Tomás Cloma y Arbolente|
September 18, 1904
Panglao, Bohol, Philippine Islands
September 18, 1996 (aged 92)|
|Occupation||Businessman and Lawyer|
Ciriaco Cloma y Arbotante|
Irenea Arbolente y Bongay
Tomás Arbolente Cloma Sr. (born Tomás Cloma y Arbolente; 18 September 1904 – 18 September 1996) was a Filipino lawyer and businessman from the province of Bohol. Cloma was born in Panglao to Ciriaco Cloma y Arbotante and Irenea Arbolente y Bongay, who were both natives of Panglao.
Life and career
Tomas Cloma Sr., owner of a fishing fleet, and owner of the private maritime training institute, the PMI Colleges (formerly known as Philippine Maritime Institute), aspired to open a cannery and develop guano deposits in the Spratlys. It was principally for economic reasons, therefore, that he "discovered" and claimed islands in the Spratlys.
In January 1935, the Committee of Reviewing Water and Land Maps of China (ROC), which is now Taiwan, published both Chinese names and English names of 132 insular features in the South China Sea.
In April 1935, the Committee of Reviewing Water and Land Maps of China (ROC), which is now Taiwan, published map with locations of feature in the South China Sea.
In 1950, Philippine President Quirino said that "as long as China (ROC) held the Spratlys, the Philippines would not press its own claim".
On May 15, 1956, Cloma issued and posted copies of his "Notice to the Whole World" on each of the islands as a manifestation of unwavering claims over the territory.
On May 31, 1956, Cloma declared the establishment of the Free Territory of Freedomland, ten days later he sent his second representation to the Secretary of Foreign Affairs informing the latter that the territory claimed was named Freedomland.
On July 6, 1956, Cloma declared to the whole world his claim and establishment of a separate government with its capital on Flat Island (also known as Patag Island).
On July 7, 1956, after Taiwan (ROC) protested, Cloma surrendered the flag he stole to the Chinese embassy in Manila, and apologized officially.
On Oct 2, 1956, he wrote a letter and ensured he would not make further training voyages or landings in the territorial waters of Taiwan (ROC).
In the 1972 Cloma was jailed by Philippine President Ferdinand E. Marcos for four months for "impersonating a military officer by being called an ‘admiral’". In August 1974 Cloma changed the name of the country from Freedomland to Colonia. At that same time he retired as Head of State in favour of John de Mariveles.
In December 1974, Cloma was arrested and forced to sign a document to convey to the Philippines whatever rights he might have had in the territory for one peso. There are Philippine claims that they acquired the territory through that document.
However the fact is that from August 1974, Cloma no longer had any territorial or sovereign rights to convey.
In 1978, the Philippine president issued Presidential Decree No. 1596 to include majority of the Spratly Islands.
Relevance for the Philippines
Cloma introduced a distinction between his Freedomland and the Spratlys further west. This distinction later became part of the Philippines' foreign policy. This distinction was never fully clarified. It seems that Freedomland encompasses most of what others call the Spratly Islands, but not Spratly Island itself, nor the banks and reefs lying to the west of it.
Cloma's declaration was met with hostile reactions from several neighboring countries, especially Taiwan (ROC). On September 24, 1956 Taiwan (ROC) reoccupied nearby Itu Aba Island (also known as Taiping Island), which it had left in 1950, and intercepted Cloma’s men and vessels found within its immediate waters. The People's Republic of China also restated its own claim afterward.
In 2014 The Philippines sought adjudication of territorial dispute with China at the International Court of Arbitration. In its pleadings, the Philippines abandoned efforts to assert succession to the Cloma Claim, and instead asserted a 200-mile territorial claim under EEZ Law of the Sea. As a consequence, Colonia became the only successor claimant to the Cloma territory.
The Free Territory of Freedomland should not be confused with the Principality of Freedomland or the Republic of Koneuwe which was set up by a French swindler also in the Spratlys but not on the same islands.
- "Film # 007769949 Image Film # 007769949; ark:/61903/3:1:3Q9M-CSM8-74XP-Z — FamilySearch.org". Retrieved April 18, 2016.
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- Virginia A. Greiman, A Model for Collaborative Development in the South China Sea Archived 2014-05-25 at the Wayback Machine., Metropolitan College, Boston University, Received: November 1, 2013 Revised: February 2, 2014 Accepted: February 15, 2014.
- Kivimäki 2002, p. 13
- The Republic of the Philippines v. The People's Republic of China[permanent dead link]
- Kingdom of Colonia St John Website
- Baker, John C.; Wiencek, David G. (2002), Cooperative Monitoring in the South China Sea, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-275-97182-1
- Kivimäki, Timo (2002), War Or Peace in the South China Sea?, Nordic Institute of Asian Studies (NIAS), ISBN 87-91114-01-2
- Samuels, Marwyn S (1982), Contest for the South China Sea, Methuen, ISBN 0-416-33140-8
- Womack, Brantly (2006), China and Vietnam, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-85320-6