Tony Cohen

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Tony Cohen
Tony Cohen record producer audio engineer.png
Tony Cohen in 1993, interviewed for Nomad, SBS-TV
Background information
Birth nameAnthony Lawrence Cohen
Born(1957-06-04)4 June 1957
Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Died2 August 2017(2017-08-02) (aged 60)
Dandenong, Victoria, Australia
Genres
Occupation(s)
Years active1975–2017
Labels

Anthony Lawrence Cohen (4 June 1957 – 2 August 2017) was an Australian music record producer and sound engineer. He worked with Nick Cave's groups the Birthday Party, and then the Bad Seeds from 1979 to 2001. In mid-1986 he had followed Cave to London and then onto Berlin, in January 1987, to continue to work on their material. At the ARIA Music Awards of 1994 Cohen won Producer of the Year for The Cruel Sea's second album, The Honeymoon Is Over (May 1993). At the 1995 ceremony he won Producer of the Year and Engineer of the Year for the Cruel Sea's Three Legged Dog. Cohen had been a long-term alcohol and drug user, his health deteriorated in the 2010s and he died in 2017 at Dandenong Hospital, aged 60. In November 2017 he was posthumously inducted into the Music Victoria Hall of Fame.

Biography[edit]

Anthony Lawrence Cohen was born on 4 June 1957 in Melbourne.[1]: 1  His father, Philip Cohen, was an Australian son of Jewish migrants from Manchester, Philip had converted to Roman Catholicism before marrying, Margaret, who was an Australian of Irish descent.[1]: 1–2  He grew up in suburban East Ringwood where he attended St Francis de Sales Primary School.[1]: 1  The family moved to Mentone with a younger sibling, where Cohen was enrolled at St Bede's College for his secondary education.[1]: 4  While at Bede's he started taking drugs including marijuana/hash, amytal and LSD, which adversely affected his academic progress.[1]: 3–5  Cohen started to play the drums when the family had moved to the neighbouring suburb of Cheltenham and formed a friendship with fellow aspiring drummer, Chris Thompson.[1]: 7  He later recalled, "Neither of us were very good drummers I might admit but we shared a mutual love of music and playing."[1]: 7 

Cohen, aged 15, joined a rock, glam rock band, Epitaph, on drums for a year.[1]: 9–12  He bought a four-track recorder to tape their work and then taped other local groups.[1]: 12  During school holidays in mid-1973 he spent two weeks doing work experience at Armstrong Studios. His friend Thompson went along for a day and both decided on a career in the recording studio. After work experianece he refused to return to school but continued at the studios, "No one said anything, so I stayed."[1]: 13  For two years he was a "shit-kicker", and started by, "cleaning the toilets and getting the lunches and stuff, and then got promoted to mono dubbing boy."[1]: 15  By 1975 Cohen began working as a sound engineer under the guidance of Roger Savage.[1]: 15  In April of the following year he was working as an assistant record producer, alongside Molly Meldrum, on Perth's glam rock group, Supernaut's lead single, "I Like It Both Ways" (May 1976).[2] Cohen produced the group's associated self-titled album, which appeared in November of that year, and its follow-up single, "Too Hot to Touch" (September).[3]

In July 1976 Cohen and fellow engineer, Ian MacKenzie, met with Meldrum to organise the production of pop group, the Ferrets' debut album, Dreams of a Love: "It was all a bit of Elton John, a bit of the 'Real Thing', [Meldrum] called us in for a production meeting 9:00 in the morning at his place and he was still in bed [...] and putting the music on [...] very, very loud and then proceeds to shout at you over the top of it, and we were all sitting there sort of terrified thinking, what on earth is he saying?"[4] After a year production was still incomplete so the Ferrets took over, together with Cohen and MacKenzie assisting.[5] It was finalised in August 1977 and released in October with Meldrum credited as Willie Everfinish.[5][6]

In June 1978 Cohen started working with the Boys Next Door (later renamed the Birthday Party), as engineer at Richmond Recorders on their debut album, Door, Door (1979). He then engineered the Birthday Party's early extended play, Hee Haw (December 1979). Next he was the engineer and producer, on their second album, The Birthday Party (November 1980).[3][7][8] He was engineer and producer for their third album, Junkyard (May 1982), which was listed in the book, 100 Best Australian Albums at number 17.[9]: 72–3  Cohen told the authors that he was directed, "Forget all the bottom end and the rich, lush sounds. Make it sound like trash."[9]: 72–3  He continued as engineer and/or producer for the group's leader, Nick Cave, in the related group, Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds. From From Her to Eternity (18 June 1984) to No More Shall We Part (2 April 2001).[3][10] Cohen followed the group to London in mid-1986 and then on to Berlin in January 1987 to continue to work with Cave.[1]: 113, 120 [11] He returned to Melbourne in January 1988 with his drug habit "spiraling out of control."[1]: 137 

Cohen reflected on his early work with Cave, in an interview with Richard Fidler in September 2006, "[it] was all very experimental then, because we were all learning – I fell in love with this new way of recording... because there were no rules. We were looking for sounds that made your fillings drop out rather than pleasant pop tunes, so we got to do crazy things like find concrete stairwells and abuse equipment, so it was all very attractive for me. Some of it didn't work, but as history has shown Nick really honed his craft, he's done some brilliant records... some of the early stuff was a bit rough but it was a learning curve then."[4] Ed Nimmervoll, an Australian music journalist and editor of Rock Australia Magazine, recalled "Nick Cave's Birthday Party were allowed to take up some of the studio time slack. Rather than [go] home, their producer Tony Cohen slept in the air conditioning duct."[12]

A long-term working relationship had also been established with Tex Perkins, starting with the singer's alternative rock group, Beasts of Bourbon's 1984 album, The Axeman's Jazz.[13] Cohen had engineered and produced it during a single eight-hour session at Paradise Studios in Sydney, in October of the previous year, with label boss Roger Grierson as executive producer.[3][13] According to Australian musicologist, Ian McFarlane, "Legend has it that the session was fuelled by 72 cans of beer and one bottle of Scotch, and that it only ended when the band members began passing out!"[13] He produced their next studio album, The Low Road, (December 1991). In the following year he was their engineer, producer and mixer for a five-track EP, Just Right, which had been recorded live at the Prince of Wales Hotel in May 1991 by Cohen's childhood friend, Chris Thompson.[14]

Cohen's services were used for Perkins' next band the Cruel Sea on their second studio album, This Is Not the Way Home (October 1991). He was nominated at the ARIA Music Awards of 1993 for Producer of the Year for that album and for "Get Thee to a Nunnery", a track on TISM's EP, The Beasts of Suburban (20 July 1992).[15] He worked for an ad hoc country blues trio of Perkins, Don Walker and Charlie Owen, as Tex, Don and Charlie on their debut album, Sad But True (November 1993).[9]: 218–9  While recording that album he was interviewed in the studio by Kerry Negara, the director of SBS-TV's Nomad. At the following year's ARIA Awards ceremony he won Producer of the Year for the Cruel Sea's third album, The Honeymoon Is Over (May 1993).[15][9]: 174–5 

In 1995 he won both Engineer of the Year and Producer of the Year.[15] Over the previous 18 months – the eligibility period – Cohen had produced Let Love In (Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds, 18 April 1994),[16] You Wanna Be There But You Don't Wanna Travel (Dave Graney 'n' the Coral Snakes, June 1994), Parables for Wooden Ears (Powderfinger, 18 July 1994), Livin' Lazy (Maurice Frawley and Working Class Ringos, 1994), Three Legged Dog (the Cruel Sea, April 1995),[17] Kim Salmon and the Surrealists (Kim Salmon and the Surrealists, April 1995) and Mouth to Mouth (the Blackeyed Susans, July 1995).[3][10][18]

In the 2000s Cohen's name started appearing less regularly on album credits. During 2003 he worked as a remix engineer on Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds' old master tapes for Stephen Petronio's contemporary dance work, Underland.[19] Cave was unable to provide new tracks for the project due to time conflicts but allowed his material to be used.[19] Cohen had effectively retired in 2004–2005. He emerged in 2017 to produce Augie March's album Bootikins, as he had always wanted to work with the group. He died unexpectedly before the album's sessions concluded, and Augie March leader Glenn Richards stated "It still amazes me that we got a chance to work with the man. The moments are ours and we will cherish them ... He got us feeling like and playing like a real band again after a long interim, and we made some very good music together."[20] In November 2017 Cohen was posthumously inducted into the Music Victoria Hall of Fame.[21]

Personal life[edit]

Tony Cohen had an on-again off-again relationship with Joanne from mid-1981, she had been Chris Thompson's girlfriend when they met. They lived together initially in Elsternwick, then Sydney and back, again.[1]: 59–61, 100  His drug habit now included amphetamine and heroin.[1]: 59–61  By early 1983 Cohen was also dating a different woman, Josephine, whom he married on 28 May 1983, in Melbourne.[1]: 100  According to his sibling, "I don't think Tony ever had a distinct line between dumping one girl and getting on with another."[1]: 100  The couple moved to Sydney in late 1983 and then back to Melbourne in July of the following year.[1]: 109  Cohen and Josephine relocated to London in mid-1986 before they separated (and later divorced). He then moved to Berlin in January 1987,[1]: 113–4, 120  and returned to Australian early in the next year.[1]: 137 

Early in 1991 Cohen began a relationship with Astrid Munday, a vocalist for country music groups Killer Sheep and then Desert Boot.[1]: 138, 146  After living together in Sydney they moved in with Cohen's parents at their rural property at Kongwak, Victoria in November 1991.[1]: 147  At different times he attempted to curb his alcohol and drug dependencies.[1]: 149  The couple returned to Melbourne in February 1992.[1]: 151–2  Cohen had earlier been diagnosed with hepatitis C, then pancreatitis (September 1992) and diabetes (October).[1]: 157  At the ARIA Music Awards of 1995 he had a hypoglycaemic event, "just as they announced my name so I was in the suit and everything and sweat was just dripping off me so I had to go and hide up the back and Molly was standing on the seat going 'Where are you? Tony, where are you?' So it wasn't a great memory for me... I couldn't get up on stage and make a speech... you know, my blood sugar had dropped and I was a mess; such a shame."[1]: 167 

In late 2000 Cohen and Munday moved to London, where he worked on No More Shall We Part (April 2001) for Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds, while Munday worked as a temporary teacher.[1]: 171–2  By that stage Cohen's diabetes was worsening and his studio attendances became erratic. After the recording sessions ended he struggled to get further work in London and so returned to Melbourne.[1]: 171–4  By 2004 or 2005 he was in semi-retirement, "In a bid to rid himself of a renewed taste for drugs and to revive his ailing health."[1]: 178 

His health continued to deteriorate into the 2010s. Tony Cohen died on 2 August 2017 at Dandenong Hospital, aged 60.[18][22] Although no cause of death was reported, his sibling recalled, "Tony lived a hard life with drugs and alcohol playing a big part of his professional career. He did give them up many years ago but always knew that he would eventually pay for his 'sins'."[18][23] Conversely, "we were like chalk and cheese. But, I loved him and fully respect what he achieved in his career. He was technically brilliant, but also a caring, big-hearted man."[18] Upon the inclusion of Cohen's work in the Australian Music Vault, his mother Margaret stated, "it wasn't until his untimely death, that I was made aware of the esteem that he was held in by so many people. I am proud of his contribution to the rock and roll music industry here and all that he achieved through his life."[16] A suitcase of cassette tapes he used as back-ups of recordings was donated to the vault.[16] Munday released an album with material dedicated to her husband, Beauty in the Ordinary, in August 2020.[24]

Technical works[edit]

List of technical works by Tony Cohen including audio engineer, record producer or mixer.

Year Artist(s) Work Role(s) Ref.
1976 Supernaut Supernaut Engineer, producer [3]
1977 The Ferrets Dreams of a Love Engineer, assistant producer [3]
1978 The Ferrets Fame at any Price Engineer, producer [3]
Various Artists Wildlife (soundtrack) Engineer, producer [3]
1979 The Boys Next Door Door, Door Engineer [10]
The Birthday Party Hee Haw (EP) Engineer [7]
1980 The Birthday Party The Birthday Party Engineer, producer [3][8]
James Freud Breaking Silence Producer [3]
Models Alphabravocharliedeltaechofoxtrotgolf Engineer, producer [25]
1981 The Birthday Party Prayers on Fire Engineer, producer [3][10]
The Zorros "Too Young", "Let Me Love You" (single) Producer [3]
Models Cut Lunch Producer [3]
The Go-Betweens Send Me a Lullaby Engineer, producer [10][26]
Serious Young Insects "Trouble Understanding Words" (single) Producer [3]
1982 Hunters & Collectors World of Stone (EP)
"Hammer the Hammer" (single)
Engineer, producer [3]
The Birthday Party Junkyard Engineer, producer [9]: 72–3 [27]
Hunters & Collectors Hunters & Collectors Engineer [28]
Tuff Monks "After the Fireworks" (single) Producer [3]
Pel Mel Out of Reason Engineer, producer [29][30]
1983 The Moodists Engine Shudder (EP) Producer [3]
The Birthday Party The Bad Seed (EP) Producer [3]
The Reels Pitt Street Farmers (EP) Producer [3]
Pel Mel Persuasion Producer [3]
The Birthday Party Mutiny! (EP) Producer [3]
1984 Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds From Her to Eternity Engineer [10]
Sacred Cowboys Sacred Cowboys (EP) Producer [3]
Pel Mel O.D.R. Producer [3]
The Beasts of Bourbon The Axeman's Jazz Producer [3]
Cold Chisel Twentieth Century Engineer [10]
The Olympic Sideburns "13th Floor" (single) Producer [3]
The Spaniards "God Is a Shield" (single) Producer [3]
1985 Sacred Cowboys We Love You... Of Course We Do Producer [3]
X At Home with You Engineer [31]
1986 Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds Kicking Against the Pricks Engineer, producer [3][10]
Crime & the City Solution Room of Lights Producer [3]
Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds Your Funeral... My Trial Engineer, producer [3][10]
1987 Jeremy Gluck I Knew Buffalo Bill Producer [10][32]
1988 Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds Tender Prey Engineer, mixer, producer [3][10]
Sacred Cowboys Trouble from Providence Producer [3]
Crime & the City Solution Shine Producer [3]
Wild Pumpkins at Midnight Wild Pumpkins at Midnight Producer [3]
1989 Phil Shöenfelt Charlotte's Room (EP) Producer [10]
1991 The Beasts of Bourbon The Low Road Producer [3]
The Cruel Sea This Is Not the Way Home Producer, engineer [3][10]
1992 Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds Henry's Dream Engineer, mixer [10]
Falling Joys Psychohum Producer [3]
TISM "Get Thee to a Nunnery" Producer [15]
Mixed Relations T.I.O.L.I. (EP)
"Take It or Leave It" (single)
Producer [3]
Straitjacket Fits Done Producer [33]
These Immortal Souls I'm Never Gonna Die Again Producer [10]
1993 Wild Pumpkins at Midnight Sick Producer [3]
Mixed Relations "Love" (single) Producer [3]
Dave Graney 'n' the Coral Snakes Night of the Wolverine Producer [3]
Things of Stone and Wood The Yearning Mixing [10]
Kim Salmon and the Surrealists Sin Factory Producer [3]
Tiddas Sing About Life Producer [3]
Tex, Don and Charlie Sad but True Producer [9]: 218–9 
Anita Lane Dirty Pearl Engineer, mixer [10]
1994 Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds Let Love In Engineer, mixer, producer [10]
Dave Graney 'n' the Coral Snakes You Wanna Be There But You Don't Wanna Travel Producer [3]
Powderfinger Parables for Wooden Ears Producer [3]
Paul Kelly Wanted Man Engineer [10]
Maurice Frawley and Working Class Ringos Livin' Lazy Producer [3]
1995 The Cruel Sea Three Legged Dog Engineer, producer [3][10]
Kim Salmon and the Surrealists Kim Salmon and the Surrealists Producer [3][10]
The Blackeyed Susans Mouth to Mouth Engineer, mixer, producer [3][10]
Mick Harvey Intoxicated Man Engineer, producer [3][10]
Louis Tillett and Charlie Owen | Midnight Rain Producer [34]
Hugo Race & The True Spirit Valley of Light Mixer, producer [3][10]
1996 Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds Murder Ballads Mixer, producer [3][10]
The Bhagavad Guitars Introversion/Extroversion Engineer, producer [35]
Wild Pumpkins at Midnight Sad Trees Producer [3][10]
Frenzal Rhomb Not So Tough Now Producer [3][10]
Various Artists Scream: Music from the Dimension Motion Picture (soundtrack) Producer [10][36]
Delicatessen Hustle into Bed Producer [37]
1997 Wild Pumpkins at Midnight The Secret of the Sad Tree Producer [3]
Mick Harvey Pink Elephants Engineer, mixer, producer [3][10]
1998 Astrid Munday Astrid Munday Producer [3][10]
Working Class Ringoes Working Class Ringoes Producer [3]
2000 Astrid Munday Apparition Mixer, producer [3][10]
Tex Perkins Dark Horses Producer [3]
2001 Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds No More Shall We Part Engineer, mixer, producer [3][10]
2002 The Chucky Monroes Fallen Angel Producer [38]
Rosie Westbrook Wave Producer [3]
2003 Nick Cave Underland Remix engineer [19]
2006 Astrid Munday Sunshine and Promises Mixer, producer [10]
Souls on Board Souls on Board (EP) Mixer, producer [39]
Muzza Monroe and the Lushous Strings In Your Hand Producer
2008 Fur Patrol Local Kid Producer [40]
2018 Augie March Bootikins Producer [20]

Awards and nominations[edit]

Four albums which Cohen worked on are listed in the book, 100 Best Australian Albums (2010): the Birthday Party's Junkyard (May 1982) at No. 17,[9]: 72–3  the Cruel Sea's The Honeymoon Is Over (May 1993) at No. 63,[9]: 174–5  Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds' Tender Prey (September 1988) at No. 83,[9]: 216–7  and Tex, Don and Charlie's Sad But True (November 1993) at No. 84.[9]: 218–9 

ARIA Music Awards[edit]

Year Nominee / work Award Result Ref.
1993 The Cruel SeaThis Is Not the Way Home
TISM – "Get Thee to a Nunnery
Producer of the Year Nominated [15]
1994 The Cruel Sea – The Honeymoon Is Over Producer of the Year Won [15][41]
1995 himself, Paul McKercher – The Cruel Sea – Three Legged Dog Engineer of the Year Won [15][42][17]
himself – The Cruel Sea – Three Legged Dog Producer of the Year Won [15][17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Blair, Dale (August 2017). "Life in a Padded Cell: A Biography of Tony Cohen, Australian Sound Engineer" (PDF). Dale Blair. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 December 2021. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
  2. ^ Alchin, Mark (November 1976). Nimmervoll, Ed (ed.). "Supernaut: Too hot to be touched". Rock Australia Magazine (48). p. 7.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk Holmgren, Magnus; Cohen, Tony; Regner, Volker. "Tony Cohen". Australian Rock Database. Archived from the original on 14 May 2004. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  4. ^ a b Fidler, Richard (6 September 2006). "Tony Cohen and Andrew West". Conversations with Richard Fidler. Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC). Retrieved 6 June 2015.
  5. ^ a b "The Quirks That Made It Work". The Sydney Morning Herald. 5 August 2006. Archived from the original on 31 July 2020. Retrieved 20 November 2020.
  6. ^ McFarlane 'The Ferrets' entry. Archived from the original on 9 August 2004. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
  7. ^ a b Boys Next Door; Cave, Nick; Howard, Rowland S; Pew, Tracy; Harvey, Mick; Calvert, Phil (April 1979), Hee Haw, Missing Link Records. National Library of Australia, retrieved 4 June 2015
  8. ^ a b McFarlane 'The Birthday Party' entry. Archived from the original on 9 August 2004. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j O'Donnell, John; Creswell, Toby; Mathieson, Craig (October 2010). 100 Best Australian Albums. Prahran, Vic: Hardie Grant Books. ISBN 978-1-74066-955-9.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag "Tony Cohen | Credits". AllMusic. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  11. ^ Coelli, Andree (2 July 1987). "Blue Ruin Rising Quietly". The Canberra Times. National Library of Australia. p. 15. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  12. ^ Nimmervoll, Ed (February 2013). "Armstrong Studios". Music Industrapedia. Facebook. Ed Nimmervoll. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  13. ^ a b c McFarlane, 'Beasts of Bourbon' entry. Archived from the original Archived 9 August 2004 at the Wayback Machine on 20 April 2004. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
  14. ^ "Just Right / Beasts of Bourbon". Trove. National Library of Australia. 1992. Retrieved 20 November 2020.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h "17th Annual ARIA Awards". Australian Recording Industry Association (ARIA). Archived from the original on 23 February 2004. Retrieved 5 June 2015. Note: User may be required to access archived information by selecting 'The History', then 'By Award', 'Producer of the Year' or 'Engineer of the Year' and 'Option Show Nominations'.
  16. ^ a b c Harris, David (23 February 2019). "Tash Sultana, Michael Gudinski and Late Tony Cohen welcomed into the Australian Music Vault". Australian Music Vault. Archived from the original on 11 March 2020. Retrieved 20 November 2020 – via National Library of Australia. Note: this source states that Cohen's 1995 ARIA Artisan Awards were both for Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds' album, Let Love In.
  17. ^ a b c Blair, Dale (August 2017). "Life in a Padded Cell: A Biography of Tony Cohen, Australian Sound Engineer" (PDF). Dale Blair. p. 167. Retrieved 17 November 2020. Note: this source states that Cohen's 1995 ARIA Artisan Awards were both for the Cruel Sea's album, Three Legged Dog. He shared Engineer of the Year with Paul McKercher.
  18. ^ a b c d Boulton, Martin (3 August 2017). "Tony Cohen, Australian Record Producer and 'Sound of Melbourne', Dies, Aged 60". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 5 August 2017. Retrieved 20 November 2020.
  19. ^ a b c Nicolson, Mairi (13 July 2003). "Sunday Morning - 13/07/2003: The Maker: Tony Cohen". Radio National (Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC)). Archived from the original on 25 October 2003. Retrieved 23 November 2020 – via National Library of Australia.
  20. ^ a b Collins, Pádraig (26 February 2018). "Augie March: Bootikins review – an exceptional rumination on time passing". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 6 August 2018. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  21. ^ "Previous Winners". Music Victoria. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  22. ^ staff writer (3 August 2017). "Legendary Aussie Producer & Sound Engineer Tony Cohen Dies Aged 60". theMusic.com.au. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  23. ^ Collins, 3 August 2017 (3 August 2017). "Oz rock producer Tony Cohen dies, aged 60". The West Australian. Retrieved 23 November 2020.
  24. ^ Mordue, Mark (11 September 2020). "Listen: Astrid Munday's album Beauty in the Ordinary". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 11 September 2020. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  25. ^ McFarlane, Ian (1999). "Encyclopedia entry for 'Models'". Encyclopedia of Australian Rock and Pop. Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-86448-768-2.
  26. ^ The Go-Betweens (November 1981), Send Me a Lullaby, Missing Link. National Library of Australia, retrieved 5 June 2015
  27. ^ The Birthday Party (1981), Junkyard, Shock Records. National Library of Australia, retrieved 4 June 2015
  28. ^ "Hunters and Collectors – Hunters and Collectors". humanfrailty.com.au. True Believers. Retrieved 8 June 2015.
  29. ^ Phares, Heather (19 July 1982). "Heather Talks to Some Females on the Major Rock Circuit to Get a 'Birds Eye View'". Tharunka. 28 (8). p. 18. Retrieved 18 November 2020 – via National Library of Australia.
  30. ^ McFarlane, Ian (1999). "Encyclopedia entry for 'Pel Mel'". Encyclopedia of Australian Rock and Pop. St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-86448-768-2. Archived from the original on 8 September 2002.
  31. ^ "X-Discography". austarmetro.com.au. Archived from the original on 11 October 2002. Retrieved 23 November 2020 – via National Library of Australia.
  32. ^ "I Knew Buffalo Bill Featuring Jeremy Gluck & Nikki Sudden". spritechuk.tripod.com. Retrieved 23 November 2020.
  33. ^ "Release Done by Straitjacket Fits". MusicBrainz. Retrieved 8 June 2015.
  34. ^ "Louis Tillett Discography". Louis Tillett Homepage. Archived from the original on 28 January 1999. Retrieved 23 November 2020 – via National Library of Australia.
  35. ^ "Bhagavad Guitars – Introversion/Extraversion". Karmic Hit. 1996. Archived from the original on 20 July 2008. Retrieved 23 November 2020 – via National Library of Australia.
  36. ^ "Scream Original Soundtrack". AllMusic. All Media Guide. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  37. ^ Cummings, Bill (14 February 2014). "Interview: Delicatessen". God Is in the TV. Archived from the original on 20 March 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2020.
  38. ^ Pants. "The Chucky Monroes – Fallen Angel – Laughing Outlaw". Oz Music Project. Archived from the original on 9 August 2006. Retrieved 3 July 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  39. ^ "Souls on Board License to Low Transit Industries". Jager Uprising. May 2005. Archived from the original on 11 July 2005. Retrieved 23 November 2020 – via National Library of Australia.
  40. ^ Jenkin, Lydia (June–July 2008). "Fur Patrol – The Comeback Kids". New Zealand Music Magazine. NZ Musician. 14 (4). Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 8 June 2015.
  41. ^ Baker, Glenn A. (16 April 1994). "New Artists, Indie Labels Dominate Australian Music Awards". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media: 51. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
  42. ^ "Winners by Year 1995". Australian Recording Industry Association (ARIA). Archived from the original on 26 September 2007. Retrieved 19 October 2020. Note: only lists the artisans for 1995

External links[edit]