A BGM-109 Tomahawk flying in November 2002
|Type||Long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile|
|Place of origin||United States|
|Used by||United States Navy|
|Manufacturer||General Dynamics (initially)|
Hughes Aircraft Corporation
|Unit cost||$1.87M (FY2017) (Block IV)|
|Weight||2,900 lb (1,300 kg), 3,500 lb (1,600 kg) with booster|
|Length||Without booster: 18 ft 3 in (5.56 m) With booster: 20 ft 6 in (6.25 m)|
|Diameter||20.4 in (0.52 m)|
|Warhead||Nuclear: W80 warhead (retired)|
Conventional: 1,000 pounds (450 kg) high explosive or submunition dispenser with BLU-97/B Combined Effects Bomb or PBXN
|FMU-148 since TLAM Block III, others for special applications|
|Engine||Williams International F107-WR-402 turbofan |
using TH-dimer fuel
and a solid-fuel rocket booster
|Wingspan||8 ft 9 in (2.67 m)|
|Block II TLAM-A – 1,350 nmi (1,550 mi; 2,500 km)
Block III TLAM-C, Block IV TLAM-E – 900 nmi (1,000 mi; 1,700 km)Block III TLAM-D – 700 nmi (810 mi; 1,300 km)
|Flight altitude||98–164 ft (30–50 m) AGL|
|Speed||Subsonic; about 550 mph (480 kn; 890 km/h)|
|GPS, INS, TERCOM, DSMAC, active radar homing (RGM/UGM-109B)|
|Vertical Launch System (VLS) and horizontal submarine torpedo tubes (known as TTL (torpedo tube launch))|
The Tomahawk (//) Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile that is primarily used by the United States Navy and Royal Navy in ship and submarine-based land-attack operations. Introduced by General Dynamics in the 1970s, it was initially designed as a medium- to long-range, low-altitude missile that could be launched from a surface platform. Since then, it has been upgraded several times with guidance systems for precision navigation. In 1992–1994, McDonnell Douglas Corporation was the sole supplier of Tomahawk Missiles and produced Block II and Block III Tomahawk missiles and remanufactured many Tomahawks to Block III specifications. In 1994, Hughes outbid McDonnell Douglas Aerospace to become the sole supplier of Tomahawk missiles. It is now manufactured by Raytheon. In 2016, the U.S. Department of Defense purchased 149 Tomahawk Block IV missiles for $202.3 million.
This section does not cite any sources. (April 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The Tomahawk missile family consists of a number of subsonic, jet engine-powered missiles designed to attack a variety of surface targets. Although several launch platforms have been deployed or envisaged, only sea (both surface ship and submarine) launched variants are currently in service. Tomahawk has a modular design, allowing a wide variety of warhead, guidance, and range capabilities. The Tomahawk project was originally awarded to Applied Physics Laboratory near Laurel, Maryland by the US Navy. James H. Walker led a team of scientists to design and build this new long range missile. The original design, updated with advanced technology, is still used today.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (April 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
There have been several variants of the BGM-109 Tomahawk employing various types of warheads.
- BGM-109A Tomahawk Land Attack Missile – Nuclear (TLAM-N) with a W80 thermonuclear weapon. Retired from service sometime between 2010 and 2013. Reports from early 2018 state that the U.S. Navy is considering (re)introducing a (yet unknown type of) nuclear-tipped cruise missile into service.
- RGM/UGM-109B Tomahawk Anti Ship Missile (TAS-M) – active radar homing anti-ship missile variant; withdrawn from service in the 1990s.
- BGM-109C Tomahawk Land Attack Missile – Conventional (TLAM-C) with a unitary warhead. This was initially a modified Bullpup warhead.
- BGM-109D Tomahawk Land Attack Missile – Dispenser (TLAM-D) with cluster munitions.
- RGM/UGM-109E Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM Block IV) – improved version of the TLAM-C.
- BGM-109G Ground Launched Cruise Missile (GLCM) – with a W84 nuclear warhead; withdrawn from service in 1991.
- AGM-109H/L Medium Range Air to Surface Missile (MRASM) – a shorter range, turbojet powered air-launched cruise missile with cluster munitions; never entered service, cost US$569,000 (1999).
Ground-launched cruise missiles (GLCM) and their truck-like launch vehicles were employed at bases in Europe; they were withdrawn from service to comply with the 1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty. Many of the anti-ship versions were converted into TLAMs at the end of the Cold War. The Block III TLAMs that entered service in 1993 can fly farther and use Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to strike more precisely. Block III TLAM-Cs retain the DSMAC II navigation system, allowing GPS only missions, which allow for rapid mission planning, with some reduced accuracy, DSMAC only missions, which take longer to plan but terminal accuracy is somewhat better, and GPS aided missions which combine both DSMAC II and GPS navigation which provides the greatest accuracy. Block IV TLAMs are completely redesigned with an improved turbofan engine. The F107-402 engine provided the new Blk III with a throttle control, allowing in-flight speed changes. This engine also provided better fuel economy. The Block IV TLAMs have enhanced deep-strike capabilities and are equipped with a real-time targeting system for striking fleeing targets. Additionally, the Block IV missiles have the capabilities to be retargeted inflight, and the ability to transmit, via satcom, an image immediately prior to impact to assist in determining if the missile was attacking the target and the likely damage from the attack.
A major improvement to the Tomahawk is network-centric warfare-capabilities, using data from multiple sensors (aircraft, UAVs, satellites, foot soldiers, tanks, ships) to find its target. It will also be able to send data from its sensors to these platforms. It will be a part of the networked force being implemented by the Pentagon.
Tomahawk Block II variants were all tested during January 1981 to October 1983. Deployed in 1984, some of the improvements included: an improved booster rocket, cruise missile radar altimeter, and navigation through the Digital Scene Matching Area Corellator (DSMAC).
Tomahawk Block III introduced in 1993 added time-of-arrival control and improved accuracy for Digital Scene Matching Area Correlator (DSMAC) and jam-resistant GPS, smaller, lighter WDU-36 warhead, engine improvements and extended missile's range.
Tactical Tomahawk Weapons Control System (TTWCS) takes advantage of a loitering feature in the missile's flight path and allows commanders to redirect the missile to an alternative target, if required. It can be reprogrammed in-flight to attack predesignated targets with GPS coordinates stored in its memory or to any other GPS coordinates. Also, the missile can send data about its status back to the commander. It entered service with the US Navy in late 2004. The Tactical Tomahawk Weapons Control System (TTWCS) added the capability for limited mission planning on board the firing unit (FRU).
Tomahawk Block IV introduced in 2006 adds the strike controller which can change the missile in flight to one of 15 preprogrammed alternate targets or redirect it to a new target. This targeting flexibility includes the capability to loiter over the battlefield awaiting a more critical target. The missile can also transmit battle damage indication imagery and missile health and status messages via the two-way satellite data link. Firing platforms now have the capability to plan and execute GPS-only missions. Block IV also has an improved anti-jam GPS receiver for enhanced mission performance. Block IV includes Tomahawk Weapons Control System (TTWCS), and Tomahawk Command and Control System (TC2S).
On 16 August 2010, the Navy completed the first live test of the Joint Multi-Effects Warhead System (JMEWS), a new warhead designed to give the Tomahawk the same blast-fragmentation capabilities while introducing enhanced penetration capabilities in a single warhead. In the static test, the warhead detonated and created a hole large enough for the follow-through element to completely penetrate the concrete target. In February 2014, U.S. Central Command sponsored development and testing of the JMEWS, analyzing the ability of the programmable warhead to integrate onto the Block IV Tomahawk, giving the missile bunker buster effects to better penetrate hardened structures.
In 2014, Raytheon began testing Block IV improvements to attack sea and moving land targets. The new passive radar seeker will pick up the electromagnetic radar signature of a target and follow it, and actively send out a signal to bounce off potential targets before impact to discriminate its legitimacy before impact. Mounting the multi-mode sensor on the missile's nose would remove fuel space, but company officials believe the Navy would be willing to give up space for the sensor's new technologies. The previous Tomahawk Anti-Ship Missile, retired over a decade earlier, was equipped with inertial guidance and the seeker of the Harpoon missile and there was concern with its ability to clearly discriminate between targets from a long distance, since at the time Navy sensors did not have as much range as the missile itself, which would be more reliable with the new seeker's passive detection and millimeter-wave active radar homing. Raytheon estimates adding the new seeker would cost $250,000 per missile. Other upgrades include a sea-skimming flight path. The first Block IV TLAMs modified with a maritime attack capability will enter service in 2021.
A supersonic version of the Tomahawk is under consideration for development with a ramjet to increase its speed to Mach 3. A limiting factor to this is the dimensions of shipboard launch tubes. Instead of modifying every ship able to carry cruise missiles, the ramjet-powered Tomahawk would still have to fit within a 21-inch diameter and 20-foot long tube.
In October 2015, Raytheon announced the Tomahawk had demonstrated new capabilities in a test launch, using its onboard camera to take a reconnaissance photo and transmit it to fleet headquarters. It then entered a loitering pattern until given new targeting coordinates to strike.
By January 2016, Los Alamos National Laboratory was working on a project to turn unburned fuel left over when a Tomahawk reaches its target into an additional explosive force. To do this, the missile's JP-10 fuel is turned into a fuel air explosive to combine with oxygen in the air and burn rapidly. The thermobaric explosion of the burning fuel acts, in effect, as an additional warhead and can even be more powerful than the main warhead itself when there is sufficient fuel left in the case of a short range target.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Each missile is stored and launched from a pressurized canister that protects it during transportation and storage, and also serves as a launch tube. These canisters were racked in Armored Box Launchers (ABL), which were installed on the four reactivated Iowa-class battleships USS Iowa, USS New Jersey, USS Missouri, and USS Wisconsin. The ABLs were also installed on eight Spruance-class destroyers, the four Virginia-class cruisers, and the cruiser USS Long Beach. These canisters are also in vertical launching systems (VLS) in other surface ships, capsule launch systems (CLS) in the later Los Angeles-class and "Virginia"-class submarines, and in submarines' torpedo tubes. All ABL equipped ships have been decommissioned.
For submarine-launched missiles (called UGM-109s), after being ejected by gas pressure (vertically via the VLS) or by water impulse (horizontally via the torpedo tube), a solid-fuel booster is ignited to propel the missile and guide it out of the water.
After achieving flight, the missile's wings are unfolded for lift, the airscoop is exposed and the turbofan engine is employed for cruise flight. Over water, the Tomahawk uses inertial guidance or GPS to follow a preset course; once over land, the missile's guidance system is aided by terrain contour matching (TERCOM). Terminal guidance is provided by the Digital Scene Matching Area Correlation (DSMAC) system or GPS, producing a claimed circular error probable of about 10 meters.
The Tomahawk Weapon System consists of the missile, Theater Mission Planning Center (TMPC)/Afloat Planning System, and either the Tomahawk Weapon Control System (on surface ships) or Combat Control System (for submarines).
Several versions of control systems have been used, including:
- v2 TWCS – Tomahawk Weapon Control System (1983), also known as "green screens," was based on an old tank computing system.
- v3 ATWCS – Advanced Tomahawk Weapon Control System (1994), first Commercial Off the Shelf, uses HP-UX.
- v4 TTWCS – Tactical Tomahawk Weapon Control System, (2003).
- v5 TTWCS – Next Generation Tactical Tomahawk Weapon Control System. (2006)
This section contains what may be an unencyclopedic or excessive gallery of images.Learn how and when to remove this template message)(
USS Missouri launching a Tomahawk missile
Submarine launch from USS Florida.
Launch trajectory from an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer.
The TLAM-D contains 166 sub-munitions in 24 canisters: 22 canisters of seven each, and two canisters of six each to conform to the dimensions of the airframe. The sub-munitions are the same type of Combined Effects Munition bomblet used in large quantities by the U.S. Air Force with the CBU-87 Combined Effects Munition. The sub-munitions canisters are dispensed two at a time, one per side. The missile can perform up to five separate target segments which enables it to attack multiple targets. However, in order to achieve a sufficient density of coverage typically all 24 canisters are dispensed sequentially from back to front.
TERCOM – Terrain Contour Matching. A digital representation of an area of terrain is mapped based on digital terrain elevation data or stereo imagery. This map is then inserted into a TLAM mission which is then loaded onto the missile. When the missile is in flight it compares the stored map data with radar altimeter data collected as the missile overflies the map. Based on comparison results the missile's inertial navigation system is updated and the missile corrects its course. TERCOM was based on, and was a significant improvement on, "Fingerprint," a technology developed in 1964 for the SLAM.
DSMAC – Digital Scene Matching Area Correlation. A digitized image of an area is mapped and then inserted into a TLAM mission. During the flight the missile will verify that the images that it has stored correlates with the image it sees below itself. Based on comparison results the missile's inertial navigation system is updated and the missile corrects its course.
In the 1991 Gulf War, 288 Tomahawks were launched, 12 from submarines and 276 from surface ships. The first salvo was fired by the Destroyer USS Paul F. Foster on January 17, 1991. The attack submarines USS Pittsburgh and USS Louisville followed.
On 17 January 1993, 46 Tomahawks were fired at the Zafraniyah Nuclear Fabrication Facility outside Baghdad, in response to Iraq's refusal to cooperate with UN disarmament inspectors. One missile crashed into the side of the Al Rasheed Hotel, killing two civilians.
On 10 September 1995, USS Normandy launched 13 Tomahawk missiles from the central Adriatic Sea against a key air defense radio relay tower in Bosnian Serb territory during Operation Deliberate Force.
On 3 March 2008, two Tomahawk missiles were fired at a target in Somalia by a US vessel during the Dobley airstrike, reportedly in an attempt to kill Saleh Ali Saleh Nabhan, an al Qaeda militant.
On 17 December 2009, two Tomahawk missiles were fired at targets in Yemen. One of the targets was hit by a TLAM-D missile. The target was described as an 'alleged Al-Qaeda training camp' in al-Ma’jalah in al-Mahfad a region of the Abyan governorate of Yemen. Amnesty International reported that 55 people were killed in the attack, including 41 civilians (21 children, 14 women, and six men). The US and Yemen governments refused to confirm or deny involvement, but diplomatic cables released as part of United States diplomatic cables leak later confirmed the missile was fired by a US Navy ship.
On 19 March 2011, 124 Tomahawk missiles were fired by U.S. and British forces (112 US, 12 British) against at least 20 Libyan targets around Tripoli and Misrata. As of 22 March 2011, 159 UGM-109 were fired by US and UK ships against Libyan targets.
On 23 September 2014, 47 Tomahawk missiles were fired by the United States from USS Arleigh Burke and USS Philippine Sea, which were operating from international waters in the Red Sea and Persian Gulf, against ISIL targets in Syria in the vicinity of Raqqa, Deir ez-Zor, Al-Hasakah and Abu Kamal, and against Khorasan group targets in Syria west of Aleppo.
On 13 October 2016 five Tomahawk cruise missiles were launched by USS Nitze at three radar sites in Yemen held by Houthi rebels in response to anti-ship missiles fired at US Navy ships the day before.
On 6 April 2017, 59 Tomahawk missiles were launched from USS Ross (DDG-71) and USS Porter (DDG-78), targeting Shayrat Airbase near Homs, in Syria. The strike was in response to a chemical weapons attack, an act allegedly carried out by Syrian President Bashar Al-Assad. U.S. Central Command stated in a press release that Tomahawk missiles hit "aircraft, hardened aircraft shelters, petroleum and logistical storage, ammunition supply bunkers, defense systems, and radars". Initial U.S. reports claimed "approximately 20 planes" were destroyed, and that 58 out of the 59 cruise missiles launched "severely degraded or destroyed" their intended target. A later report by US Secretary of Defense James Mattis claimed that the strike destroyed about 20% of the Syrian government's operational aircraft. Syrian state-run media claimed that nine civilians, including four children living in nearby villages were killed and another seven wounded as a result of the strike after missiles fell on their homes, but The Pentagon said civilians were not targeted. According to the satellite images the runways and the taxiways have been undamaged and combat flights from the attacked airbase resumed on 7 April a few hours after the attack, although U.S. officials did not state that the runway was a target.
An independent bomb damage assessment conducted by ImageSat International counted hits on 44 targets, with some targets being hit by more than one missile; these figures were determined using satellite images of the airbase 10 hours after the strike. However, the Russian defense ministry contends that the combat effectiveness of the attack was extremely low; only 23 missiles hit the base destroying six aircraft, and it did not know where the other 36 landed. Russian television news, citing a Syrian source at the airfield, said that nine planes were destroyed by the strikes (5 Su-22M3s, 1 Su-22M4, and 3 Mig-23ML) and that all planes were thought to have been out of action at the time. Al-Masdar News reported that 15 fighter jets were damaged or destroyed and that the destruction of fuel tankers caused several explosions and a large fire. However, Lost Armour's online photographic database, for vehicle losses in the War in Syria, has images of 10 destroyed aircraft at Shayrat airbase. Some observers conclude that the Russian government—and therefore also the Syrian government—was warned and Syria had enough time to move most of the planes to another base. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the strike damaged over a dozen hangars, a fuel depot, and an air defense base.
On April 14 2018, the US launched 66 Tomahawk cruise missiles at Syrian targets near Damascus and Homs, as part of the 2018 bombing of Damascus and Homs. These strikes were done in retaliation for alleged Douma chemical attack. The United States Department of Defense said Syria fired 40 defensive missiles at the allied weapons but did not hit any targets. The Russian military said that Syrian air defenses shot down 71 of the 103 missiles launched by the US and its allies.
|Number of Tomahawk missiles fired|
|Part of Iraq disarmament||17 January 1993||46|
|Part of Iraq disarmament||26 June 1993||23|
|Operation Deliberate Force||10 September 1995||13|
|Part of Iraq disarmament||3 September 1996||44|
|Operation Infinite Reach||20 August 1998||79|
|Operation Desert Fox||16 December 1998||325|
|Operation Allied Force||1999||218|
|Operation Enduring Freedom||2001||50|
|2003 invasion of Iraq||2003||802|
|Dobley airstrike||3 March 2008||2|
|Against an Al-Qaeda training camp in Yemen||17 December 2009||2|
|2011 military intervention in Libya||19 March 2011||124|
|Military intervention against ISIL||23 September 2014||47|
|in response to anti-ship missiles fired by Houthis in Yemen||13 October 2016||5|
|Shayrat missile strike||6 April 2017||59|
|2018 bombing of Damascus and Homs||13 April 2018||66|
In 1995 the US agreed to sell 65 Tomahawks to the UK for torpedo-launch from their nuclear attack submarines. The first missiles were acquired and test-fired in November 1998; all Royal Navy fleet submarines are now Tomahawk capable, including the Astute-class. The Kosovo War in 1999 saw the Swiftsure-class HMS Splendid become the first British submarine to fire the Tomahawk in combat. The UK subsequently bought 20 more Block III to replenish stocks. The Royal Navy has since fired Tomahawks during the 2000s Afghanistan War, in Operation Telic as the British contribution to the 2003 Iraq War, and during Operation Ellamy in Libya in 2011.
In April 2004, the UK and US governments reached an agreement for the British to buy 64 of the new generation of Tomahawk missile—the Block IV or TacTom missile. It entered service with the Royal Navy on 27 March 2008, three months ahead of schedule. In July 2014 the US approved the sale to the UK of a further 65 submarine-launched Block IV's at a cost of US$140m including spares and support; as of 2011[update] the Block III missiles were on British books at £1.1m and the Block IV at £0.87m including VAT.
The Sylver Vertical Launching System on the new Type 45 destroyer is claimed by its manufacturers to have the capability to fire the Tomahawk, although the A50 launcher carried by the Type 45 is too short for the weapon (the longer A70 silo would be required). Nevertheless, the Type 45 has been designed with weight and space margin for a strike-length Mk41 or Sylver A70 silo to be retrofitted, allowing Type 45 to use the TLAM Block IV if required. The new Type 26 frigates will have strike-length Mk41 VLS tubes. SYLVER user France is developing MdCN, a version of the Storm Shadow/Scalp cruise missile that has a shorter range but a higher speed than Tomahawk and can be launched from the SYLVER system.
United States Air Force
The Air Force is a former operator of the nuclear-armed version of the Tomahawk, the BGM-109G Gryphon.
In 2009 the Congressional Commission on the Strategic Posture of the United States stated that Japan would be concerned if the TLAM-N were retired, but the government of Japan has denied that it had expressed any such view.
It is believed[who?] that the SLCM version of the Popeye was developed by Israel after the US Clinton administration refused an Israeli request in 2000 to purchase Tomahawk SLCM's because of international Missile Technology Control Regime proliferation rules.
As of March 12, 2015 Poland has expressed interest in purchasing long-range Tomahawk missiles for its future submarines.
- List of missiles
- Babur (cruise missile)
- Hsiung Feng IIE
- 3M-54 Klub
- Raduga Kh-55
- AGM-129 ACM
- UGM-89 Perseus
- ArcLight (missile)
- Scalp Naval (missile)
- "United States Department Of Defense Fiscal Year 2017 Budget Request Program Acquisition Cost By Weapon System" (pdf). Office Of The Under Secretary Of Defense (Comptroller) / Chief Financial Officer. January 2016. p. 63.
- Kristensen, Hans M. (March 18, 2013). "US Navy Instruction Confirms Retirement of Nuclear Tomahawk Cruise Missile". Strategic Security. Federation of American Scientists. Archived from the original on July 9, 2014. Retrieved July 9, 2014.
- "Tomahawk - Missile Threat".
- Tomahawk cruise missiles proved to be difficult targets for Russian electronic warfare systems - Navyrecognition.com, 18 April 2017
- "BGM-109 Tomahawk - Smart Weapons". Federation of American Scientists. Archived from the original on 20 February 1999. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- "Nuke Posture: More Flexible Response Posed for Navy Submarines". Sea power magazine.
- Petty, Dan. "Fact File: Tomahawk Cruise Missile". The US Navy. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- Pike, John. "BGM-109 Tomahawk – Smart Weapons". www.globalsecurity.org.
- "Tactical Tomahawk Weapons Control System (TTWCS) · Lockheed Martin".
- Company, Raytheon. "Navy Posts Successful Test of Raytheon's Block IV Tomahawk Cruise Missile". www.prnewswire.com. Archived from the original on 2018-05-23. Retrieved 2018-05-22.
- Communications, Raytheon Corporate. "Raytheon: Tomahawk Cruise Missile".
- Eshel, Tamir. "Tomahawk Cruise Missiles to Become Dual-Mission, Assume Anti-Ship Role - Defense Update:".
- U.S. Navy Completes First Test of New Warhead for Tomahawk Block IV Missile - PRNewswire.com, 24 October 2010
- Navy Wants Its Tomahawks to Bust More Bunkers - Defensetech.org, 14 February 2014
- "Viability Study associated with Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile - Federal Business Opportunities: Opportunities".
- Raytheon Corporate Communications. "Raytheon". Archived from the original on 12 November 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- Facing End of Tomahawk Production, Raytheon Plays Industrial Base Card Archived 2015-09-04 at the Wayback Machine - Nationaldefensemagazine.org, 2 April 2014
- New Seeker Could Put Tomahawk In Long-Range Anti-Ship Missile Race - Aviationweek.com, 12 November 2014
- US Navy: More Can Be Done If Risks Are Accepted Archived 2015-12-03 at the Wayback Machine - Militarytimes.com, 1 December 2015
- Pentagon Budget Requests $2B for Tomahawks, $2.9B for SM-6 - Defensenews.com, 3 February 2016
- "Ship-Killing Missiles Are the Pentagon's Big Budget Winner".
- Eshel, Tamir. "Enhanced Tomahawk cruise missile engages moving targets - Defense Update:".
- U.S. Navy Anti-Ship Tomahawk Set for Surface Ships, Subs Starting in 2021 - News.USNI.org, 18 February 2016
- US Navy, Raytheon demonstrate network-enabled Tomahawk cruise missiles in flight - PRNewswire.com, 5 October 2015
- Tomahawk Missiles Will Get Twice As Deadly By Blowing Up Their Own Fuel - Popularmechanics.com, 15 January 2016
- GAO (October 1997). Test and evaluation impact of DOD. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 978-1428979291. Retrieved 2013-08-30.
- "SLAM Supersonic Low-Altitude Missile". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved January 25, 2014.
- Robinson, John (5 September 1996). "Tomahawk launch breaks submarine silence". Defense Daily. Retrieved 23 May 2015 – via HighBeam Research. (Subscription required (help)).
- Paul F Foster (PDF), Navy.
- "Pittsburgh IV (SSN 720)". Navy.
- Pike, John (13 January 1993). "Operation Southern Watch". Air Strike. Global security.
- Pike, John. "Operation Deliberate Force". Global security.
- "2nd Cruise Missile Strikes in Iraq". Emergency. 9 February 2005. Archived from the original on 9 February 2005.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Pike, John. "Operation Desert Strike". Global security.
- Michaels, J. (19 March 2013). "The Discourse Trap and the US Military: From the War on Terror to the Surge". Springer – via Google Books.
- Pike, John. "Operation Desert Fox Order of Battle". Global Security.
- Koplow, David A. (30 November 2009). "Death by Moderation: The U.S. Military's Quest for Useable Weapons". Cambridge University Press – via Google Books.
- Holmes, Tony (20 November 2012). "F-14 Tomcat Units of Operation Enduring Freedom". Bloomsbury Publishing – via Google Books.
- Pike, John. "BGM-109 Tomahawk - Operational Use".
- Pike, John. "BGM-109 Tomahawk - Smart Weapons". Global Security. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- "U.S. Forces Fire Missiles Into Somalia at a Kenyan". The New York Times. 4 March 2008.
- Nathan Hodge, 'US strikes Al-Qaeda target located in southern Somalia," JDW, 12 March 2008 (Vol 45, Issue 11), p.18
- Cruise Missiles Strike Yemen. ABC News (2009-12-18). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
- "Landmine monitor, US 2011 report".
- "Live blog: allied airstrikes continue against Gadhafi forces". CNN. 2011-03-20.
- "Libya: Navy running short of Tomahawk missiles". Telegraph. 23 March 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- "U.S. launches first missiles against Gadhafi forces". CNN. 2011-03-19.
- "U.S. aviators rescued; Gadhafi remains defiant". CNN. 11 May 2011.
- "Sept. 23: U.S. Military, Partner Nations Conduct Airstrikes Against ISIL in Syria". U.S. Central Command. 23 September 2014. Archived from the original on 25 September 2014. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
- "Al-Qaeda Khorasan cell in Syria attack 'was imminent'". BBC News. 23 September 2014. Retrieved 23 Sep 2014.
- Dan, Lamothe (13 October 2016). "Navy launches Tomahawk missiles at rebel sites in Yemen after attacks on U.S. ships". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
- "Statement from Pentagon Spokesman Capt. Jeff Davis on U.S. strike in Syria". U.S. Central Command. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- CNN, Laura Smith-Spark and Barbara Starr. "US investigates possible Russia role in Syria chemical attack".
- Starr, Barbara; Diamond, Jeremy (April 7, 2017). "Trump launches military strike against Syria". CNN.
- Westcott, Ben (11 April 2017). "US missile strike took out 20% of Syria's airforce, Mattis claims". CNN.
- CNN, Faith Karimi and Jason Hanna. "What you need to know about US strike on Syrian air base". cnn.com. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- "4 children among 9 civilians dead in US airstrike on Syria strike: state media". The Express Tribune. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- Rosenfeld, Everett (7 April 2017). "Trump launches attack on Syria with 59 Tomahawk missiles". CNBC. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- "Why didn't the US crater Syria's runways?". The National.
- "Syrian warplanes take off from same air base US bombarded". New York Post. 7 April 2017.
- "Syrian warplanes take off once again from air base bombed by US Tomahawks". Telegraph. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- "Syrian Air Force Resumes Flights From US-Attacked Airfield - Military Source". Sputnik News. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- "ISI first to analyze Shayrat airfield missile attack". ImageStat International. Archived from the original on 13 April 2017. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
- "Syrian jets take off from air base hit by US". ABC News. 8 April 2017. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- "Russia plans to bolster Syrian air defences, and derides US over 'extremely low' effectiveness of bombing". The Independent. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- Hennessy-Fiske, Molly; Bulos, Nabih (7 April 2017). "Syrians report 15 dead in U.S. airstrike". Los Angeles Times. Irbil. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- Konashenkov, Igor (7 April 2017). "MoD to hold briefing after US strike in Syria – TAPE FEED". RT. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Nine Syrian planes destroyed by US strike on airfield". ITV News. 7 April 2017.
- "Latest update from Syrian airbase attacked by US Navy". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Losses of armored vehicles and aviation in Syria". lostarmour.info.
- Dolejší, Karel (7 April 2017). "Pokud Trump nařídí útok na Asada, má v kapse "velkou" dohodu s Putinem" [If Trump orders an attack on Assad, he has "big" deal with Putin]. Britské listy (in Czech). Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- Dolejší, Karel (7 April 2017). "Noční útok v Sýrii: Rusové byli varováni, tedy i Asad. Provoz ostřelované základny lze obnovit v řádu týdnů" [Night attack in Syria: The Russians have been warned, including Assad. Operation bombarded bases can be restored in a matter of weeks]. Britské listy. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- "The Latest: Group says at least 4 killed in US Syria attack". Idaho Statesman. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- "Syrian monitor says airbase almost destroyed in strike". Reuters UK. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
- Jenny Gathright (April 14, 2018). "PHOTOS: 2 Syrian Chemical Weapons Sites Before And After Missile Strikes". NPR.
- Gareth Davies (April 14, 2018). "Syria fired 40 missiles 'at nothing' after allied air strikes destroyed three Assad chemical sites". The Telegraph – via Yahoo News.
- Peter Beaumont; Andrew Roth (14 April 2018). "Russia claims Syria air defences shot down 71 of 103 missiles". The Guardian.
- "Astute Class Submarines". BAE Systems Maritime – Submarines. BAE Systems. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- "New Royal Navy Submarine Fires First Tomahawk Missiles Across North American Skies". Royal Navy/MOD. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- "Awesome Astute "surpassed every expectation" on her toughest test yet". Royal Navy/MOD. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- "Astute on show in the world's biggest naval base". Royal Navy/MOD. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- "House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for 2 Nov 1999 (pt 7)". Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- "House of Commons Hansard Written Ministerial Statements for 21 Apr 2004 (pt 1)". Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- "All news : RN Live : News and Events : Royal Navy". webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 2008-10-18.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- "United Kingdom - Tomahawk Block IV Torpedo Launched Land-Attack Missiles". Defense Security Cooperation Agency. 1 July 2014.
- "Daily Hansard - Written Answers to Questions". UK Parliament. 17 May 2011.
- General Dynamics/McDonnell Douglas BGM-109G "Gryphon" Ground-launched Cruise Missile Archived 17 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine
- No Tomahawks for defence, jets up for sale - New Europe[permanent dead link]
- País, Ediciones El (12 October 2009). "Defensa comunica a EE UU que no comprará misiles Tomahawk" – via elpais.com.
- "Japanese Government Rejects TLAM/N Claim". Federation Of American Scientists. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- "Submarine Proliferation: Israel Current Capabilities". Archived from the original on July 4, 2007. Retrieved August 6, 2011.
- "Poland To Launch Sub Tender, Eyes Tomahawks". Defense News. 12 March 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to BGM-109 Tomahawk.|