|Native to||United States|
|Region||Western Oklahoma, South-central Texas and into New Mexico|
Pre-contact distribution of the Tonkawa language
The Tonkawa language was spoken in Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico by the Tonkawa people. A language isolate, with no known related languages, Tonkawa is now extinct. Members of the Tonkawa tribe now speak English.
Tonkawa has 10 vowels:
- Each vowel is distinguished by the quality of sound and the length of the vowel.
- The vowels occur in five pairs that have differing vowel lengths (i.e. short vowels vs. long vowels).
- In the front and the mid back vowel pairs, the short vowels are phonetically lower than their high counterparts: /i/ → [ɪ], /e/ → [ɛ], /o/ → [ɔ].
- The low vowels /a, aː/ vary between central and back articulations: [a~ɑ, aː~ɑː].
- Vowels that are followed by j and w are slightly raised in their position of articulation
Tonkawa has 15 consonants:
- The affricate /ts/ and fricative /s/ vary freely between dental and postalveolar articulations, i.e. [ts~tʃ] and [s~ʃ]. There is a tendency for [ʃ] to occur at the end of words (but no tendency for [tʃ]).
- The other coronals /t, n, l/ are consistently dental.
- The dorsal obstruents are normally velar, but palatal before front vowels /i, iː, e, eː/:
- /k, kʷ, x, xʷ/ → [c, cʷ, ç, çʷ]
- The dorsal approximants /j, w/ are consistently palatal and labiovelar respectively.
There are two environments in which consonant clusters occur in Tonkawa:
- when a consonant is repeated
- when the cluster is within the syllable
Repeated or identical consonants are treated as one unit. However, the condition that causes this repetition has not been fully analyzed.
- Example: sʔa-ko 'he scrapes it' versus mʔe-t-no 'lightning strikes him'
There are cases where the glottal stop is not used in the cluster or combination
There are certain consonants that can either begin or end in a cluster. However, if the cluster begins the syllable, there can be no intervening vowel.
- Initial Cluster Consonants: kʷ, m, n, s, x
- Final Cluster Consonants: ʔ
Phonological processes and morphophonemics
Initial stem syllables that begin with h-
- the h- is dropped when a prefix is added
- if the syllable is C + V, then the vowel is lengthened and given the quality of the stem vowel.
- if the syllable ends in a consonant, then the initial stem forms a new syllable with the final consonant of the prefix.
Final stem syllables
- Forms: C V w or C V y
- The form changes to C oː if followed by a suffix that starts with a consonant
- If a long vowel occurs the suffixes change from (-we/-wesʔ/aːdew) to (-oː or -o/oːsʔ/-aːdo)
An interesting feature of Tonkawan phonology is that the vowels in even-numbered syllables are reduced. That is, long vowels are shortened, while short vowels disappear. Analyses of this were given by Kisseberth (1970), Phelps (1973, 1975) and Noske (1993).
The Tonkawa language is a syllabic language that bases its word and sentence prosody on even stressed syllables.
- Disyllabic words are when the stress is placed on the final syllable.
- Polysyllabic words are when the stress is moved to the next to last syllable, the penult.
There are five types of syllable arrangements: (CL consonant, CC: consonant cluster, V: vowel)
- C + V → ka-la 'mouth'
- C + V + C → tan-kol 'back of head'
- CC + V → sʔa-ko 'he scrapes it'
- CC + V + C → mʔe-t-no 'lightning strikes him'
- C + V + ʔs or sʔ/ lʔ/ jʔ → jam-xoʔs 'I paint his face'
Grammar and morphology
Morphological terms that are important for Tonkawa:
- Morpheme – the smallest unit of sound that has meaning
These are distinguished by hyphens. Example: ka-la 'mouth'
- Affixation or Affixes – this includes prefixes, suffixes, and infixes
The morphemes in Tonkawa can be divided as follows:
- Free – the stem can stand alone
- Bound – the stem must have a suffix or prefix attached; it cannot stand alone
In Tonkawa the theme is composed of morphologic units. The basic unit is the stem. The stem is composed of two elements (the consonant and vowel) and modified by affixes. The theme, or stem, is functional, which means it changes as more affixation is added. This leads to the fusion of the stem and affix where it becomes difficult to isolate the word into its smaller units.
- Transformative – the affix changes the meaning and/or function of the word
- Verbal – the affix changes a certain aspect of the verb
- Noun and Pronoun – the affix changes a certain aspect of the noun or pronoun
Unlike English, where the pronouns, nouns, verbs, etc. are individual words, Tonkawa forms these parts of speech in a different manner. In Tonkawa, the most important grammatical function is affixation. This process shows the subjects, objects, and pronouns of words and/or verbs. Within affixations, the suffix has more importance than the prefix.
The differenation between subject and object is shown in the word ending, aka the suffix. While the word order tends to be subject, object, verb (SOV), compounding words is very common in Tonkawa. Reduplication is very common in Tonkawa and affects only the verb themes. Usually only one syllable is duplicated, and this duplication symbolizes a repeated action, vigorous action, or a plural subject.
Nouns function as free themes, or stems, in Tonkawa. There is a limit of only two or three affixes that can compound with a noun. However, there are cases were a bound theme can occur in noun compounds. This occurs with the suffix -an is added. In English, pronouns and nouns are usually grouped together, but because pronouns in Tonkawa are bound themes, they will be discussed with the verb section.
|Case||Indefinite (singular/plural)||Definite (singular/plural)|
|Nominative||-la/ -ka||-ʔaːla/ -ʔaːka|
|Accusative||-lak/ -kak||-ʔaːlak/ -ʔaːkak|
|Instrumental||-es / -kas||-aːlas/ -ʔaːkay|
|Vocative||(bare stem)||(bare stem)|
Verbs are bound morphemes that have a limit of only two themes, of which the 2nd theme is the modifying theme. The 2nd theme usually serves an adverbial theme. However, if the suffix -ʔe/-wa is added the verb functions as a free theme.
Pronouns are only used for emphasis on the subject and are affixated as prefixes. Person and number are usually indicated by the affixation of the verb. Most pronouns are bound themes, especially the demonstrative pronouns.
|Personal Pronoun||Tonkawa Personal Pronoun||English Personal Pronoun|
|1st person singular||saː-||me|
|2nd person singular||naː-||you|
|3rd person singular||ʔa-||him/her|
|1st person plural||kew-saː-||we/us|
|2nd person plural||we-naː-||you pl./them|
Demonstrative adverbs can be formed by adding -ca 'place', -l 'direction', -c 'manner' to the demonstrative pronouns below. Example: waː 'that one aforementioned' + ca 'place = 'waː-ca 'that place aforementioned'
Interrogative pronouns can be formed by adding the prefix he- to the demonstrative pronouns as well, using the same format for the demonstrative adverbs. Example: he 'interrogative' + teː 'this' + l 'direction' = he-teː-l 'where'
Indefinite pronouns can also be formed with affixation. (Interrogative + ʔax) Example: hecuː 'what' + ʔax = hecuː-ʔax 'anything, something, anyone, someone'
|Tonkawa Demonstrative||English Demonstrative|
|waː-||the one aforementioned|
|heʔe/ heʔeː/ heː||that|
|weː||(that) one yonder|
Also within the verbal-prefix category exist the causatives ya- and nec-, where ya- is the older form.
Verb suffixes are important in Tonkawa because they usually indicate the tense, negativity, and manner (outside of that which is conveyed in the aforementioned prefixes) of the action performed.
|-ape/-ap||Negation suffix||follows after the theme; except when 2nd person plural object pronoun is present (follows after the 2nd person plural object pronoun)|
|-nesʔe/ -nesʔ||Dual subject suffix||follows the negation suffix, future tense suffix, and 2nd person plural object pronoun|
|-wesʔe/ -weʔ||Plural subject suffix||same position as the dual subject; occurs in the 1st and 2nd person in all modes|
|-aːtew/ -aːto||Future tense suffix||after the stem/theme (present tense: -ʔe or just -ʔ; past tense: -ʔej or -ʔeːje)|
|-no/ -n||Continuative suffix||after the stem|
|-we/ -oː/ -o||declarative mode suffix||after the present or past tense|
|-kʷa||Exclamatory suffix||after the 3rd person singular or at the end of the word|
|-w||Imperative mode||only in the singular, dual, or 2nd person plural|
Enclitics are bound morphemes that are suffixed to verbs, nouns, and demonstratives that end with -k. Enclitics often express modal concepts in Tonkawa, which occur in the declarative, interrogative, and quotative/narrative clauses or statements.
|Declarative||-aw or -aːwe|
|Interrogative||-je or -jelkʷa||both take the ʔ suffix unless there is an interrogative pronoun|
|Quotative/ Narrative||-noʔo/ -laknoʔo||only added to verb forms with –k suffix and if the verb is used in telling a mythical story|
|' or ?||/ʔ/|
Long vowels are indicated with a following middle dot ⟨·⟩. The affricate /ts/ is written ⟨c⟩. The glottal stop /ʔ/ is written as either an apostrophe ⟨'⟩ or as a superscript question mark ⟨?⟩. The palatal glide /j/ is written ⟨y⟩.
The phonemic orthography used in Hoijer's Tonkawa Texts is a later version of Americanist transcription. It uses a colon for long vowels ⟨:⟩ and the traditional glottal stop symbol ⟨ʔ⟩. Examples are mummun 'salt' and mummunchicew 'pepper'.
The following text is the first four sentences of Coyote and Jackrabbit, from Hoijer's Tonkawa Texts.
- ha·csokonayla ha·nanoklaknoˀo xamˀalˀa·yˀik. ˀe·kʷa tanmaslakʷa·low hecne·laklaknoˀo lak. ha·csokonayla "ˀo·c!" noklaknoˀo. "ˀekʷanesxaw sa·ken nenxales!" noklaknoˀo. ˀe·ta tanmaslakʷa·lowa·ˀa·lak hewleklaknoˀo.
- Coyote / he was going along, S / on the prairie. When he did so / Jackrabbit / he was lying, S / (accus.). Coyote / "Oho!" / he said, S. "Horse /my / I have found it!" / he said, S. And then / that Jackrabbit afm / he caught him, S.
In this gloss, S is an abbreviation for "it is said", and afm for "the aforementioned".
- Hoijer, Harry. (1933). Tonkawa: An Indian language of Texas. New York: Columbia University. (Extract from Handbook of American Indian languages, Vol. 3).
- Hoijer, Harry. (1946). Tonkawa. in Harry Hoijer et al., Linguistic Structures of Native America, 289–311.
- Hoijer, Harry. (1949). An Analytical Dictionary of the Tonkawa Language. Berkeley, CA: University of California Publications in Linguistics 5.
- Hoijer, Harry. (1972). Tonkawa Texts. Berkeley, CA: University of California Publications in Linguistics 73.
- Gatschet, Albert Samuel (1876). Zwölf Sprachen aus dem südwesten Nordamerikas (Pueblos- und Apache-mundarten; Tonto, Tonkawa, Digger, Utah.) Wortverzeichnisse herausgegeben, erläutert und mit einer Einleitung über Bau, Begriffsbildung und locale Gruppierung der amerikanischen Sprachen (in German). Weimar, Germany: H. Bohlau. Retrieved 2012-09-23.
- Kisseberth, Charles. (1970). Vowel Elision in Tonkawa and Derivational Constraints. In: Sadock, J.L., & A.L. Vanek (Eds), Studies Presentend to Robert B. Lees by his students. Champaign, IL: Linguistic Research, 109–137.
- Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The Languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
- Noske, Roland. (1993). A Theory of Syllabification and Segmental Alternation. With studies on the phonology of French, German, Tonkawa and Yawelmani. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
- Phelps, Elaine F. (1973). Tonkawa, Sundanese and Kasem. Some problems in Generative Phonology. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle.
- Phelps, Elaine F. (1975). Iteration and Disjunctive Domains in Phonology. Linguistic Analysis 1, 137–172.
- "The Tonkawa Language: Pronunciation Key". Retrieved October 12, 2005.