Tom R. Tyler
|Tom R. Tyler|
March 3, 1950|
|Residence||New Haven, CT|
|Alma mater||Columbia, UCLA|
|Known for||Why people obey the law|
Kalven prize for "paradigm shifting scholarship in the study of law and society". Law and Society Association, 2000.Lifetime achievement award for promoting interdisciplinary research on social justice. International Society for Justice Research, 2012.
|Fields||Social Psychology and Law|
|Institutions||New York University and Yale|
|Thesis||Drawing inferences from experiences: the effects of crime victimization experiences upon crime-related attitudes and behaviors (1978)|
|Notable students||Steven L. Blader, Yuen J. Huo|
Tom R. Tyler (born March 3, 1950) is a professor of psychology and law at Yale Law School, known for his contributions to understanding why people obey the law. A 2012 review article on procedural justice by Anthony Bottoms and Justice Tankebe noted that, "Unquestionably the dominant theoretical approach to legitimacy within these disciplines is that of 'procedural justice,' based especially on the work of Tom Tyler.". Professor Tyler has been at New York University since 1997; in January 2012, he joined the faculty at Yale.
Tyler is the author or co-author of 9 books and an editor for 6 others. His widely cited 1990 book on Why People Obey the Law was republished in 2006 with a new afterword discussing more recent research and changes in his thinking since its initial publication.
Tyler and Huo (2002) is based on surveys of people in different ethnic groups to understand their concepts of justice. They found that minority African-Americans and Hispanics have essentially the same concept of justice as majority whites but different experiences. They describe two alternative strategies for effective law enforcement:
- Deterrence: effective but inefficient
- Process-based: efficient and effective
The difference in efficiency follows, because people who perceive that they may be victimized unfairly by law enforcement are less likely to cooperate. Tyler and Huo's analyses suggests that biased, unprofessional behavior of police, prosecutors and judges not only produces concerns of injustice, it cripples law enforcement efforts by making it more difficult for police and prosecutors to obtain the evidence needed to convict guilty parties.
Tyler and Blader (2000) discussed procedural justice and cooperative behavior and how they impact the performance of more general groups through their effect on social identity and cooperative behavior.
- Bottoms, Anthony; Tankebe, Justice (2012). "Beyond Procedural Justice: A Dialogic Approach to Legitimacy in Criminal Justice" (PDF). Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. 201 (1): 119–170. Retrieved December 13, 2012.