The tonada is a folk music style of Spain and some countries of Hispanic America (mainly Argentina, Chile, Peru, Bolivia and Venezuela). In nowadays Spain, the traditional sung piece known as tonada is considered as having been originated in Asturias and Cantabria, although tonada (from "tone") is a Spanish word which can mean anything sung, played or danced, musicological usage in Spanish and English is more specific.
The baroque tonada is distinct from the tono humano or tonado, secular song, a main genre of 17th-century Spanish and Portuguese music. Examples of the baroque tonada are found in the Codex Martínez Compañón.
The Argentine form of the tonada originates from Cuyo Region and is usually played by guitar group.
In Venezuela the tonada tend to be presented as work songs that accompany various tasks such as milking, farming, herding, hunting, fishing, threshing, grinding corn, harvesting and rest of rural man. These songs, in addition to constituting a labor rite, symbolize the spirit of coexistence among those who perform common tasks.
According to the Venezuelan musician, composer and musicologist Luis Felipe Ramón y Rivera, the tonadas are utilitarian songs that are characterized by their monodic system, in which harmony is clearly established by long notes of six, eight or more moderate times. that enclose the cadences.
These songs are measurable and interspersed cries and jipíos according to the need of the work, depending on the milking or the drive. As for the scales to which these melodies are adjusted, they vary among themselves, according to the type of regional music. Thus, a song of the Táchira state to harvest coffee differs a lot from a llanero ridge for the drive. But, in general, all show an old character.
The deceased Venezuelan singer-songwriter and musician Simón Díaz was the greatest exponent of this genre, who rescued and made known during his recording career.
- Jane Magrath, Pianist's Guide to Standard Teaching and Performance Literature, page 448. "A tonada is a Spanish word meaning anything sung, played or danced. Rhythmic writing, mild dissonances, at the same approximate level as Turina Miniatures. The works are tonal and frequently use ostinatos containing tonal and modal..."
- Emily Kay Berquist, The science of empire: Bishop Martinez Companon and the ... page 29, The University of Texas at Austin, 2007. "The liner notes to the Música Temprana recording of Martínez Compañón's musical annotations, Al Uso de Nuestra Tierra, Chants et danses du baroque péruvien, confirms that 'the Tonada del Chimo is the only original music written to a text in the mochica language, a language that had already disappeared by the time of Martínez Compañón'."
- Raquel Barros y Manuel Dannemann, El romancero chileno, (Ediciones de la Universidad de Chile), 1970.
- Juan Eduardo Wolf, La Tonada Chilena: The History of a Musical Genre through Performance, 2007. "Employing one of the classic descriptions of a tonada, Barros and Dannemann state that the melody of a tonada is simple and monotonous. They state that the melodies use only small intervals and use this criterion to once again distinguish..."
- The World and its peoples: Paraguay, Argentina, Chile, Falkland Islands, 1966. "OTHER POPULAR AIRS: The Chilean countryside and towns each have their own brand of folk song. In rural areas the lyrical tonada Chilena is particularly popular. A tonada is divided..."
- Marianne Pickering, Chile: Where the Land Ends, (Benchmark Books) 1996. "A tonada is usually a slow-moving song with a melancholy theme. Thirty years ago, the Nueva Cancion (nu-WEH-vah kan-see-OWN), or 'New Song,' movement was started by Chilean musicians and poets. The writers protested against the..."