Tom yum

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Tom yum
Tom yam kung maenam.jpg
Tom yam kung as served in Bangkok, Thailand
Alternative names Tom yam
Type Soup
Place of origin Central Thailand[1]
Associated national cuisine Thai
Serving temperature Hot
Main ingredients stock, lemon grass, kaffir lime leaves, galangal, lime juice, fish sauce, chili peppers
Cookbook: Tom yum  Media: Tom yum

Tom yum or tom yam (UK pronunciation: /ˌtɒm ˈjæm/ or /ˌtɒm ˈjʌm/; US pronunciation: /ˌtɑːm ˈjɑːm/;[2] Thai: ต้มยำ, rtgstom yam, pronounced [tôm jām]) is a type of hot and sour Thai soup,[2] usually cooked with shrimp.[3] Tom yum is widely served in neighbouring countries such as Cambodia, Brunei, Malaysia, Singapore and Laos and has been popularised around the world.

The words "tom yam" are derived from two Thai words. Tom refers to the boiling process, while yam refers to a Thai spicy and sour salad. Indeed, tom yum is characterised by its distinct hot and sour flavours, with fragrant spices and herbs generously used in the broth. The basic broth is made of stock and fresh ingredients such as lemongrass, kaffir lime leaves, galangal, lime juice, fish sauce, and crushed chili peppers.

Commercial tom yum paste is made by crushing all the herb ingredients and stir frying in oil. Seasoning and other preservative ingredients are then added. The paste is bottled or packaged and sold around the world. Tom yum flavored with the paste may have different characteristics from that made with fresh herb ingredients. The soup often includes meats such as chicken, beef, pork, or shrimp.

The 1997 Financial Crisis in Asia, which started in Thailand, is sometimes referred to as the "Tom Yam Kung Crisis".[4]

Preparation[edit]

The taste of Tom yum is based on the sour and spicy tastes. A paste called Nam prik pao is prepared as a base of the soup,[5] to which water and other herbs and meat are added. The Nam prik pao is made from roasted chilies, shallots, and garlic and the ingredients are best grilled on charcoal fire[6].

            The basic ingredient of Tom yum is shrimp or pork. If shrimp is the base ingredient, put it in soup after the soup boils. If pork is the base ingredient, put it in the soup before it boils. The most popular Tom yum base is river shrimp called “Tom yum Goong”.

            The essential ingredients of Tom yum are herbs such as lemongrass, galangal, kaffir line leaves[7]. Other ingredients are also important especially Thai chilies, mushroom, cilantro, tomatoes, sweet white onions, lime juice, sugar, and fish sauce[8]. But if you want to make a “Tom yum nam khon” you must add the coconut milk or canned evaporated milk.

Origin[edit]

Tom yum originated in Thailand.[1]

Selected types[edit]

Tom yam kung maphrao on nam khon, as served in Uttaradit, Thailand
Ready-to-use bundles of lemon grass, galangal, lime leaves, and, for chicken tom yam, also turmeric, are sold at Thai markets
  • Tom yam nam sai (Thai: ต้มยำน้ำใส), clear broth tom yam soup[9]
  • Tom yam nam khon (Thai: ต้มยำน้ำข้น) is a more recent variation from the 1980s.[10] common with prawns as a main ingredient, evaporated milk or non-dairy creamer powder[11] is added to the broth as a finishing touch.
  • Tom yam kathi (Thai: ต้มยำกะทิ) - coconut milk based tom yum, this is often confused with tom kha kai ("chicken galanga soup"), where galangal is the dominant flavour of the coconut milk-based soup.
  • tom yam kung (Thai: ต้มยำกุ้ง) - the version of the dish most popular among tourists, is made with prawns as the main ingredient.[12] The dish originated during the Rattanakosin Kingdom.[13]
  • Tom yam pla (Thai: ต้มยำปลา) is a clear fish soup that was traditionally eaten with rice. It used to be the most widespread form of tom yam before mass-tourism came to Thailand, for fresh fish is readily available almost everywhere in the region's rivers, canals and lakes as well as in the sea. Usually fish with firm flesh that doesn't crumble after boiling is preferred for this type of soup.[14]
  • Tom yam kai (Thai: ต้มยำไก่) is the chicken version of the soup.[15]
  • Tom yam po taek (Thai: ต้มยำโป๊ะแตก) or tom yam thale (Thai: ต้มยำทะเล) is a variant of the soup with mixed seafood, like prawns, squid, clams and pieces of fish.[16]
  • Tom yam kung maphrao on nam khon (Thai: ต้มยำมะพร้าวอ่อนน้ำข้น), a version of prawn tom yum with the meat of a young coconut and a dash of (coconut) milk.
  • Tom yam kha mu (Thai: ต้มยำขาหมู), made with pork leg. These require a long cooking time under low fire.[17]

In the modern popularized versions the soup contains also mushrooms - usually straw mushrooms or oyster mushrooms. The soup is often topped with generous sprinkling of fresh chopped cilantro (coriander leaves). Sometimes Thai chili jam (nam phrik phao, Thai: น้ำพริกเผา) is added: this gives the soup a bright orange color and makes the chili flavor more pronounced.

Other sour and spicy soups[edit]

Less well-known outside Thailand is tom khlong (ต้มโคล้ง), a spicy sour soup where the sourness, however, does not derive from lime juice but through the use of tamarind.[18] Tom som (Thai: ต้มส้ม) are soups that are also very similar to tom yum but most often do not contain lemongrass or kaffir lime leaves. Depending on the type of tom som, the acidity can be derived from lime juice or from the use of tamarind.[19][20]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Tom Yum Gai – Suwanee's Kitchen". Chiang Rai Times. Retrieved 18 January 2016. 
  2. ^ a b "tom yam". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  3. ^ "Tom Yam Kung : Not only tasty but with medicinal properties - Thiaways". thaiwaysmagazine.com. Retrieved 18 December 2015. 
  4. ^ From Tom-yam-kung To Hamburger Crisis
  5. ^ "Tom Yum Soup Recipe (ต้มยำกุ้ง) - Authentic Thai Style". Thai Street Food, Restaurants, and Recipes | Eating Thai Food. 2014-08-15. Retrieved 2017-04-26. 
  6. ^ "Thai Roasted Chili Paste Nahm Prik Pao) Recipe - Food.com". Retrieved 2017-04-26. 
  7. ^ "Tom Yum Soup Recipe (ต้มยำกุ้ง) - Authentic Thai Style". Thai Street Food, Restaurants, and Recipes | Eating Thai Food. 2014-08-15. Retrieved 2017-04-26. 
  8. ^ "Tom Yum Soup Recipe (ต้มยำกุ้ง) - Authentic Thai Style". Thai Street Food, Restaurants, and Recipes | Eating Thai Food. 2014-08-15. Retrieved 2017-04-26. 
  9. ^ "Overview of Tom Yum soup from late 19th-century Siam to present day Thailand". Thaifoodmaster. Retrieved 2017-01-25. 
  10. ^ "Ancient Siamese Recipe for Tom Yum Soup with Snakehead Fish, Roasted Chili Jam and Green Mango (First Published in 1890) (Dtohm Yam Bplaa Chaawn, ต้มยำปลาช่อนแบบโบราณ อย่างหม่อมซ่มจีน ราชานุประพันธุ์ ร.ศ.๑๐๙)". Thaifoodmaster. 2017-01-25. Retrieved 2017-01-25. 
  11. ^ "Ancient Siamese Recipe for Tom Yum Soup with Snakehead Fish, Roasted Chili Jam and Green Mango (First Published in 1890) (Dtohm Yam Bplaa Chaawn, ต้มยำปลาช่อนแบบโบราณ อย่างหม่อมซ่มจีน ราชานุประพันธุ์ ร.ศ.๑๐๙)". Thaifoodmaster. 2017-01-25. Retrieved 2017-01-25. 
  12. ^ "Tom Yam Kung". thaiwaysmagazine.com. Retrieved 27 February 2015. 
  13. ^ "Tom Yam Kung Recipe, Hot and Sour Soup with Shrimp". thaifoodmaster.com. Retrieved 4 March 2010. 
  14. ^ "Spicecuisine.com". spicecuisine.com. Retrieved 27 February 2015. 
  15. ^ "Merry's Kitchen - Sour and Spicy Chicken Soup (Tom Yam Kai)". melroseflowers.com. Retrieved 27 February 2015. 
  16. ^ "Spicecuisine.com". spicecuisine.com. Retrieved 27 February 2015. 
  17. ^ "ต้มยำขาหมู". YouTube. 10 March 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2015. 
  18. ^ Tom klong pla krob (ต้มโคล้งปลากรอบ)
  19. ^ "Clay's Kitchen : Tam Ra Ahan Thai (Thai Recipes) ตำราอาหารไทย". panix.com. Retrieved 27 February 2015. 
  20. ^ "Clay's Kitchen : Tam Ra Ahan Thai (Thai Recipes) ตำราอาหารไทย". panix.com. Retrieved 27 February 2015. 

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