Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta

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King Aimone Tomislav II
Prince Aimone of Savoy - restored.jpg
King of Croatia
Held title 18 May 1941 –
12 October 1943
Predecessor Prince Amedeo, 3rd Duke
Successor Prince Amedeo, 5th Duke
Spouse Princess Irene of Greece and Denmark
Issue Prince Amedeo Zvonimir, Duke of Aosta
Full name
Aimone Roberto Margherita Maria Giuseppe Torino Tomislav of Savoy-Aosta
House House of Savoy
Father Prince Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta
Mother Princess Hélène of Orléans
Born (1900-03-09)9 March 1900
Turin, Italy
Died 29 January 1948(1948-01-29) (aged 47)
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Burial Basilica of Superga[1]
Religion Roman Catholic
Italian Royalty
House of Savoy
Lesser coat of arms of the Kingdom of Italy (1890).svg

Victor Emmanuel II
Children
Marie Clothilde, Princess Napoléon
Umberto I
Amadeo I of Spain
Prince Oddone, Duke of Montferrat
Maria Pia, Queen of Portugal and the Algarves
Prince Carlo Alberto, Duke of Chablais
Prince Vittorio Emanuele
Prince Vittorio Emanuele, Count of Geneva
Grandchildren
Prince Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta
Prince Vittorio Emanuele, Count of Turin
Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi
Prince Umberto, Count of Salemi
Great Grandchildren
Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta
Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta
Great Great Grandchildren
Margherita, Dowager Archduchess of Austria-Este
Princess Maria Cristina
Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta
Great Great Great Grandchildren
Princess Bianca
Prince Aimone, Duke of Apulia
Princess Mafalda
Great Great Great Grandchildren
Umberto, Prince of Piedmont
Prince Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi
Princess Isabella
Umberto I
Children
Victor Emmanuel III
Victor Emmanuel III
Children
Princess Yolanda, Countess of Bergolo
Mafalda, Landgravine of Hesse
Umberto II
Giovanna, Tsaritsa of Bulgaria
Maria Francesca, Princess Luigi of Bourbon-Parma
Umberto II
Children
Maria Pia, Princess Michel of Bourbon-Parma
Victor Emmanuel, Prince of Naples
Princess Maria Gabriella
Princess Maria Beatrice, Mrs Reyna-Corvalán y Dillon
Grandchildren
Emanuele Filiberto, Prince of Venice and Piedmont
Great Grandchildren
Princess Vittoria
Princess Luisa

King Aimone Tomislav II of Savoy-Aosta (Aimone Roberto Margherita Maria Giuseppe Torino; 9 March 1900 – 29 January 1948) was a prince of Italy's reigning House of Savoy and an officer of the Royal Italian Navy. The second son of Prince Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta he was granted the title Duke of Spoleto on 22 September 1904. On 18 May 1941 he was designated king of Croatia.[2] He inherited the title Duke of Aosta on 3 March 1942 following the death of his brother Prince Amedeo, in a British prisoner of war camp in Nairobi.

Three days before the Rome treaties the government of the Independent State of Croatia passed the Laws of Zvonimir's crown which by default made the country a kingdom.[3][4] On 18 May 1941 in the Quirinal Palace Aimone was designated by his cousin, King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy to assume the kingship of the Independent State of Croatia.[2][4] During his designation as king of Croatia he was presented with the royal crown, sword, scepter, flag, etc. by the Croatian delegation led by poglavnik Ante Pavelić (head of state), field marshal Slavko Kvaternik, members of the government and representatives of the people's classes, he also took the name Tomislav II after the first Croatian king.[4][5][6][7] When he took on the role of king he established the Royal office (kraljevski stol) in Florence and later in Rome.[7] He was to be crowned at the Duvno field (today Bosnia and Herzegovina) in 1942.,[8] but the Ustase regime never organized the coronation. He only visited Croatia a couple of times incognito,to see for him self the state in which the kingdom is.[9] He advocated the return of Dalmatia to Croatia, which led him to be ignored by the Italian government and the proitalian oriented parts of the ustasa movement.[10] After the dismissal of Mussolini on 25 July 1943, the prince abdicated as king on 8 September on the orders of Victor Emmanuel III and passed the rights to his new born son Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta who was also named Zvonimir (after a Croatian king.[7] Soon after the Croatian poglavnik Ante Pavelic terminated 10. September 1943. article I. and II. of the Rome treaties (about the border of Croatia and Italy), but not the third article on the new dynasty.[11]

Early life[edit]

Prince Aimone Roberto Margherita Maria Giuseppe Torino of Savoy-Aosta was born in Turin the second son of Prince Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta (eldest son of Prince Amedeo, 1st Duke of Aosta (and sometime "King Amadeo I of Spain") by his wife, née Vittoria dal Pozzo, Principessa della Cisterna) and Princess Hélène of Orléans (daughter of Philippe, comte de Paris and Princess Marie Isabelle of Orléans). As his patrilinal great-grandfather was King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy, he is a member of the House of Savoy.

On 22 September 1904, he was given the title Duke of Spoleto for life.[12] On 1 April 1921, Prince Aimone became a member of the Italian Senate. Princes of the House of Savoy became members of the Senate at age 21, obtaining the right to vote at age 25.[13]

In 1929, twenty years after his uncle Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi had attempted to climb K2 in Karakorum, Prince Aimone led an expedition to Karakorum. A member of the expedition was Ardito Desio. Due to the failure to climb K2 twenty years earlier, Prince Aimone's expedition concentrated solely on scientific work.[14][15]

After being romantically linked with Infanta Beatriz of Spain the daughter of King Alfonso XIII,[16] he married on 1 July 1939 in Florence with Princess Irene of Greece and Denmark the daughter of King Constantine I and Princess Sophie of Prussia. They had one son :

War years[edit]

Croatian throne[edit]

Public declaration of the laws on the crown of Zvonimir, which made the state a kingdom, 15. May 1941.
Designation of Aimone Tomislav II as king of Croatia in 18th May 1941. In front of him poglavnik Pavelić with the Croatian delegation
Public proclamation of the new Croatian dynasty (Hrvatski Narod, no96. 19.05.1941.)

The Independent State of Croatia was a fascist puppet state that was partly under Italian and German control, covering most of present-day states of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, but its leaders tried to assert their legitimacy by instating a monarchy that would resemble the medieval Croatian state. Three days before the Rome treaties the government of the Independent State of Croatia passed the Laws of Zvonimir's crown which by default made the country a kingdom.[3][4]

On 18 May 1941. in the Quirinal Palace Aimone was designated by his cousin, King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy[17] to assume the kingship of the Independent State of Croatia.[2][4] During his designation as king of Croatia he was presented with the royal crown which was made of gold, silver and precious gems, it had 7 trileaf crosses and an apple with a cross on top.[18] He also received with the crown a sword, scepter, flag, etc. and swore an oath to the Croatian delegation led by poglavnik dr. Ante Pavelić(head of state), field marshal Slavko Kvaternik, members of the government and representatives of the peoples classes, after which he took the name Tomislav II. after the first Croatian king.[4][5][6][7] He held the official full title "King of Croatia, Prince of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Voivode of Dalmatia, Tuzla and Knin".[19]

When he took on the role of king he established the Royal office (kraljevski stol) in Florence and later in Rome, where he held meetings with delegations from Croatia, received confidential reports, official documents, and military, political and economic information from Croatia.[7][20] His adjutants and advisors where Croatian noble and colonel Count Julije Česnegić Milvanski [7] and count Mazzucchetti.[21] As king he had a more symbolic power, like granting of noble titles.[22] He only visited Croatia a couple of times incognito arriving in Zadar by a submarine[23] and Zagreb[9] to see for him self the state in which the kingdom is. He saw Dalmatia "was a land that could never be Italianized" and was an obstacle to Italian-Croatian reconciliation[24] which led him to advocated the return of Dalmatia to Croatia,[10] which led him to be ignored by the Italian government and the pro Italian oriented parts of the Ustasa movement.[10]

He was to be crowned at the Duvno field (today Bosnia and Herzegovina) in 1942.,[8] but the ustase regime never organized the coronation. In Croatia since Pavelić occupied a villa and a castle in Zagreb the king was designated to have a large villa outside of the city.[25] The main reason that he never took position of king in Zagreb was because of the willingness of Pavelic to have such a strong figure he could not control, as well as the fear of the Italian government that he would act as instrument for Croatian demands on Dalmatia. The other reason was fear of assassination plots.[26]

Prince Aimone succeeded to the title Duke of Aosta on 3 March 1942, following the death of his elder brother Prince Amedeo, 3rd Duke of Aosta, in a British Prisoner of War camp in Tanganyika.

After the dismissal of Mussolini on 25 July 1943 and Italian capitulation on 8 September, Croatian poglavnik Ante Pavelic terminated 10. September 1943. article I. and II. of the Rome treaties (about the border of Croatia and Italy), but not the third article on the new dynasty.[11] On the orders of Victor Emmanuel III. he officially abdicated as king on 12. October and passed the rights to his new born son Prince Amedeo Zvonimir[7] who was also named after a medieval Croatian king.

Aftermath[edit]

In the late months of World War II, he became the commander of the Italian Naval Base of Taranto but he was dismissed from his post for his criticism of the judges that had found General Mario Roatta guilty.[27] During his naval career he reached the rank of Squadron Admiral.

Death[edit]

In 1947 following the birth of the Italian Republic the previous year, Prince Aimone left Italy for South America.[28] He died early the next year on 29 January 1948 in his hotel room in Buenos Aires.[29] His son Prince Amedeo succeeded him as Duke of Aosta.

Titles, styles, honours, and arms[edit]

  • 9 March 1900 - 21 September 1904: His Serene Highness Prince Aimone of Savoy-Aosta
  • 22 September 1904 - 17 May 1941: His Royal Highness The Duke of Spoleto
  • 18 May 1941 - 30 July 1943: His Majesty Tomislav II, King of Croatia, Prince of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Voivode of Dalmatia, Tuzla and Knin[19]
  • 30 July 1943 - 30 January 1948: His Royal Highness The Duke of Aosta, Principe della Cisterna e di Belriguardo, Marchese di Voghera, Conte di Ponderano[30]

Honours[edit]

Orders and decorations[edit]

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Order of the Crown of King Zvonimir

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Military Order of the Iron Trefoil

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Medal of the Crown of King Zvonimir

Knight of the Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation

Knight of the Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation

Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus

Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus

Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Italy

Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Italy

Knight of the Civil Order of Savoy

Knight of the Civil Order of Savoy

Knight of the Order of Merit pro Merito Melitensi of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta

Knight of the Order of Merit pro Merito Melitensi of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta

Knight Grand Cross of the Military Order of Italy

Knight Grand Cross of the Military Order of Italy

Silver Medal of Military Valor

Silver Medal of Military Valor

 2 Bronze Medal of Military Valor

2 Bronze Medal of Military Valor

Military Valour War Cross of Italy

Military Valour War Cross of Italy

Commemorative Victory Medal (1918)

Commemorative Victory Medal (1918)

Medal of Honour for Long-time Maritime Navigation (20 years)

Medal of Honour for Long-time Maritime Navigation (20 years)

Military Valour War Cross of Italy

Military Valour War Cross of Italy

Ancestry[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Savoy-Aosta
  2. ^ a b c Hrvatski Narod (newspaper)19.05.1941. no. 96. p.1., Public proclamation of the "Nova hrvatska dinastija" (new Croatian dynasty) 18.05.1941.
  3. ^ a b Hrvatski Narod (newspaper)16.05.1941. no. 93. p.1.,Public proclamation of theZakonska odredba o kruni Zvonimirovoj (Decrees on the crown of Zvonimir), tri članka donesena 15.05.1941.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Die Krone Zvonimirs, Monatshefte fur Auswartige Politik, Heft 6(1941)p.434.
  5. ^ a b Hrvatski Narod (newspaper)21.05.1941. no. 98. p.1., "Značenje Rimskih dana" (Meaning of days in Rome
  6. ^ a b dr. Marijan Rogić, Pod Zvonimirovom krunom (Under the crown of Zvonimir) Munchen 2008.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Hrvoje Matković, Designirani hrvatski kralj Tomislav II. vojvoda od Spoleta. Povijest hrvatskotalijanskih odnosa u prvoj polovici XX.st. (Designated Croatian king Tomislav II, Duke of Spoleto. History of Croatian-Italian relationships in first half of the 20th century), Zagreb 2007.
  8. ^ a b Hrvatski Narod (newspaper)22.05.1941. no. 99. p.1., "Osnivač hrvatske dinastije bit će izabran od hrvatskog naroda i okrunjen na duvanjskom polju, a nosit će ime Tomislav II." (The founder of the Croatian dynasty will be elected from the people and crowned at Duvno field, he will bear the name Tomislav II.)
  9. ^ a b B. Krizman, NDH između Hitlera i Mussolinija (Independent State of Croatia between Hitler and Mussolini,)p.102
  10. ^ a b c J. Jareb, Pola stoljeća hrvatske politike, Buenso Aires 1960.,page 1.02.
  11. ^ a b State proclamation, On termination of Rome treaties, poglavnik Ante Pavelić, Zagreb 10. September 1943. (copy in book dr. Marijan Rogić, Pod Zvonimirovom krunom, sources page XXXIV. Munchen 2008.), Zagreb 2007.
  12. ^ The Peerage
  13. ^ "Prince is Italian Senator". New York Times. 2 April 1921. p. 10. 
  14. ^ K2 - The Savage Mountain
  15. ^ K2 2004 - 50 years later
  16. ^ "Milestones". Time Magazine. April 21, 1930. 
  17. ^ Packard, Reynolds (2005). Balcony Empire: Fascist Italy at War. Kessinger Publishing. p. 190. ISBN 1417985283. 
  18. ^ B. Krizman, NDH između Hitlera i Mussolinija (Independent State of Croatia between Hitler and Mussolini,)p.101
  19. ^ a b Sainty, Guy Stair. "Royal House of Italy". European royal houses. 
  20. ^ Avramov, Smilja (1995). Genocide in Yugoslavia. p. 238. 
  21. ^ B. Krizman, NDH između Hitlera i Mussolinija (Independent State of Croatia between Hitler and Mussolini,)p.106
  22. ^ Balkan royalty
  23. ^ Chantal de Badts de Cugnac & Guy Coutant de Saisseval. Petit Gotha (2002), Paris. Page 614
  24. ^ Rodogno, Davide (2006). Fascism's European Empire: Italian Occupation During the Second World War. Cambridge University Press. p. 95. ISBN 0521845157. 
  25. ^ B. Krizman, NDH između Hitlera i Mussolinija (Independent State of Croatia between Hitler and Mussolini,)p.105
  26. ^ Tomasevich, Jozo (2001). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941-1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford University Press. p. 138. ISBN 0804736154. 
  27. ^ "A Duke Departs". Time Magazine. April 23, 1945. 
  28. ^ "Obituaries". Keesing's Record of World Events. April 1948. p. 9212. 
  29. ^ "Death of Duke of Aosta". Canberra Times. 31 January 1948. p. 1. 
  30. ^ Enache, Nicolas. La Descendance de Marie-Therese de Habsburg. ICC, Paris, 1996. pp. 206, 214. French.

External links[edit]

Media related to Tomislav II of Croatia, 4th Duke of Aosta at Wikimedia Commons

Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta
Born: 9 March 1900 Died: 29 January 1948
Italian nobility
Preceded by
Amedeo
Duke of Aosta
2nd creation
1942–1948
Succeeded by
Amedeo
Titles in pretence
Vacant
Title last held by
Charles IV
— TITULAR —
King of Croatia
1941–1943
Vacant