Tommy Robinson (activist)
Tommy Robinson in October 2015
|Leader of the English Defence League|
August 2009 – 8 October 2013
|Preceded by||Office established|
|Succeeded by||Tim Ablitt|
Stephen Christopher Yaxley|
27 November 1982
British National Party (2004–2005)|
British Freedom Party (2012)
|Residence||Luton, Bedfordshire, England|
|Known for||Former leader of the English Defence League and European Defence League|
Stephen Christopher Yaxley-Lennon (born 27 November 1982), known by the pseudonym Tommy Robinson, and previously as Andrew McMaster and Paul Harris, is an English far-right activist who co-founded and served as spokesman and leader of the English Defence League (EDL), from which he resigned in 2013. For a short time in 2012, he was joint party vice-chairman of the British Freedom Party.
He led the EDL from 2009 until 8 October 2013. He continued as an activist, and in 2015 became involved with the development of Pegida UK, a British chapter of the German-based Pegida organisation (Patriotic Europeans Against the Islamisation of the West).
In May 2018, Robinson was sentenced to 13 months imprisonment for contempt of court after publishing a Facebook Live video of defendants entering a law court, contrary to a court order to prevent reporting those specific trials while proceedings are ongoing. That sentence included activation of an earlier 3 month suspended sentence for a similar earlier contempt of court.
He wrote for The Rebel Media and wrote an autobiography, Enemy of the State, and Mohammed's Koran: Why Muslims Kill for Islam, together with Peter McLoughlin.
Robinson was born Stephen Christopher Yaxley in Luton, England. In an interview with Victoria Derbyshire on BBC Radio Five live in 2010, he said that his parents "were Irish immigrants to this country". His mother, who worked at a local bakery, remarried when Robinson was still young; his stepfather, Thomas Lennon, whose surname Robinson took, worked at the Vauxhall car plant in Luton.
According to Robinson, after leaving school, he applied to study aircraft engineering at Luton Airport: "I got an apprenticeship 600 people applied for, and they took four people on". He qualified in 2003 after five years of study, but then lost his job when he was convicted of assaulting an off-duty police officer in a drunken argument. He served a 12-month prison sentence.
Robinson joined the British National Party, then led by Nick Griffin, in 2004. When questioned about this by journalist Andrew Neil in June 2013, he said that he had left after one year, saying, "I didn't know Nick Griffin was in the National Front, I didn't know non-whites couldn't join the organisation. I joined, I saw what it was about, it was not for me".
As leader of the English Defence League (EDL), Robinson sometimes wore a bullet-proof vest when appearing in public, telling the BBC that his business and his home had been attacked, and that he personally had been threatened by armed Muslims.
Lennon uses the alias Tommy Robinson, taking the name of a prominent member of the "Men In Gear" (MIG) football hooligan crew, which follows Luton Town Football Club. Robinson was involved with the group United Peoples of Luton, formed in response to a March 2009 protest against Royal Anglian Regiment troops returning from the Afghan War being attacked by the Islamist groups Al-Muhajiroun and Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaah.
Robinson denies racism and antisemitism, going so far as to declare his support for the Jewish people and Israel, calling himself a Zionist. Robinson claims his friends include both black and Muslim people.
English Defence League
Robinson founded the English Defence League (EDL) and in August 2009, became leader its leader with his cousin, Kevin Carroll, its deputy leader. Robinson stated that he had been prompted to found the EDL after he had read a newspaper article about local Islamists attempting to recruit men outside a bakery in Luton to fight for the Taliban in Afghanistan. Robinson has appeared masked at protests. Although Robinson repeatedly insisted from the early days of the organisation that the EDL was "against the rise of radical Islam" and that its members "aren't against Islam", its rank and file were noted for including football hooligans and members who described themselves as anti-Muslim. Robinson founded the European Defence League, a co-ordination of groups similar to the EDL operating in different European countries.
Robinson said he was assaulted on 22 December 2011 after stopping his car due to another car flashing its lights at him. He said that a group of three men attacked and beat him, until they were stopped by the arrival of a "good Samaritan". Robinson said that the attackers were of Asian appearance.
Robinson was convicted in 2011 of using "threatening, abusive or insulting behaviour" during a fight between supporters of Luton Town and Newport County in Luton the previous year. Robinson reportedly led the group of Luton fans, and played an integral part in starting a 100-man brawl, during which he chanted "EDL till I die". He was sentenced to a 12-month community rehabilitation order with 150 hours unpaid work and a three-year ban from attending football matches.
Robinson was arrested again after an EDL demonstration in Tower Hamlets in September 2011 for breach of bail conditions, as he had been banned from attending that demonstration. Robinson later began a hunger strike while on remand in HM Prison Bedford, saying that he was a "political prisoner of the state", and refused to eat what he believed was halal meat. A handful of EDL supporters protested outside the prison in support of Robinson during his incarceration; the support peaked at a turnout of 100 protesters on 10 September. Robinson was released on bail on 12 September.
On 29 September 2011, Robinson was convicted of common assault after headbutting a fellow EDL member at a rally in Blackburn in April that year. He was sentenced to 12 weeks' imprisonment, suspended for 12 months. Robinson said that the assault had happened because of a confrontation with a neo-Nazi who had joined the EDL.
On 8 November 2011, Robinson held a protest on the rooftop of the FIFA headquarters in Zürich against FIFA's ruling that the England national football team could not wear a Remembrance poppy symbol on their shirts. For this he was fined £3,000 and jailed for three days.
In 2012 Robinson announced that he had joined the British Freedom Party (BFP). He was appointed its joint vice-chairman along with Carroll after the EDL and the BFP agreed an electoral pact in 2011. However, on 11 October 2012, Robinson resigned from the BFP to concentrate on EDL activities.
Leaving the EDL
In October 2012, Robinson was arrested and held on the charge of having entered the United States illegally. Robinson pleaded guilty at Southwark Crown Court to using someone else's passport to travel to the United States in September 2012, and was sentenced in January of 2013 to 10 months' imprisonment. Robinson had used a passport in the name of Andrew McMaster to board a Virgin Atlantic flight from Heathrow to New York. He had been banned from entering the USA due to a drugs offence. He was detained by authorities in New York as an illegal immigrant but left the USA the next day using a passport in the name of Paul Harris to travel back to the UK. He was released on electronic tag on 22 February 2013. On being released, Robinson told the BBC that he was dismayed to discover that the EDL's ranks had been swollen with racist and neo-Nazi supporters.
In April 2012, Robinson took part in a programme in the BBC's television series The Big Questions in which far-right extremism was debated. Mo Ansar, a British Muslim political and social commentator took part in the same programme, and invited Robinson to join him and his family for dinner. This resulted in several meetings over the next 18 months between Robinson and Ansar to discuss Islam, Islamism and the Muslim community, accompanied by a BBC team which created the documentary When Tommy Met Mo. Robinson and Ansar visited the think tank Quilliam and Robinson witnessed a debate between Quilliam's director, Maajid Nawaz, and Ansar about human rights. On 8 October 2013, Quilliam held a press conference with Robinson and Kevin Carroll to announce that Robinson and Carroll had left the EDL. Robinson said that he had been considering leaving for a long time because of concerns over the "dangers of far-right extremism". Robinson said that it was still his aim to "counter Islamist ideology [...] not with violence but with democratic ideas". Ten other senior figures left the EDL with Robinson and Carroll, and Tim Ablitt became the EDL's new leader.
When Robinson was questioned by The Guardian about having blamed "'every single Muslim' for 'getting away' with the 7 July bombings, and for calling Islam a fascist and violent religion, he held up his hands and said, 'I'm sorry, I'm sorry.'" Robinson also said that he would now give evidence to the police to help in their investigation of racists within the EDL. Robinson added that "his future work would involve taking on radicalism on all fronts". Robinson claimed in his autobiography that he was paid £2,000 per month for Quilliam to take credit for his leaving the EDL, which a Quilliam spokesperson denied.
In November 2012, Robinson was charged with three counts of conspiracy to commit fraud by misrepresentation in relation to a mortgage application, along with five other defendants. He pleaded guilty to two charges and in January 2014 was sentenced to 18 months imprisonment. Robinson was attacked by several fellow prisoners in HM Prison Woodhill. Following news of the attack, Maajid Nawaz wrote to the Secretary of State for Justice, Chris Grayling, asking for Robinson's situation to be urgently addressed. Shortly after this incident, Robinson was moved to HM Prison Winchester. Robinson told Jamie Bartlett, a director of the think tank Demos: "In Woodhill, I experienced Islam the gang. [...] In Winchester, I have experienced Islam the religion." Robinson made friends with several Muslim prisoners, referring to them as "great lads [...] I cannot speak highly enough of the Muslim inmates I'm now living with". In June 2014 Robinson was released on licence. The terms of his early release included having no contact with the EDL until the end of his original sentence in June 2015. He was due to talk to the Oxford Union in October 2014, but was recalled to prison before the event for breaching the terms of his licence. He was ultimately released on 14 November 2014.
Robinson spoke at the Oxford Union on 26 November 2014. Unite Against Fascism (UAF) protested against his appearance, criticising the Union for allowing him the platform when, according to UAF, he had not renounced the views of the EDL. Robinson told the audience he was not allowed to talk about certain issues because he was out on prison licence. He said, "I regain my freedom of speech on the 22 July 2015." He criticised "politicians, the media and police for failing to tackle certain criminal activities because of the fear of being labelled Islamophobic." He claimed that Woodhill prison had become "an ISIS training camp", and that radicals were "running the wings". After release from licence at the end of his sentence Robinson returned to anti-Islam demonstrations with Pegida, a British offshoot of a German anti-immigration organisation founded in Dresden amid the European migrant crisis. Addressing a Pegida anti-Islam rally in October 2015, Robinson spoke out against what he perceived to be the threat of Islamist terrorists posing as refugees. He announced the creation of a "British chapter" of Pegida in December 2015. He said that alcohol and fighting would not be permitted because "It's too serious now for that stuff", and told The Daily Telegraph that a mass demonstration would take place across Europe on 6 February 2016. On 14 February 2016, Robinson was attacked and treated at a hospital after leaving a nightclub in Essex.
Robinson travelled to watch UEFA Euro 2016 in France and demonstrated with a T-shirt and English flag ridiculing the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). Bedfordshire Police imposed a football banning order on him on his return; his solicitor Alison Gurden accused the police of a "campaign of harassment" and said that they had equated the proscribed terrorist group with all Muslims in their action. In September, a judge at Luton Magistrates' Court dismissed the case, calling the prosecution's evidence "vague" and "cagey".
On 27 August 2016, 18 Luton Town football supporters, including Robinson and his family, were ejected by police from a Cambridge pub on the day of the Cambridge United versus Luton football match. Robinson claimed he had been victimised, and complaints were submitted to Cambridge Police.
2017–present: Journalism and further convictions
Robinson became a correspondent for The Rebel Media, a Canadian political and social commentary website, in February 2017.[non-primary source needed] In May 2017, he was arrested for contempt of court after he attempted to take video of the defendants in a child rape case outside Canterbury Crown Court.
Robinson responded on Twitter to the Finsbury Park attack writing, "The mosque where the attack happened tonight has a long history of creating terrorists & radical jihadists & promoting hate & segregation," and, "I'm not justifying it, I've said many times if government or police don't sort these centres of hate they will create monsters as seen tonight." Robinson's statements were widely criticised in the media as inciting hatred. Appearing the next morning on Good Morning Britain, Robinson held up the Quran and described it as a "violent and cursed book". The host, Piers Morgan, accused him of "stirring up hatred like a bigoted lunatic", and Robinson's appearance drew a number of complaints to Ofcom. Robinson was involved in a fight at Royal Ascot later in June 2017, for which Morgan criticised him on Twitter.
In May 2017, Robinson was convicted of contempt of court for using a camera inside Canterbury Crown Court and received a suspended sentence. According to Judge Heather Norton, "this is not about free speech, not about the freedom of the press, nor about legitimate journalism, and not about political correctness. It is about justice and ensuring that a trial can be carried out justly and fairly, it's about being innocent until proven guilty. It is about preserving the integrity of the jury to continue without people being intimidated or being affected by irresponsible and inaccurate 'reporting', if that's what it was".
On 25 May 2018, Robinson was arrested for a breach of the peace while live streaming outside Leeds Crown Court during a trial on which reporting restrictions had been ordered by the judge.
Following Robinson's arrest, Judge Geoffrey Marson QC issued a further reporting restriction on Robinson's case, prohibiting any reporting of Robinson's case or the grooming trial until the latter case is complete. The jailing of Robinson drew condemnation from right wing circles.
The UK Independence Party leader Gerard Batten MEP expressed concern about the proceedings and the ban on reporting. Robinson attracted sympathy from several right-wing politicians in Europe including the Dutch Party for Freedom leader Geert Wilders and the member of the German Bundestag for the far-right Alternative for Germany Petr Bystron.
During the weekend following Robinson's arrest, hundreds of his supporters rallied outside Downing Street, calling for the government to "Free Tommy" and an online petition for his release had more than 500,000 signatures.
On 29 May 2018, the reporting restriction was lifted with regard to Robinson, following a challenge by journalists, and the media reported that Robinson had admitted contempt of court by publishing information that could prejudice an ongoing trial, and had been sentenced to 13 months' imprisonment.
Marson sentenced Robinson to ten months for contempt of court and his previous three months' suspended sentence was activated because of the breach. Robinson's lawyer said that Robinson felt "deep regret" after comprehending the potential consequences of his behaviour. Robinson was told that if a retrial had to be held as a result of his actions the cost could be "hundreds and hundreds of thousands of pounds".
In June 2018, a rally in support Robinson was held in London, attended by up to 15,000 people, which included a football supporters group drawn together under the Football Lads Alliance, as well as elements of smaller hard-right groups.
In July 2018, it was reported United States Ambassador-at-Large for International Religious Freedom Sam Brownback lobbied the UK government on the treatment of Robinson. A combined rally in support in Tommy Robinson and US President Donald Trump was held on 14th July in London, which corresponded with an official visit of Trump to the United Kingdom. Over 2000 people attended the rally and there were arrests for violence and disorder.  Images of protesters blocking the path of a bus being driven by a Muslim woman were widely circulated on the Internet.  Again an image was circulated on Twitter purporting to be showing how well attended the protest was, but this time the image circulated was actually of an unrelated event, as it was of a large gathering in the Cairo, Egypt.
Robinson has written or co-written two books:
- Tommy Robinson, Tommy Robinson Enemy of the State. The Press News Ltd (9 December 2015). 344 pages. ISBN 978-0957096493
- Peter McLoughlin, Tommy Robinson, Mohammed's Koran: Why Muslims Kill for Islam. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform (21 June 2017). 400 pages. ISBN 978-0995584907[better source needed]
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- "Stephen Lennon and Kevin Carroll Join British Freedom!". British Freedom Party. 5 May 2012. Archived from the original on 10 July 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- EDL leader interviewed by Andrew Neil on Sunday Politics (16Jun13), 16 June 2013, archived from the original on 30 June 2016, retrieved 22 March 2018
- "Tommy Robinson Explains The Making Of An Alter-Ego Even His Wife Can't Stand". HuffPost UK. 10 December 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
- "EDL leader jailed for being illegal immigrant after entering US on friend's passport". 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
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- "EDL members protest outside prison". Bedfordshire Local News. 7 September 2011. Archived from the original on 29 May 2013. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
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- BBC, The Big Questions, series 5 episode 13 Archived 19 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine., BBC, broadcast 1 April 2012.
- BBC, The Big Questions, series 5 episode 13; broadcast 1 April 2012: video from 1:59.
- BBC Three Counties Radio, "Olly Mann is joined in the studio by Tommy Robinson who apologises for previous extremist comments" Archived 20 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine., broadcast 9 October 2013
- "EDL members fined over rooftop protest". Luton Today. 16 November 2011. Archived from the original on 20 December 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- Kevin Rawlinson (25 November 2011). "English Defence League prepares to storm local elections". The Independent. London, UK. Archived from the original on 13 December 2011. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- British Freedom Party, "Tommy Robinson steps down from party to devote all his energy to EDL" Archived 21 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- "EDL leader Lennon jailed for passport offence". Sky News. 7 January 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
- "EDL founder Tommy Robinson jailed for mortgage fraud". The Guardian (Associated Press). 23 January 2014. p. 10. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
- "EDL leader jailed over USA trip". 17 July 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
- "EDL leader Stephen Lennon jailed for passport fraud". Retrieved 17 July 2018.
- Arden, Christopher (22 February 2013). "English Defence League leader 'released from jail'". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- "Quitting the English Defence League: When Tommy Met Mo" Archived 2 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine., BBC, accessed 31 October 2013.
- "EDL leader Tommy Robinson quits group". BBC News. 8 October 2013. Archived from the original on 8 October 2013. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- Siddique, Haroon. "Tommy Robinson quits EDL saying it has become 'too extreme'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 8 October 2013. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- Malik, Shiv (11 October 2013). "Ex-EDL leader Tommy Robinson says sorry for causing fear to Muslims". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- Ansar, Mohammed (19 October 2013). "My 18 months with former EDL leader Tommy Robinson". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
- Wright, Paul (4 December 2015). "Pegida UK: Tommy Robinson says 'terrorist epicentre' of Birmingham will be location of far-right march". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 12 December 2015. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
- Steven Hopkins (4 December 2015). "Tommy Robinson, Former EDL Leader, Claims Quilliam Paid Him To Quit Far-Right Group". Huffington Post UK. Archived from the original on 16 October 2016.
- "EDL leader Stephen Lennon charged with mortgage fraud". BBC News. 28 November 2012. Archived from the original on 29 November 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- "EDL founder Stephen Yaxley-Lennon admits mortgage fraud". BBC News. 26 November 2013. Archived from the original on 5 February 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- "EDL Founder Tommy Robinson in Fear of Muslim Attack Beaten up in Woodhill Prison". International Business Times. 5 February 2014. Archived from the original on 8 May 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- "Tommy Robinson 'Attacked' In Prison, MoJ Urged To Re-Think Ex- EDL Chief's Incarceration". Huffington Post (UK). 7 February 2014. Archived from the original on 1 April 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- Letter from Maajid Nawaz Archived 8 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine., quilliamfoundation.org, 6 February 2014.
- "'The guards don't run the prison, Islam does': my interview with a 'reformed' Tommy Robinson". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 19 June 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
- "Tommy Robinson, former EDL leader, recalled to prison". BBC News. 20 October 2014. Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "EDL return to Luton as march passes peacefully". Luton Today. 24 November 2014. Archived from the original on 7 August 2016. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
- "EDL founder Tommy Robinson speaks at the Oxford Union". BBC News. 27 November 2014. Archived from the original on 12 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- Sherriff, Lucy (27 November 2014). "Tommy Robinson Speaks At Oxford University Union: Fear Has Paralysed The Police". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 31 December 2014. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
- Cahal Milmo, "EDL founder Tommy Robinson addresses Pegida anti-Islam rally in Holland" Archived 23 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine., The Independent, 13 October 2015
- Matthew Goodwin, "The fight against Islamophobia is going backwards" Archived 28 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine., The Guardian, 19 October 2015
- Steven Hopkins, "Tommy Robinson Hospitalised After Being Attacked Outside Essex Nightclub, Days After Pegida Rally" Archived 16 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Huffington Post UK, 15 February 2016.
- Penn, Stephen (30 June 2016). "Former EDL leader Tommy Robinson contesting attempted football ban for waving anti-ISIS flag". Bedfordshire News. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
- "Ex-EDL leader Tommy Robinson wins football ban court case against Bedfordshire police". International Business Times. 19 September 2016. Archived from the original on 20 September 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- Raymond Brown, "Ex-EDL leader Tommy Robinson's Cambridge pub incident - police boss defends officers" Archived 3 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Cambridge News, 1 September 2016.
- The Rebel Media - Robinson site(subscription required) Archived 19 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
- Patrick Grafton-Green (10 May 2017). "Former EDL leader Tommy Robinson arrested after 'trying to film Muslims' outside court". Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 30 December 2017.
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- Graham Ruddick, "ITV defends EDL founder's appearance on Good Morning Britain" Archived 21 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine., The Guardian, 20 June 2017.
- Finsbury Park mosque attack: EDL founder Tommy Robinson's appearance on Good Morning Britain sparks outrage Archived 27 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine., independent.co.uk, 20 June 2017.
- Piers Morgan blasts former EDL leader Tommy Robinson Archived 22 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine., itv.com, 20 June 2017.
- 'You’re stirring up hatred like a bigoted lunatic': Piers Morgan in extraordinary row with ex-EDL leader Tommy Robinson Archived 8 May 2018 at the Wayback Machine., Telegraph.co.uk, 20 June 2017.
- Greg Wilford (25 June 2017). "Former EDL leader Tommy Robinson filmed brawling with man at Ascot". The Independent. Archived from the original on 10 August 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
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Judge Heather Norton handed him a three months imprisonment in May last year but suspended it for 18 months on the condition he did not commit further offences. […] “It is about preserving the integrity of the jury to continue without people being intimidated or being affected by irresponsible and inaccurate ‘reporting’, if that’s what it was.”
- Ishmael N. Daro, "Who Is Tommy Robinson And Why Has His Arrest Captivated The Right Wing Media?", BuzzFeed News, 29 May 2018
- Perraudin, Frances (29 May 2018). "EDL founder Tommy Robinson jailed for contempt of court". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
- "Ex-EDL leader Tommy Robinson jailed at Leeds court". BBC. 29 May 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
- van Unen, David (28 May 2018). "Britse anti-islamactivist Tommy Robinson de cel in". NRC (in Dutch). Retrieved 28 May 2018.
- Verontwaardiging over publicatieverbod na arrestatie Tommy Robinson, De Telegraaf, 29 May 2018
- Avi Selk, Conservative outrage after anti-Muslim campaigner Tommy Robinson secretly jailed in Britain, Washington Post, 29 May 2018
- "Right-wing activist Tommy Robinson reportedly jailed after filming outside child grooming trial". Fox News. 26 May 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
- Elif Isitman, Duitse politicus wil politiek asiel voor Tommy Robinson, Elsevier, 29 May 2018 (in Dutch)
- "Tommy Robinson protest: Hundreds demonstrate in Downing Street after far-right figure arrested", The Independent, 28 May 2018
- James Rodger, "Petition to free Tommy Robinson signed 500,000 times after he's jailed for 13 months", Birmingham Mail, 30 May 2018.
- Staff (29 May 2018). "Ex-EDL leader Tommy Robinson jailed at Leeds court". BBC News Online. BBC. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
- Steve Bird. "EDL founder Tommy Robinson jailed for contempt of court after broadcasting tirade on Facebook". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
- Damien Gayle and Zac Ntim, "Protesters charged after pro-Tommy Robinson rally in London", The Guardian, 11 June 2018.
- Hosenball, Mark. "Trump's ambassador lobbied Britain on behalf of jailed right-wing..." Retrieved 17 July 2018.
- "Twelve arrests as Tommy Robinson activists descend on Whitehall". Retrieved 17 July 2018.
- "Bus driver in headscarf shows far right what's great about Britain". Retrieved 17 July 2018.
- Burke, Dave (15 July 2018). "Tommy Robinson supporter mocked over 'photo of London Pro-Trump rally'". Retrieved 17 July 2018.
- Bartlett, Jamie (4 February 2016). "What's it like to be Britain's most hated man? Ask Tommy Robinson". Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018.
- "Tommy Robinson's new book SELLS OUT within days". 1 August 2017. Archived from the original on 2018-03-06. Retrieved 2018-03-06.
- Copsey, Nigel (2010). The English Defence League: Challenging our Country and our Values of Social Inclusion, Fairness and Equality (PDF). Faith Matters.
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