Eurycoma longifolia

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Eurycoma longifolia
Singapore Science Centre 17, Jul 06.JPG
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Simaroubaceae
Genus: Eurycoma
Species: E. longifolia
Binomial name
Eurycoma longifolia

Eurycoma longifolia (commonly called tongkat ali or pasak bumi or malaysian ginseng) is a flowering plant in the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia, Malaysia, and, to a lesser extent, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos and India. The plant is a medium-sized slender shrub that can reach 10 m (33 ft) in height, and is often unbranched. The root of the plant has been used in folk medicine of the South East Asian region, and in modern times has common use as supplements, as well as food and drink additives. There is no clinical data supporting the effectiveness of Eurycoma longifolia for any health benefit.[2]

Names[edit]

Eurycoma longifolia is also known by the common names penawar pahit, penawar bias, bedara merah, bedara putih, lempedu pahit, payong ali, tongkat baginda, muntah bumi, petala bumi (all Malay); Malaysian ginseng;[3] bidara laut (Indonesian); babi kurus (Javanese); cây bá bệnh (Vietnamese); tho nan (Laotian); lan-don, hae phan chan, phiak, plaa lai phuenk, tung saw (all Thai); "long jack" (US); langir siam (Bahrain). Many of the common names refer to the plant's medicinal use and extreme bitterness. Penawar pahit translates simply as "bitter charm" or "bitter medicine". Older literature, such as a 1953 article in the Journal of Ecology, may cite only penawar pahit as the plant's common Malay name.[4]

As mentioned above, E. longifolia is known by common names "tongkat ali" and "pasak bumi" in the South East Asian region, but these names are also used for the physiologically similar species Polyalthia bullata. The bark and root of E. longifolia is more white/yellow-ish compared to the darker-colored P. bullata, which has led to the former being known as "tongkat ali/pasak bumi putih" or "tongkat ali/pasak bumi kuning", and the latter as "tongkat ali/pasak bumi hitam". ("Putih" means "white", "kuning" means "yellow", and "hitam" means "black" in Malay/Indonesian.) Indonesia also has a red-coloured variety known as "tongkat ali/pasak bumi merah" ("merah" meaning "red"), which is being studied by researchers and has not had its species classified.[5]

Description[edit]

A medium size slender shrub reaching 10 m (33 ft), often unbranched with reddish brown petioles. Leaves compound, even pinnate reaching 1 m (39 in) meter in length. Each compound leaf consists of 30 to 40 leaflets, lanceolate to obovate-lanceolate. Each leaflet is about 15–20 cm (6–8 in) long, 1.5–6 cm (1–2 in) wide, and much paler on the ventral side.

Inflorecense axillary, in large brownish red panicle, very pubescent with very fine, soft, granular trichomes. Flowers are dioecious.[6] Petals are small, very fine pubescent. Drupe hard, ovoid, yellowish brown when young and brownish red when ripe.[7] The plant grows in the understorey of lowland forests, and survives on a variety of soils but prefers acidic, well-drained soil.[8]

Uses[edit]

Many purported health benefite have been attributed to Eurycoma longifolia; however, there is no clinical data supporting its effectiveness for any health benefit.[2] The plant is used in the traditional medicine of Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam. In Indonesia and Malaysia, the root of the plant is boiled in water, and the water is consumed as a health tonic for post-partum recovery, as an aphrodisiac, as well as the relief of fever, intestinal worms, dysentery, diarrhea, indigestion, and jaundice.[8] In Vietnam, the flower and fruits are used to treat dysentery,[8] and the root is used for malaria and fever.[9] In Malaysia, a paste of the plant is applied topically to relieve headaches and stomach-aches.[8] There is a traditional belief that E. longifolia is an aphrodisiac.[8][10][11] Other health benefits attributed to this plant include antimalarial, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and antipyretic activities.[12] In Indonesia and Malaysia, E. longifolia has been widely commercialized. Its root, which is highly bitter,[10] has been used as the basis for supplements, as well as food and drink additives. In the US, the extract has self-affirmed generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status, as an ingredient.[13] As a supplement, it has been marketed for the supposed benefits of sexual health improvement, as an energy and stamina booster, for improving blood circulation,[8] and fat reduction.[14] In the drinks market, it is a common ingredient for coffee and beverages marketed as energy drinks.

Commercialization[edit]

Adulteration and contamination[edit]

There have been a number of cases of products falsely claiming to contain E. longifolia as an ingredient, as well as E. longifolia product contamination cases. In 2006 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned seven dietary supplement products that claimed to include E. longifolia as a principal ingredient, but which additionally contained prescription drugs and even analogues of prescription drugs that have not yet been tested for safety in humans, such as acetildenafil.[15]

In 2017, the FDA announced that two different brands of E. longifolia-containing coffee were recalled after being found to also contain undeclared active ingredients of erectile dysfunction drugs.[16][17]

In Malaysia, there are over 200 registered E. longifolia products. However, a 2004 study determined, following quality testing, that 36% of these were contaminated with mercury beyond legally permitted limits.[18]

Extracts[edit]

Products stating various E. longifolia extract ratios of 1:50, 1:100, and 1:200 are common on the market. However extracts based on this ratio system are often misleading and hard to verify. Scientific research done on herbal products in general indicates that in many cases the content of bioactive constituents varies between products.[19] One perception is that a higher extraction ratio indicates a stronger product, but higher extract ratio just means that more of the original material was removed.

Another option is for extraction techniques to utilize standardization methods to monitor the bioactive content and quality of the extract against standardization markers. Among standardization markers that have been used for E. longifolia are eurycomanone, total protein, total polysaccharide and glycosaponin, which have been recommended in a technical guideline developed by the Scientific and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM).[20]

Patents[edit]

An extract process and method of treatment for sexual dysfunction and male infertility was issued a U.S. patent in 2006.[21] Additional patent applications have been filed in the U.S. for various processes and indications, but as of August 2017 none have resulted in issued patents. Two of the applications.[22][23]

Conservation and sustainability[edit]

E. longifolia is mainly used for its roots, which necessitates uprooting the entire plant when it is harvested. This has led to concerns over the long-term sustainability of its use.[24][25]

In Malaysia raw E. longifolia is banned from export,[26] and the plant itself been listed as one of the priority medicinal species for conservation, and the harvesting of wild trees is restricted according to Act 686 on International Trade in Endangered Species.[27][28][29] In 2016, Ahmad Shabery Cheek, the Malaysian Minister of Agriculture, said that the species may go extinct within twenty years if cultivation and replanting efforts are not made quickly.[30] Despite this, the Malaysian government has encouraged the commercialization of high-value herbal products based on this plant,[31] notably in its 2010 Economic Transformation Programme, where Tongkat Ali is listed among the top five herbs to be developed on a large scale until the year 2020.[32][33] To support this commercialization, the Malaysian government made attempts to encourage the long-term commercial cultivation of the plant, through the provision of grants for farmers, enabling agronomy research by MARDI, and the formation of cluster farms under the East Coast Economic Region.[34]

Chemical constituents[edit]

Eurycoma longifolia has been reported to contain the glycoprotein compounds eurycomanol, eurycomanone, and eurycomalactone.[35]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Eurycoma longifolia". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2008-03-14.
  2. ^ a b Ulbricht, Catherine; Conquer, Julie; Flanagan, Kelly; Isaac, Richard; Rusie, Erica; Windsor, Regina C. (2013). "An Evidence-Based Systematic Review of Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration". Journal of Dietary Supplements. 10 (1): 54–83. doi:10.3109/19390211.2012.761467. PMID 23419023. Clinical data in support ofEurycoma longifoliaare lacking for any indication.
  3. ^ Ken, Chee Cheong (8 March 2012). "Herbs in exercise and sports". Journal of Physiological Anthropology. 31 (1): 4. doi:10.1186/1880-6805-31-4. PMC 3375032. PMID 22738233.
  4. ^ Wyatt-Smith, J. (August 1953). "The Vegetation of Jarak Island, Straits of Malacca". Journal of Ecology. 41 (2): 207–225. doi:10.2307/2257036. JSTOR 2257036.
  5. ^ Rachman, Taufik (2015-08-14). "UMP Teliti Pasak Bumi Merah". Retrieved 2016-04-11.
  6. ^ Keng, Chan Lai; Sai, Su Tiing; Teo, Chris K.H. (2002). "A Preliminary Study on the Germination of Eurycoma longfolia Jack (Tongkat Ali) Seeds". Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science. 25 (1): 27–34.
  7. ^ Malaysian Herbal Monograph Technical Committee (1999). Malaysian Herbal Monograph. Vol. 1. Forest Research Institute Malaysia. ISBN 983987019X, 9789839870190
  8. ^ a b c d e f Samy, Joseph; Manickam, Sugumaran (2005). Herbs of Malaysia. Times Editions. pp. 104–105. ISBN 978-9833001798.
  9. ^ Maneenoon, Katesarin (2015). "Ethnomedicinal plants used by traditional healers in Phatthalung Province, Peninsular Thailand". Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 11 (43): 43. doi:10.1186/s13002-015-0031-5. PMC 4469324. PMID 26025447.
  10. ^ a b Chai, Paul (2006). Medicinal Plants of Sarawak. Lee Miin Press. p. 150. ISBN 978-9834325510.
  11. ^ Riviera, Gloria (2014-10-16). "Natural Remedy May Dramatically Transform Sexual Enhancement Market". ABCnews.com. Retrieved 2016-04-13.
  12. ^ Bhat, R; Karim, AA (2010). "Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia Jack): a review on its ethnobotany and pharmacological importance". Fitoterapia. 81 (7): 669–79. doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2010.04.006. PMID 20434529.
  13. ^ Ulbricht, Catherine; Conquer, Julie; Flanagan, Kelly; Isaac, Richard; Rusie, Erica; Windsor, Regina C. (2013). "An Evidence-Based Systematic Review of Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration". Journal of Dietary Supplements. 10 (1): 54–83. doi:10.3109/19390211.2012.761467. PMID 23419023.
  14. ^ "Nu Prep Lelaki Takes You Further". ETP Malaysia (media room). 2013-09-21. Retrieved 2018-02-15.
  15. ^ FDA Warns Consumers About Dangerous Ingredients in seven "Dietary Supplements" promoted for sexual enhancement
  16. ^ "Recall of Caverflo Natural Herbal Coffee due to the Presence of Undeclared Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient". FDA.gov. 2017-05-25. Retrieved 2017-08-03.
  17. ^ "Bestherbs Coffee LLC found with Viagra-like ingredient recalled after FDA discovery". FDA.gov. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  18. ^ Ang, Hooi-Hoon; Lee, Ee-Lin; Cheang, Hui-Seong (2004). "Determination of Mercury by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer in Tongkat Ali Preparations Obtained in Malaysia". International Journal of Toxicology. 23 (1): 65–71. doi:10.1080/10915810490269654. PMID 15162849.
  19. ^ "Guidance on equivalence of herbal extracts in complementary medicines". Australia: Department of Health - Therapeutic Goods Administration. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
  20. ^ Phytopharmaceutical Aspect Of Freeze Dried Water Extract From Tongkat Ali Roots (MS 2409:2011). Malaysia: Scientific and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia. 2011. Retrieved 2016-08-17.
  21. ^ U.S. Patent 7,132,117 Inventors: T.G. Sambandan, ChoKyun Rha, Azizol Abdul Kadir, Norhaniza Aminudim, Johari Md. Saad. Assignees: Government of Malaysia, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  22. ^ US Patent Application 20100221370 A1 link
  23. ^ US Patent Application 20070224302 A1 link
  24. ^ Mien, Rifai (2009). "Germplasm, Genetic Erosion, and the Conservation of Indonesian Plants". Conservation of Medicinal Plants. Cambridge University Press. pp. 281–283. ISBN 9780521112024.
  25. ^ "Flaccid outlook for Tongkat Ali" (PDF). New Sunday Times. 2009-01-25. Retrieved 2016-06-08.
  26. ^ "Prosedur Operasi Piawaian: Pemeriksaan Konsainan Herba yang Dieksport" [Standard Operating Procedure: Consignment Inspection for Exported Herbs] (in Malay). Malaysian Quarantine and Inspection Services (MAQIS). July 2014. Retrieved 2017-03-20.
  27. ^ Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Malaysia (2009). 4th Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Government of Malaysia. p. 91.
  28. ^ Lee, Soon Leong (2009). "Status of Malaysia's forest genetic resources — their conservation and management practices". Forest Genetic Resources: Conservation and Management. Bioversity International. p. 75. ISBN 9789675221217.
  29. ^ "International Trade in Endangered Species". Act No. 686 of 14 February 2008 (PDF). Retrieved 2016-04-14.
  30. ^ "Pokok Tongkat Ali pupus 20 tahun" [Tongkat Ali trees extinct within 20 years]. Harian Metro (in Malay). Malaysia. 2016-02-24. Retrieved 2016-08-11.
  31. ^ "Malaysia's government to boost economy with biotech". CCT4 America. 2016-07-01. Retrieved 2016-07-25.
  32. ^ "EPP 1 High-Value Herbal Products". Performance Management and Delivery Unit (PEMANDU). Retrieved 2016-06-08.
  33. ^ Prime Minister's Department, Malaysia (2017). Malaysia Productivity Blueprint: Driving Productivity of the Nation. Economic Planning Unit. pp. 4–32. ISBN 978-967-5842-10-8.
  34. ^ "Malaysia's lucrative herb market". DailyExpress. 2013-12-28. Retrieved 2016-06-08.
  35. ^ Tran, Thi Van Anh; Malainer, Clemens; Schwaiger, Stefan; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Heiss, Elke H.; Dirsch, Verena M.; Stuppner, Hermann (2014). "NF-κB Inhibitors from Eurycoma longifolia". Journal of Natural Products. 77 (3): 483–488. doi:10.1021/np400701k. PMC 3971761. PMID 24467387.