Tomato soup

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Tomato soup
Basil and Organic Tomato Soup.jpg
Tomato soup with basil
Type Soup
Serving temperature Hot or cold
Main ingredients Tomatoes
Variations Gazpacho
Cookbook: Tomato soup  Media: Tomato soup
Tomato soup served with a grilled cheese sandwich

Tomato soup is a soup made with tomatoes as the primary ingredient. It may be served hot or cold in a bowl, and may be made in a variety of ways.[1] It may be smooth in texture, and there are also recipes which include chunks (or small pieces) of tomato, cream and chicken/vegetable stock. Popular toppings for tomato soup include sour cream or croutons.[2] Tomato soup is one of the top comfort foods in Poland[3] and the United States.[4] It can be made fresh by blanching tomatoes, removing the skins, then blending into a puree.

The first noted tomato soup was made by Maria Parloa in 1872, and Joseph A. Campbell's recipe for condensed tomato soup in 1897 further increased its popularity.[5]

Prepared varieties[edit]

Commercially prepared tomato is available in a variety of forms, including canned, condensed and in dehydrated powder form. "Tomato" ranks among the top three flavors of soup produced by the Campbell Soup Company.[6]

Canned Tomato Soup[edit]

Canned tomato soup is primarily tomato puree that is tomato paste and water with a few other ingredients added for flavor and physical properties of the food. The tomato is a high acid food therefore, “ … the tomato is not considered a high-risk food, as the pH of the fruit generally ranges from pH 4.2-4.9 with an average of about 4.5. At this point pathogens are unlikely to grow”.[7] However, there are still some food born pathogens that can pose as a major problem when it comes to the safety of the food and its shelf life stability. The main concern when canning is anaerobic microorganisms that produce toxins like Clostridium botulinum. Even though the tomato is a high acid food it still falls in the range where this organism can grow and produce toxin pH 4.6-8.5 with an optimum growing temperature between 30-40C and a maximum temperature of 50C. Even if the bacteria are killed they release heat resistant spores that if they start to multiply become a threat.[8]

The thermal death time is used to determine how long it will take to kill bacteria at a certain timF= Time in minutes at 250F e and temperature.

F= time in mixtures at 250 Fahrenheit

T=Given temperature of process

z= the change in temperature for a 10 fold change in t, in fahrenheit

Main Ingredients and Their Functionality[edit]

Main ingredients on the back of the can: Tomato puree, High fructose corn syrup, wheat flour:

The cell wall structural importance for the plant’s growth and stability in the ripening process is equally as important to the quality of the tomato products it can produce. The pectin and cellulose are what determine the apparent viscosity of the tomato product. If they are broken at higher temperatures more enzymes are deactivated than if they are broken at lower temperatures.[9]

Molecular structures in high fructose corn syrup

High fructose corn syrup is sometimes added to tomato soup to make it sweeter. HFCS is composed of both glucose and fructose in their free monosaccharide from that doesn’t crystallize readily. HFCS is also important in binding water, the monosaccharaides of fructose and glucose have the ability to bind to water in the product. The binding of water helps to reduce microbial growth by removing available water from the product it can also prevent the separation of water in products like sauces and soups.[10]

Wheat starch granules, when hydrated they begin to swell and gelation process begins adding to the viscosity of the product.

Wheat flour is composed of six main groups, carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, lipids, minerals and vitamins. Flour is added to tomato soup to increase its viscosity. The starch in the flour acts as a gelling agent and increases the viscosity of the product. When starch granules found in the flour are heated in solution they become less ordered and begin to gel.[11] During this process of gelatinization the crystal like structures of the starch granules disappear and the swelling starts creating a viscoelastic product.

Gazpacho[edit]

Main article: Gazpacho

Gazpacho is a tomato soup of Spanish origin, served cold. It originates in the region of Andalucía in southern Spain. Gazpacho is widely consumed in Spanish cuisine, as well as in neighboring Portugal, where it is known as gaspacho. Gazpacho is mostly consumed during the summer months, due to its refreshing qualities and cold serving temperature. Many variations of gazpacho exist.

Accompaniments[edit]

Tomato soup is often paired with a grilled cheese sandwich.[12][13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Herbig, Paul A. (1998). Handbook of Cross-Cultural Marketing. Binghamton, NY: International Business Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0789001542. Irish and Italians prefer creamy tomato soup, Germans want rice, and Columbians want spice. 
  2. ^ "Intense Homemade Tomato Soup - Fork me Noodle". Fork me Noodle. 24 September 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  3. ^ "Always home-made, tomato soup is one of the first things a Polish cook learns to prepare." [in:] Marc E. Heine. Poland. 1987; "tradycyjny obiad kuchni polskiej, składający się z zupy pomidorowej z makaronem, kotleta schabowego, ziemniaków, mizeri z ogórków i kompotu." [in:] Etnografia polska. PAN. t. 48-49, 2004
  4. ^ About.com. "Top 25 Comfort Foods and Recipes". Retrieved 18 November 2012. 
  5. ^ "Tomato History - the History of Tomatoes as Food". Homecooking.about.com. 27 May 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  6. ^ "Our Company". CSC Brands. Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
  7. ^ Hui, Y. H., Sue Ghazala, D. M. Grham, K. D. Murrell, and Wai-Kit Nip. Handbook of Vegetable Preservation and Processing. New York: M. Dekker, 2004. Print.
  8. ^ https://www.fsis.usda.gov/shared/PDF/SPN_Guidebook_Microbiology.pdf
  9. ^ Voragen, A.G.J., van Vliet, T., “Physico-Chemical Properties of Tomato Products.” Wageningen Agricultural University.1995. Print.
  10. ^ White, John S. "Sucrose, HFCS, and Fructose: History, Manufacture, Composition, Applications, and Production." Fructose, High Fructose Corn Syrup, Sucrose and Health. By James M. Rippe. New York: Humana, 2014. N. pag. Print.
  11. ^ Xie, Fengwei. Pollet, Eric. Halley, Peter J. & Avérous, Luc. “Advanced Nano-Biocomposites Based on Starch.” Springer International Publishing Switzerland. 2014.
  12. ^ Grilled Cheese: 50 Recipes to Make You Melt - Marlena Spieler. p. 103.
  13. ^ Allergy-Free and Easy Cooking - Cybele Pascal. p. 34.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]