|Died||September 14, 1865
San Jacinto Canyon, Riverside County, California
|Cause of death||multiple gunshots|
|Other names||James Henry or Jim Henry also McHenry|
|Known for||Leader of Mason Henry Gang|
|Criminal charge||robbery, theft, murder|
Tom McCauley, his origins unknown, was one of the criminals in Tuolumne County convicted of murder with his brother in 1857 and imprisoned for ten years. He was pardoned in 1861, and as "James Henry" was known to have been in San Diego, Los Angeles, and San Bernardino Counties in 1861-1862. Later he joined an outlaw gang in the San Joaquin Valley until it was broken up by the law.
In 1864, now known as "Jim Henry", he was one of the leaders of the Mason Henry Gang organized by secessionist Judge George Gordon Belt, that posed as Confederate partisan rangers but acted as outlaws, committing robberies, thefts and murders in the San Joaquin Valley, Monterey County, Santa Clara County, Santa Cruz County and later in the counties of Southern California.
McCauley was described by The Visalia 'Delta' of Nov. 30th 1864 as one of two secession guerrillas and murderers "who killed Robinson and 2 other men the day after the late Presidential election:"
- "McCAULEY alias James HENRY - Light florid complection; full prominent forehead; dark gray eyes, large and prominent; dark hair, rather short; dark whiskers, rather thin; may have light moustache; hight, about 5 feet 7 or 8 inches; weight, 145 pounds; stooped shouldered; head thrown forward; brown coat; black hat, lopped down; had on boots; riding large flea bitten grey horse, shod all round, has collar marks; Spanish saddle, known as half ranger; no machios; small tipidarios; common bridle; Dragoon bit; had spurs; 1 6-shooter and common butcher knife; went by the name of Spotty, at Watsonville."
When the Civil War ended in April with Lee's surrender at Appomattox the gang came under pressure in Central California. They moved into Southern California and split up. Henry with part of the gang moved into the eastern San Gabriel Mountains at San Sevaine Flats from which they began rustling, committing robbery and murder as they did.
In September 1865, he and his associates were camped out near San Bernardino and sent John Rogers to town to obtain provisions. While there, Rogers became liquored up and started boasting about his outlaw connections. The locals took note and Rogers was arrested by San Bernardino County Sheriff Benjamin Franklin Mathews. The sheriff's posse found Henry camped at San Jacinto Canyon, about twenty-five miles south of town, (then just over the county line in San Diego County). At sunrise on September 14, the posse approached cautiously when Henry was awakened. He roused himself to fire three shots, striking one posse member in the foot. Henry died in a hail of gunfire, sustaining 57 wounds. His corpse was taken back to town, photographed and displayed in Old West fashion.
- A History of Tuolumne County, California B.F. Alley, San Francisco, 1882. Part V - pages 201-249.
- Richard D. Thompson, THE MASON-HENRY GANG IN SAN BERNARDINO,LIBRARY NEWS SEPTEMBER 2009, p.73-74 "Two men were called before Judge Parks to give testimony that they knew James Henry and that the dead man before the court was indeed him. George Woodward stated that he was personally acquainted with Henry for about six months in the years 1861-62, in the counties of San Diego, Los Angeles and San Bernardino. John McGirr testified he also knew Henry in 1861-62, in those three counties. These facts would seem to indicate that these two men rode with Henry for six months, although there may be an innocent explanation."
- William B. Secrest, California Badmen: Mean Men with Guns, Word Dancer Press, Sanger, California, 2007. pg. 143-147
- Stockton Daily Independent, TUESDAY, DECEMBER 6, 1864 accessed from www.newspaperabstracts.com on June 21, 2011
- M. David DeSoucy, Sheriff Gary Penrod, San Bernardino County Sheriff's Department, Arcadia Publishing, 2006. pg. 16. account of Henry shootout.
- According to the Los Angeles Tri Weekly News: On Sept. 14 1865 the sheriff with a posse of three soldiers and two or three citizens ran across Henry sound asleep near San Jacinto Canyon, 25 miles from town and killed him after he made some resistance wounding one man. Secrest, California Bad Men p.144-146