||It has been suggested that this article be merged into Amusia. (Discuss) Proposed since March 2014.|
Tone deafness is the lack of relative pitch, or the inability to distinguish between musical notes that is not due to the lack of musical training or education. Tone deafness is the congenital form of amusia. It is also known as tune deafness, "tin ear", dysmelodia and dysmusia.
The ability to hear and reproduce relative pitch, as with other musical abilities, is present in all societies and in most humans. Tone deafness appears to be genetically influenced although it can also be a result from brain damage. Someone who is unable to reproduce pitches because of a lack of musical training would not be considered tone deaf in a medical sense. Tone deafness affects the ability to hear relative pitch changes produced by a musical instrument.
Tone deaf people seem to be disabled only when it comes to music as they can fully interpret the prosody or intonation of human speech. Tone deafness has a strong negative correlation with belonging to societies with tonal languages. This could be evidence that the ability to reproduce and distinguish between notes may be a learned skill; conversely, it may suggest that the genetic predisposition towards accurate pitch discrimination may influence the linguistic development of a population towards tonality. A correlation between allele frequencies and linguistic typological features has been recently discovered, supporting the latter hypothesis.
Tone deafness is also associated with other musical-specific impairments such as the inability to keep time with music (the lack of rhythm), or the inability to remember or recognize a song. These disabilities can appear separately, but some research shows that they are more likely to appear in tone-deaf people. Experienced musicians, such as W. A. Mathieu, have addressed tone deafness in adults as correctable with training.
In nine of ten tone deaf people, the superior arcuate fasciculus in the right hemisphere could not be detected, suggesting a disconnection between the posterior superior temporal gyrus and the posterior inferior frontal gyrus. Researchers suggested the posterior superior temporal gyrus was the origin of the disorder.
Notable tone-deaf people
- Amusia, the medical loss of musical ability
- Absolute pitch, the rare ability to name a musical note when played or sung
- Relative pitch, the normal human ability to accurately distinguish pitch intervals
- Tonal memory
- Musical aptitude
- Beat deafness
- Deafness, the inability to hear sound
- Color blindness
- Dediu, Dan; D. Robert Ladd (June 2007). "Linguistic tone is related to the population frequency of the adaptive haplogroups of two brain size genes, ASPM and Microcephalin". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (26): 10944–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.0610848104. PMC 1904158. PMID 17537923. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
- Ayotte, Julie; Isabelle Peretz and Krista Hyde (February 2002). "Congenital amusia: a group study of adults afflicted with a music-specific disorder". Brain 125 (2): 238–51. doi:10.1093/brain/awf028. PMID 11844725. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
- Mathieu, W. A. "Tone-Deaf Choir". Retrieved 26 February 2009.
- Loui, P; Alsop, D; Schlaug, S (2009). "Tone Deafness: A New Disconnection Syndrome?". Journal of Neuroscience 29 (33): 10215–10220. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1701-09.2009.
- "Can't chant, can't speak English? Pope says it's because he's tone-deaf", Catholic News Service, 2 April 2013
- LaFee, Scott (9 February 2009). "Darwin's Legacy: Natural selections". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 10 February 2009.
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- Sacks, Oliver; Musicophilia: Tales of Music and the Brain; p 108 ISBN 1-4000-3353-5
- See Isaac Asimov's Book of Facts
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- Hunter, Graeme K.; Light is a messenger: the life and science of William Lawrence Bragg; p. 158. ISBN 0-19-852921-X
- Crow, James Franklin and Dove, William F.; Perspectives on genetics: anecdotal, historical, and critical commentaries; p. 254. ISBN 0-299-16604-X
- Baril, Daniel (12 April 1999). "Le cerveau musical". Forum 33 (26) (Université de Montréal). Retrieved 19 July 2008.
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- "The Life of W. B. Yeats". The New York Times.
- Tamm, Eric.; Robert Fripp: From crimson king to crafty master, Faber and Faber, 1990, p. 16.
- University of Newcastle: Musical Listening Test
- BBC: Listening Displeasure
- NPR: Test for tone deafness (requires RealAudio player)
- MedicineNet: Amusia
- NIH: Distorted Tunes Test
- The Listening Book: Tone-Deaf Choir audio description by W. A. Mathieu
- Kazez, D. (1985). The myth of tone deafness. Music Educators Journal, 71, 46-47.