Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||George P. Cosmatos|
|Produced by||James Jacks
|Written by||Kevin Jarre|
|Narrated by||Robert Mitchum|
|Music by||Bruce Broughton|
|Cinematography||William A. Fraker|
|Edited by||Frank J. Urioste
|Distributed by||Buena Vista Pictures (US)
Entertainment Film Distributors (UK)
134 minutes (Director's cut)
Tombstone is a 1993 American biographical revisionist Western film directed by George P. Cosmatos, written by Kevin Jarre (who was also the original director, but was replaced early in production) and starring Kurt Russell and Val Kilmer, with Sam Elliott, Bill Paxton, Powers Boothe, Michael Biehn, and Dana Delany in supporting roles, as well as a narration by Robert Mitchum.
The film is based on events in Tombstone, Arizona, including the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral and the Earp Vendetta Ride, during the 1880s. It depicts a number of western outlaws and lawmen, such as Wyatt Earp, William Brocius, Johnny Ringo, and Doc Holliday.
Tombstone was released by Hollywood Pictures in theatrical wide release in the United States on December 24, 1993, grossing $56.5 million in domestic ticket sales. The film was a financial success, and for the Western genre it ranks number 14 in the list of highest-grossing films since 1979. Critical reception was generally positive, but the film failed to garner award nominations for production merits or acting from any mainstream motion picture organizations.
Wyatt Earp (Kurt Russell), a retired peace officer with a notable reputation, reunites with his brothers Virgil (Sam Elliott) and Morgan (Bill Paxton) in Tucson, Arizona, where they venture on towards Tombstone, a small mining town, to settle down. There they encounter Wyatt's long-time friend Doc Holliday (Val Kilmer), a Southern gambler and expert gunslinger, who seeks relief from his worsening tuberculosis. Josephine Marcus (Dana Delany) and Mr. Fabian (Billy Zane) are also newly arrived in Tombstone with a traveling theater troupe. Meanwhile, Wyatt's common-law wife, Mattie Blaylock (Dana Wheeler-Nicholson), is becoming dependent on a potent narcotic. Wyatt and his brothers begin to profit from a stake in a gambling emporium and saloon when they have their first encounter with a band of outlaws called the Cowboys, led by "Curly Bill" Brocious (Powers Boothe). The Cowboys are identifiable by the red sashes worn around their waist.
Wyatt, though no longer a lawman, is pressured to help rid the town of the Cowboys as tensions rise. Curly Bill begins shooting aimlessly after a visit to an opium house and is approached by Marshal Fred White (Harry Carey, Jr.) to relinquish his firearms. Curly Bill instead shoots the marshal dead and is forcibly taken into custody by Wyatt. The arrest infuriates Ike Clanton (Stephen Lang) and the other Cowboys. Curly Bill stands trial, but is found not guilty due to a lack of witnesses. Virgil, unable to tolerate lawlessness, becomes the new marshal and imposes a weapons ban within the city limits. This leads to the legendary Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, in which Billy Clanton (Thomas Haden Church) and other Cowboys are killed. Virgil and Morgan are wounded, and the allegiance of county sheriff Johnny Behan (Jon Tenney) with the Cowboys is made clear. As retribution for the Cowboy deaths, Wyatt's brothers are ambushed; Morgan is killed, while Virgil is left handicapped. A despondent Wyatt and his family leave Tombstone and board a train, with Clanton and Frank Stilwell close behind, preparing to ambush them. Wyatt sees that his family leaves safely, and then surprises the assassins; he kills Stilwell, but lets Clanton return to send a message. Wyatt announces that he is a U.S. marshal, and that he intends to kill any man that he sees wearing a red sash. Wyatt, Doc, a reformed Cowboy named Sherman McMasters (Michael Rooker), along with their allies Texas Jack Vermillion (Peter Sherayko) and Turkey Creek Jack Johnson (Buck Taylor), join forces to administer justice.
Wyatt and his posse are ambushed in a riverside forest by the Cowboys. Hopelessly surrounded, Wyatt seeks out Curly Bill and kills him. Curly Bill's second-in-command, Johnny Ringo (Michael Biehn), becomes the new head of the Cowboys. When Doc's health worsens, the group are accommodated by Henry Hooker (Charlton Heston) at his ranch. Ringo sends a messenger (dragging McMasters' corpse) to Hooker's property telling Wyatt that he wants a showdown to end the hostilities; Wyatt agrees. Wyatt sets off for the showdown, not knowing that Doc had already arrived at the scene. Doc confronts a surprised Ringo and kills him in a duel. Wyatt runs when he hears the gunshot only to encounter Doc. They then press on to complete their task of eliminating the Cowboys. Ike escapes when he gives up his sash, symbolically ending the Cowboys. Doc is sent to a sanatorium in Colorado where he later dies of his illness. At Doc's urging, Wyatt pursues Josephine to begin a new life. The film ends with a narration of an account of their long marriage, ending with Wyatt's death in Los Angeles in 1929.
Director George P. Cosmatos recalled filming on a Tombstone DVD commentary track: Cosmatos was highly focused on accurate historical detail, including the costumes, props, customs, and scenery, to give them authenticity. All the mustaches in the movie were real. Val Kilmer practiced for a long time on his quick-draw speed, and gave his character a Southern Aristocrat accent. Two locations were used to make the town of Tombstone, Arizona look bigger. The scene in which Wyatt throws an abusive card dealer (Billy Bob Thornton) out of a saloon was to show that Wyatt was a man who used psychology to intimidate. Thornton’s lines in the scene were ad-libbed, as he was only told to “be a bully”.
The center of the film to Cosmatos was the loyalty and friendship between Wyatt and Doc. The scene where Morgan Earp (Paxton) talks about God and death was originally much longer. Morgan is later killed by the Cowboys. Actor Stephen Lang told the director he was drunk for most of filming, as Cosmatos recalled with a laugh. Cosmatos said, “The emotion is the most important thing in a movie. If you care about your people, you have a movie.” Cosmatos thought film was a visual medium, with some scenes not requiring dialogue. A love scene between Wyatt and Josephine was cut because the director did not want to consume the love story so fast. The gunfight at the O.K. Corral was over in seconds, he said, and he choreographed the scene exactly as it happened. It was Val Kilmer’s idea to whistle on the way to the O.K. Corral. Cosmatos liked that in the script, the gunfight at O.K. Corral wasn’t the end of something, it was the beginning of something. Cosmatos listed some Western film influences: Red River, High Noon, My Darling Clementine, The Magnificent Seven, The Wild Bunch, and Rio Bravo. He knew Sergio Leone personally, a friend of his in Italy whom he called “a lovely man”. He admired European directors of American films like himself, half-Italian and half-Greek, and like Michael Curtiz and Alfred Hitchcock, because they had a different point of view.
Having passion for a movie, loving the characters in it, and trying to make it as beautiful as you can were Cosmatos' goals. The heat and the amount of scorpions were a surprise to the director. He liked to treat actors as friends who were all in the same boat, and listened to ideas the actors brought to the film. The struggle as a director is to compromise the least. Cosmatos loved to shoot in real locations more than sets, which made filming fun. “Friendship and brotherhood and love is everything. And hope. Hope is very important in life. That’s why I think these movies bond people together. That’s why a movie like The Godfather works. It’s a story about brotherhood. Family is very important. The friendship of two men, of a man and a woman, or two women – it’s important. Because what would we do without friendship? There’s nothing left, except the birds singing." He preferred the forest setting for the final shoot-out between Doc Holliday and Johnny Ringo, as it wasn’t the usual dusty street of many Westerns. He liked how he had never seen two men shaking hands on horseback before now.
In the past, most people died young, he explained. An old man was 50, 60. In the scene where Doc says “That’s funny” while looking at his feet and then dying, Cosmatos explained that it was because he thought he would get killed in a gunfight, not die in bed. It was quite an achievement in those days, to die without your boots on. Of the ending, he said the snow was a contrast to all the desert we’ve seen, and found it touching that his childhood hero, Tom Mix, wept at Wyatt Earp’s death. “When you have heart in a movie, that’s what counts,” Cosmatos said. “And all the machine guns and helicopters don’t mean anything.” It takes research, hard work, and watching old movies. The film was dedicated to his wife, who died after it was shot.
Robert Mitchum was originally set to play Newman Haynes Clanton, but suffered a horse riding accident which left him unable to work. Mitchum ultimately narrated the film, and the part was written out of the script. Much of Old Man Clanton's dialogue was spoken by other characters, particularly Curly Bill, who was effectively made the gang leader in lieu of Clanton. Glenn Ford was also cast as Marshall White, and Harry Carey, Jr. was to play a wagonmaster, but Ford dropped out of the project and Carey was cast as White.
The original motion picture soundtrack for Tombstone was originally released by Intrada Records on December 25, 1993. On March 16, 2006, an expanded two-disc version of the film score was also released by Intrada Records. The score was composed and produced by Bruce Broughton, and performed by the Sinfonia of London. David Snell conducted most of the score (although Broughton normally conducts his own scores, union problems mandated another conductor here), while Patricia Carlin edited the film's music.
The score contains strong echoes of Max Steiner's music for John Ford's The Searchers (1956) with variations on the 'Indian Traders' theme used midway through the Ford movie. The album begins with the Cinergi logo, composed by Jerry Goldsmith and conducted by Broughton.
|Tombstone: Complete Original Motion Picture Soundtrack|
|Film score by Bruce Broughton|
|Released||March 16, 2006|
|2.||"Prologue; Main Title; And Hell Followed"||3:50|
|4.||"Arrival in Tombstone"||2:14|
|5.||"The Town Marshall; A Quarter Interest"||0:48|
|7.||"Gotta Go to Work"||1:10|
|9.||"Fortuitous Encounter; Wyatt and Josephine"||5:16|
|10.||"Thinking Out Loud"||0:28|
|11.||"Opium Den; Law Dogs; You Got a Fight Comin'"||7:08|
|13.||"The Antichrist; Gathering for a Fight; Walking to the Corral; OK Corral Gunfight"||7:36|
|15.||"The Dead Don't Dance; Dehan Warns Josephine; Upping the Ante; Morgan's Murder"||5:15|
|18.||"Hell's Comin'; Wyatt's Revenge"||3:53|
|19.||"No More Curly Bill"||0:36|
|20.||"The Former Fabian"||1:34|
|21.||"Brief Encounters; Ringo's Challenge; Doc and Wyatt"||5:38|
|22.||"You're No Daisy; Finishing It"||3:55|
|24.||"Looking at Heaven; End Credits"||8:45|
|1.||"Arrival in Tombstone" (w/alternate intro)||2:14|
|2.||"Josephine" (short version)||1:00|
|3.||"Fortuitous Encounter" (w/alternate mid-section)||2:26|
|4.||"Morgan's Death" (short version)||1:47|
|5.||"Tombstone" (main theme only)||2:23|
|6.||"Pit Orchestra Warm-Up"||0:39|
|7.||"Thespian Overture" (long)||0:45|
A paperback novel adapted from Kevin Jarre's screenplay, written by Giles Tippette and published by Berkley Publishers titled Tombstone, was released on January 1, 1994. The book dramatizes the real-life events of the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral and Earp Vendetta, as depicted in the film. It expands on western genre ideas in Jarre's screenplay.
Tombstone premiered in movie theaters six months before Costner and Kasdan's version, Wyatt Earp, on December 24, 1993 in wide release throughout the United States. During its opening weekend, the film opened in third place, grossing $6,454,752 in business showing at 1,504 locations. The film's revenue increased by 35% in its second week of release, earning $8,720,255. For that particular weekend, the film jumped to third place, screening in 1,955 theaters. The film went on to earn $56,505,065 in total ticket sales in the North American market. It ranks 20th out of all films released in 1993.
Rotten Tomatoes reported that 73% of 44 sampled critics gave the film a positive review, with an average score of 6.2 out of 10. Following its cinematic release in 1993, Tombstone was named "one of the 5 greatest Westerns ever made" by True West Magazine. The film was also called "One of the year's 10 best!" by KCOP-TV in Los Angeles, California.
Siskel & Ebert originally thought they would have to miss reviewing the film as they could not get a screening but, as Ebert explained, "... a strange thing started to happen. People started telling me they really liked Val Kilmer's performance in Tombstone, and I heard this every where I went. When you hear this once or twice, it's interesting, when you hear it a couple of dozen times, it's a trend. And when you read that Bill Clinton loved the performance, you figured you better catch up with the movie." Ultimately, Ebert recommended the movie while Siskel did not.
Ebert was later to refer to Tombstone in future reviews, comparing it favorably to Kevin Costner's Wyatt Earp ("It forced the comparison upon me.") and, in his review of Wild Bill, singling out Val Kilmer's portrayal as "the definitive saloon cowboy of our time." In his review of Kurt Russell's Dark Blue, he stated, "Every time I see Russell or Val Kilmer in a role, I'm reminded of their Tombstone, which got lost in the year-end holiday shuffle and never got the recognition it deserved."
|"Grafted onto this traditional framework, the film's meditative aspects are generally too self-conscious to fit comfortably. Especially when the movie tries to imagine a more enlightened role for women in the Old West, the screenplay begins to strain."|
|—Stephen Holden, writing in The New York Times|
In a mixed review, Chris Hicks writing in the Deseret News said, "aside from Russell and Val Kilmer's scene-stealing, sickly, alcoholic Doc Holliday, there are so many characters coming and going, with none of them receiving adequate screen time, that it becomes difficult to keep track of them all." But he did comment that there were "some very entertaining moments here, with Russell spouting memorable tough-guy lines". Overall, he felt "Taken on its own terms, with some lowered expectations, Western fans will have fun." Emanuel Levy of the Variety staff believed the film was a "tough-talking but soft-hearted tale" which was "entertaining in a sprawling, old-fashioned manner." Regarding screenwriter Jarre's dialogue, he noted that "Despite the lack of emotional center and narrative focus, his script contains enough subplots and colorful characters to enliven the film and ultimately make it a fun, if not totally engaging, experience." He also singled out Val Kilmer as the standout performance. The film however, was not without its detractors. James Berardinelli writing for ReelViews offered an almost entirely negative review, recalling how he thought that "Not only is the last hour anti-climactic, but it's dull. Too many scenes feature lengthy segments of poorly-scripted dialogue, and, in some cases, character motivation becomes unclear. The gunplay is more repetitious than exciting. The result — a cobbled-together morass of silly lines and shoot-outs — doesn't work well."
Stephen Holden writing in The New York Times saw the film as being a "capacious western with many modern touches, the Arizona boom town and site of the legendary O.K. Corral has a seedy, vaudevillian grandeur that makes it a direct forerunner of Las Vegas." He expressed his satisfaction with the supporting acting saying that the "most modern psychological touch is its depiction of Josephine (Dana Delany), the itinerant actress with whom Wyatt falls in love at first sight, as the most casually and comfortably liberated woman ever to set foot in 1880's Arizona." Critic Louis Black, writing for The Austin Chronicle viewed Tombstone as a "mess" and that there were "two or three pre-climaxes but no climax. Its values are capitalist rather than renegade, which is okay if it's metaphoric rather than literal. Worse, as much as these actors heroically struggle to focus the film, the director more successfully hacks it apart." Owen Gleiberman of Entertainment Weekly gave the film a C– rating calling it "preposterously inflated" at "135 minutes long". He observed the film as being a "three-hour rough cut that's been trimmed down to a slightly shorter rough cut" with "all that holds the film together is Kurt Russell's droll machismo." Author Geoff Andrew of Time Out commented that "Kilmer makes a surprisingly effective and effete Holliday". He negatively acknowledged that there was "a misguided romantic subplot and the ending rather sprawls" but ultimately exclaimed the film was "'rootin', tootin' entertainment with lots of authentic facial hair."
Richard Harrington of The Washington Post highlighted the film's shortcomings by declaring, "too much of Tombstone rings hollow. In retrospect, not much happens and little that does seems warranted. There are so many unrealized relationships you almost hope for redemption in a longer video version. This one is unsatisfying and unfulfilling." Alternately though, columnist Bob Bloom of the Journal & Courier openly remarked that the film "May not be historically accurate, but offers a lot of punch for the buck." He concluded by saying it was "A tough, guilty-pleasure Western."
Following its cinematic release in theaters, the film was released on VHS video format on November 11, 1994. The Region 1 Code widescreen edition of the film was released on DVD in the United States on December 2, 1997. Special features for the DVD include French and Spanish subtitles, Dolby Digital Surround Sound, original theatrical trailers, and chapter search options. A director's cut of Tombstone was also officially released on DVD on January 15, 2002. The DVD version includes a two-disc set and features "The Making of Tombstone" featurette in three parts; "An Ensemble Cast"; "Making an Authentic Western"; and "The Gunfight at the O.K. Corral". Other features include an audio commentary by director George P. Cosmatos, an interactive Tombstone timeline, the director's original storyboards for the O.K. Corral sequence, the Tombstone "Epitaph" – an actual newspaper account, the DVD-ROM feature "Faro at the Oriental: Game of Chance", and a collectible Tombstone map.
The widescreen high-definition Blu-ray Disc edition of the theatrical cut was released on April 27, 2010, featuring the making of Tombstone, director's original storyboards, trailers and TV spots. A supplemental viewing option for the film in the media format of video-on-demand is available as well.
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- Levy, Emanuel (December 22, 1993). Tombstone. Variety. Retrieved 2011-03-17.
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- Further reading
- Marks, Paula (1996). And Die in the West: The Story of the O.K. Corral Gunfight. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-2888-7.
- Ross, Thom (2001). Gunfight at the O.K. Corral. Fulcrum Publishing. ISBN 978-1-55591-184-3.
- Waldman, Scott (2003). Gunfight at the O.k. Corral: Wyatt Earp Upholds the Law (Great Moments in American History). Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8239-4393-7.
- Hughes, Howard (2008). Stagecoach to Tombstone: The Filmgoers' Guide to Great Westerns. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-571-5.
- Pascoe, Jill (2008). Arizona's Haunted History. Irongate Press. ISBN 978-0-9754746-1-7.
- Wheeler, Richard (2004). Trouble in Tombstone. Signet. ISBN 978-0-451-21370-9.
- Tanner, Karen (2001). Doc Holliday: A Family Portrait. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-3320-1.
- Lubet, Steven (2004). Murder in Tombstone: The Forgotten Trial of Wyatt Earp (The Lamar Series in Western History). Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10426-4.
- Blake, Michael (2006). Hollywood And the O.K. Corral: Portrayals of the Gunfight And Wyatt Earp. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7864-2632-4.
- Rosa, Joseph (1999). Age of the Gunfighter: Men and Weapons on the Frontier 1840-1900. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-2761-3.
- Laurence, Yadon (2008). 200 Texas Outlaws and Lawmen: 1835-1935. Pelican Publishing. ISBN 978-1-58980-514-9.
- Corkin, Stanley (2004). Cowboys As Cold Warriors: The Western and U.S. History (Culture and the Moving Image). Temple University Press. ISBN 978-1-59213-254-6.
- Gatto, Steve (2000). The Real Wyatt Earp: A Documentary Biography. High Lonesome Books. ISBN 978-0-944383-51-3.
- Tefertiller, Casey (1999). Wyatt Earp: The Life Behind the Legend. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-28362-1.
- Masterson, W.B. (2009). Famous Gunfighters of the Western Frontier: Wyatt Earp, Doc Holliday, Luke Short and Others. Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-47014-6.
- Lake, Stuart (1994). Wyatt Earp: Frontier Marshal. Pocket. ISBN 978-0-671-88537-3.
- Herda, D.J. (2010). They Call Me Doc: The Story Behind the Legend of John Henry Holliday. Lyons Press. ISBN 978-0-7627-6046-6.
- Boyer, Glenn (1994). I Married Wyatt Earp: The Recollections of Josephine Sarah Marcus Earp. Longmeadow Press. ISBN 978-0-681-10085-5.
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