Tomato soup

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Tomato soup
Tomato soup, plant-based (44040252791).jpg
Tomato soup
Alternative namesCream of Tomato
TypeSoup
Serving temperatureHot or cold
Main ingredientsTomatoes
VariationsGazpacho
Food energy
(per 100 g serving)
30 kcal (126 kJ)
Nutritional value
(per 100 g serving)
Protein0.8 g
Fat0.3 g
Carbohydrateg
Tomato soup with meatballs, vermicelli and carrot slices

Tomato soup is a soup with tomatoes as the primary ingredient. It can be served hot or cold, and may be made in a variety of ways.[1] It may be smooth in texture, and there are also recipes that include chunks of tomato, cream, chicken or vegetable stock, vermicelli, chunks of other vegetables and meatballs.

History[edit]

The first published tomato soup is mentioned by Eliza Leslie in 1857 in her final publication New Cookery Book.[2] Joseph A. Campbell's recipe for condensed tomato soup in 1897 further increased its popularity.[3]

Traditional tomato soup[edit]

Tomato soup is one of the top comfort foods in Poland[4] and the United States.[5] It can be made fresh by blanching tomatoes, removing the skins, then blending them into a puree.

Gazpacho[edit]

Gazpacho is a tomato soup of Spanish origin, served cold. It originates in the region of Andalucía in southern Spain. Gazpacho is widely consumed in Spanish cuisine, as well as in neighboring Portugal, where it is known as gaspacho. Gazpacho is mostly consumed during the summer months, due to its refreshing qualities and cold serving temperature. Many variations of gazpacho exist.

Industrial tomato soup[edit]

Commercially prepared tomato soup is available in a variety of forms including preserved, condensed and in dehydrated powder form. Industrial tomato soup may be canned or come in a large drink carton or bag.[6] "Tomato" ranks among the top three flavors of soup produced by the Campbell Soup Company.[7]

Industrial tomato soup

Industrial tomato soup is primarily tomato puree: that is, tomato paste and water with a few other ingredients added to enhance flavor and physical properties of the food. The tomato is a high acid food therefore, "the tomato is not considered a high-risk food, as the pH of the fruit generally ranges from pH 4.2–4.9 with an average of about 4.5. At this point pathogens are unlikely to grow".[8] However, there are still some foodborne pathogens that can pose as a major problem when it comes to the safety of the food and its shelf life stability. The main concern when canning is anaerobic microorganisms that produce toxins like Clostridium botulinum. Even though the tomato is a high acid food it still falls in the range where this organism can grow and produce toxin pH 4.6–8.5 with an optimum growing temperature between 30–40 °C and a maximum temperature of 50 °C. Even if the bacteria are killed they release heat resistant spores that if they start to multiply become a threat.[9]

Main ingredients and their functionality[edit]

Molecular structures in high fructose corn syrup
When hydrated, wheat starch granules begin to swell and gelation begins adding to the viscosity of the product.

The main ingredient for industrial tomato soup is tomato puree.

The cell wall structural importance for the plant's growth and stability in the ripening process is equally important to the quality of the tomato products it can produce. The pectin and cellulose are what determine the apparent viscosity of the tomato product. If they are broken at higher temperatures more enzymes are deactivated than if they are broken at lower temperatures.[10]

High-fructose corn syrup[edit]

In the United States, High-fructose corn syrup is often added to tomato soup to make it sweeter. HFCS is composed of both glucose and fructose in their free monosaccharide form that doesn't crystallize readily. HFCS is also important in binding water, the monosaccharaides of fructose and glucose have the ability to bind to water in the product. The binding of water helps to reduce microbial growth by removing available water from the product it can also prevent the separation of water in products like sauces and soups.[11]

Wheat flour[edit]

Wheat flour is composed of six main groups, carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, lipids, minerals and vitamins. Flour is added to tomato soup to increase its viscosity. The starch in the flour acts as a gelling agent and increases the viscosity of the product. When starch granules found in the flour are heated in solution they become less ordered and begin to gel.[12] During this process of gelatinization the crystal like structures of the starch granules disappear and the swelling starts creating a viscoelastic product.

Accompaniments[edit]

Tomato soup served with a grilled cheese sandwich

Tomato soup in the western world is often paired with a grilled cheese sandwich, toast, crumpet or English muffin.[13][14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Herbig, Paul A. (1998). Handbook of Cross-Cultural Marketing. Binghamton, NY: International Business Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0789001542. Irish and Italians prefer creamy tomato soup, Germans want rice, and Colombians want spice.
  2. ^ Leslie, Eliza (1857). Miss Leslie's New Cookery Book ... T. B. Peterson.
  3. ^ "Tomato History - the History of Tomatoes as Food". Homecooking.about.com. 27 May 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
  4. ^ "Always home-made, tomato soup is one of the first things a Polish cook learns to prepare." [in:] Marc E. Heine. Poland. 1987; "tradycyjny obiad kuchni polskiej, składający się z zupy pomidorowej z makaronem, kotleta schabowego, ziemniaków, mizeri z ogórków i kompotu." [in:] Etnografia polska. PAN. t. 48-49, 2004
  5. ^ About.com. "Top 25 Comfort Foods and Recipes". Retrieved 18 November 2012.
  6. ^ Peter Smit (5 February 2013). "Unilever innoveert met Unox Soep in Pak". Ondernemers Pers Nederland.
  7. ^ "Our Company". CSC Brands. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2012.
  8. ^ Hui, Y. H., Sue Ghazala, D. M. Grham, K. D. Murrell, and Wai-Kit Nip. Handbook of Vegetable Preservation and Processing. New York: M. Dekker, 2004. Print.
  9. ^ https://www.fsis.usda.gov/shared/PDF/SPN_Guidebook_Microbiology.pdf
  10. ^ Voragen, A.G.J., van Vliet, T., "Physico-Chemical Properties of Tomato Products." Wageningen Agricultural University. 1995. Print.
  11. ^ White, John S. "Sucrose, HFCS, and Fructose: History, Manufacture, Composition, Applications, and Production." Fructose, High Fructose Corn Syrup, Sucrose and Health. By James M. Rippe. New York: Humana, 2014. N. pag. Print.
  12. ^ Xie, Fengwei. Pollet, Eric. Halley, Peter J. & Avérous, Luc. "Advanced Nano-Biocomposites Based on Starch." Springer International Publishing Switzerland. 2014.
  13. ^ Grilled Cheese: 50 Recipes to Make You Melt - Marlena Spieler. p. 103.
  14. ^ Allergy-Free and Easy Cooking - Cybele Pascal. p. 34.

Further reading[edit]

  • Tonucci, Linda H.; et al. (March 1995). "Carotenoid Content of Thermally Processed Tomato-Based Food Products". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 43 (3): 579–586. doi:10.1021/jf00051a005.
  • Bittman, Mark (2007). How to Cook Everything Vegetarian: Simple Meatless Recipes for Great Food. Wiley. pp. 113–114.

External links[edit]