles Daily News. LA Daily News. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- BlowMeUpTom.com – official website
- NewNormalNetwork.com – New Normal Network official website
- Tom Leykis at the Internet Movie Database