Tony Jay

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Tony Jay
Born(1933-02-02)2 February 1933[1]
London, England
Died13 August 2006(2006-08-13) (aged 73)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Resting placeForest Lawn Memorial Park, Hollywood Hills
EducationPinner County Grammar School
Years active1966–2006
Marta MacGeraghty
(m. 2004)

Tony Jay (2 February 1933[1] – 13 August 2006)[2] was a British actor. A former member of the Royal Shakespeare Company, he was known for his voice work in radio, animation, film, and video games.[3] Jay was particularly noted for his distinctive baritone voice, which often led to him being cast in villainous or authoritative roles.[4] He was best known as the voice of Claude Frollo in Disney's The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1996),[4] Megabyte in ReBoot (1994–2001), Shere Khan in The Jungle Book 2 and the TV series TaleSpin (replacing George Sanders, who played the character in the original film), and the Elder God (plus various other roles) in the Legacy of Kain series of video games.[3]

Jay also made many distinguished on-screen appearances, including the role of Nigel St John on Lois and Clark: The New Adventures of Superman (1993–1995). He further made guest appearances on programs including The Golden Girls in 1987, Twin Peaks in 1990 to 1991, and Night Court in 1991.[5] His most prominent onscreen role, however, is that of Professor Werner in Twins (1988), the father figure/mentor to Arnold Schwarzenegger's character, Julius Benedict.[3]

Early life[edit]

Jay was born in London. He attended Pinner County Grammar School,[6] and completed his National Service with the Royal Air Force in 1953.[7] He later recalled, "I was always an actor at school"; but opted for the financial security of a real estate business. Jay moved to South Africa in about 1966,[8] after hearing of the potential there for his line of work.[9] He left South Africa to return to England in 1973, after which he moved to the United States in 1986.[3]


While establishing his real estate business in England, Jay acted occasionally in amateur productions.[9]

South Africa[edit]

Within three months of relocating to South Africa at the age of 33,[8][10] Jay found himself acting in radio dramas such as the detective series Sounds of Darkness where he played a savvy but blind FBI agent (1967–1972). The experience led him to decide to take acting up professionally.[3][8][9]

Jay acted, wrote, and directed radio plays on the South African Broadcasting Corporation's first commercial radio station, Springbok Radio (1950–85). He was especially associated with the comic series Taxi! (1969–1972,1975–1978), in which he not only portrayed New York cabby Red Kowalski, but also co-wrote many scripts with Joe Stewardson. Other shows in which he was involved included Lux Radio Theatre, Playhouse 90, and Tuesday Theatre.[11] Jay adapted, cast, and directed the first 6 months of episodes for The Avengers. The series, based on Seasons 4–6 of the 1960s British television series of the same name,[12] was broadcast on Springbok from 6 December 1971 to 28 December 1973.[13] To bridge the gap between the visual orientation of the British television series and the sound-only perspective of radio, Jay created a narrator which he embued with irony and scepticism.[14]

Jay's voice work led him to do commercials for companies such as Gunston Cigarettes, Barclays Bank, and Bols Brandy.[11]

United Kingdom[edit]

After Jay's return to Britain in 1973[9] he worked in various television productions.[12] For the BBC series Fall of Eagles (1974) he portrayed Tsar Alexander III of Russia, during which time he met Patrick Stewart, who played Vladimir Lenin.[7][9] Jay appeared as the merchant in Shakespeare's Timon of Athens (1981) for BBC Shakespeare, and in single episodes of popular television programmes such as The Sweeney (1975), The Professionals (1978) and the comedy Whoops Apocalypse (1982).[7]

During this period he was cast as Vladimir Maximovitch in Woody Allen's Love and Death (1975), which was shot in Hungary and France.[7] George Lucas met with Jay about playing Obi-Wan Kenobi in a planned film with the working title Galactic Warfare. Despite Jay agreeing to the role, Lucas decided to cast Alec Guinness, instead.[9]

On stage he had small roles in plays such as Anton Chekhov's The Three Sisters (1976) and Terence Rattigan's[15][16] The Deep Blue Sea (1981).[17][18] More important roles followed with an appearance as Jaggers in Great Expectations (1984) at the Old Vic,[19] and as Shylock in The Merchant of Venice.[3][7]

Jay was cast as Vincent Crummles in the Royal Shakespeare Company's 8+12-hour-long production of The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby (1986) at Stratford-upon-Avon.[20]

United States[edit]

After a tour of Britain, Nicholas Nickleby embarked on a limited tour of the United States, starting with performances in Los Angeles in June 1986, then on to Boston, Philadelphia, Washington, D.C., and New York City.[21] "Even before I left England, I told friends I'd be staying if I got the chance," he recalled in a 1986 The New York Times interview.[8]

During its run from August to October 1986 at the Broadhurst Theatre on Broadway, Jay's performance was described as "brilliantly played" by the New York Times.[22][23] Consequently, he was nominated for the 1987 Drama Desk Award as Outstanding Featured Actor in a Play.[24]

Jay's acting drew the attention of an agent who arranged for him to return from England to the United States for an audition. Jay was cast in a pilot program called Circus which was unsuccessful. On set Jay met make-up artist Kathy Rogers, who would become his second wife. He moved to the United States where he became a resident.[25]

In addition, Jay won parts in television series such as Night Court (1991), The Golden Girls (1987), Twins (1988), and Eerie, Indiana (1991). Bigger roles included Paracelsus on the 1987 CBS TV series adaptation of Beauty and the Beast; Minister Campio on Star Trek: The Next Generation (1992); and Lex Luthor's villainous aide-de-camp Nigel St. John in Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman (1993–95).[7]

Jay's voice-over work included Monsieur D'Arque, the amoral asylum superintendent, in Disney's 1991 hit animated film version of Beauty and the Beast. From 1994 to 2001 he supplied the voice for the virus Megabyte in the computer-animated television show ReBoot. According to one source,[26] Jay was preferred to Patrick Stewart, Derek Jacobi and Ian McKellen for the voice of the main antagonist Judge Claude Frollo in Disney's 1996 animated film adaptation of The Hunchback of Notre Dame, directed by Gary Trousdale and Kirk Wise, who had also steered his performance in the film version of Beauty and the Beast. Jay reprised Frollo's voice for Walt Disney World's nighttime light and fireworks show Fantasmic! From 1995 to 1996 Jay was the voice of the alien warlord Lord Dregg, the villain during the last two seasons of the original 1987 Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles animated TV series.

He is also well known among fans of the 1996–2003 video game series Legacy of Kain for his voicing of the original Mortanius and of the Elder God, alongside several other minor characters.[27]

In various animated projects Jay took over the voice of Shere Khan, which actor George Sanders had originated for the 1967 Disney animated film The Jungle Book. In 11 episodes spanning 1990–91, Jay voiced Shere Khan for Disney's animated TV series TaleSpin,[27] The Jungle Book: Rhythm and Groove videogame (2000), and House of Mouse (2001–02). His final appearance as Khan came in the 2003 film The Jungle Book 2. His final role was voicing Spiderus in the Miss Spider series.

Jay was a devotee of classic Broadway and made several recordings and performances of old-time Broadway lyrics, in spoken-word form. A CD of these readings, Speaking of Broadway, was released in 2005;[27] a version recorded in 1996 was entitled Poets on Broadway, as was his website. On it Jay recites lyrics written by the likes of Noël Coward, Ira Gershwin, and Oscar Hammerstein, accompanied by synthesized music which he composed.[28]

Personal life[edit]

Jay began a relationship with Marta MacGeraghty in 1974. They had a son, born in 1989. They did not marry until 2004, and remained together until Jay's death in 2006.[2]

Illness and death[edit]

In April 2006, Jay underwent surgery at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles to remove a non-cancerous tumor from his lungs.[7][29] Afterwards he became critically ill and was readmitted to Cedar Sinai, where he died on 13 August 2006, aged 73.[7][27] He is buried in Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Los Angeles, California.



Year Title Role Notes
1968 Majuba: Heuwel van Duiwe Uncredited
1969 Petticoat Safari Co-writer
1970 Lied in my hart Rudi
1970 Scotty & Co. Ginger Sid
1970 Sien Jou Môre Prof. Ivan Ullman (voiced by Danie Smuts)
1970 Taxi! Red Kowalski
1972 My Way Natie Kaplan
1972 Leatherlip Uncredited
1975 Love and Death Vladimir Maximovich
1977 My Way II Natie Kaplan
1978 The Greek Tycoon Doctor
1981 Time Bandits The Supreme Being Voice
1987 Little Dorrit Doctor
1988 Twins Professor Werner & The Narrator
My Stepmother Is an Alien Council Chief
1989 Asterix and the Big Fight Narrator Voice, English version
1991 Beauty and the Beast Monsieur D'Arque Voice
Beasties Frankie Direct-to-video
1992 Tom and Jerry: The Movie Lickboot the Lawyer Voice
1994 Thumbelina Bull Voice, uncredited
Scooby-Doo! in Arabian Nights Lord of the Amulet Voice, television film
1996 All Dogs Go to Heaven 2 Reginald Voice
The Hunchback of Notre Dame Judge Claude Frollo Voice
1998 The Rugrats Movie Dr. Werner Lipschitz Voice
An American Tail: The Treasure of Manhattan Island Mr. Toplofty Voice, direct-to-video
1999 Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged Me Narrator Voice, uncredited
2001 Recess: School's Out Dr. Rosenthal Voice
Race to Space Narrator Voice
2002 Treasure Planet Narrator Voice
2003 The Jungle Book 2 Shere Khan, the Tiger Voice
Rugrats Go Wild Dr. Werner Lipschitz Voice
2005 Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind Narrator Voice, Disney 2005 dub
2007 Albert Fish: In Sin He Found Salvation Narrator Voice, posthumous release
2011 Seek Producer Short, posthumous release


Year Title Role Notes
1974 Fall of Eagles Tsar Alexander III 2 episodes
1974 Justice Mr. Papalonios Episode: "Collision Course"
1974 The Case of Eliza Armstrong Henry Poland QC 1 episode
1975 Within These Walls Mr. Graham Episode: "Nowhere for the Kids"
1975 The Sweeney Lambourne Episode: "Golden Boy"
1975 Affairs of the Heart Sir Luke Strett 1 episode
1975 The Hanged Man Lazlo Episode: "Grail and Platter"
1975 Six Days of Justice Edwin Lovatt Episode: "Angelica"
1977 The XYY Man Jacob Mahler 2 episodes
1978 The Professionals Foreign Observer 1 Episode: "Blind Run"
1980 Escape Colonel Jalbout Episode: "Kim Philby"
1981 Timon of Athens Merchant Television film
1982 Whoops Apocalypse Bagatu Episode: "How to Get Rid of It"
1982 The Agatha Christie Hour Count Streptitch Episode: "Jane in Search of a Job"
1985 Dempsey and Makepeace Abe Moser Episode: "Armed and Extremely Dangerous"
1986 The Greatest Adventure: Stories from the Bible Caiaphas, Jerusalem Man No. 3, God 2 episodes
1987 Riviera Habib Television film
1987 The Golden Girls Laszlo Episode: "The Artist"
1987 Hunter Father Michaels Episode: "Allegra"
1988 Beverly Hills Buntz Sheik Mohammed Episode: "Buntz of the Desert"
1988 Circus Conrad Simpson TV Pilot
1989 Mr. Belvedere Captain Peel Episode: "Mutiny"
1988–1989 Beauty and the Beast Paracelsus 6 episodes
1989 The Smurfs Merlin Voice, Uncredited
1989 The New Lassie Mr. Shepherd Episode: "Once Upon a Time..."
1989 Newhart Reginald Wooster Episode: "Good Lord Loudon"
1989 The Easter Story Caiaphas, Jerusalem Man #3 Animated short
1990 Christine Cromwell Episode: "In Vino Veritas"
1990 His & Hers Dr. Zimmerman Episode: "Fear of Marriage"
1990 Rainbow Drive Max Hollister Television film
1990 Peter Pan and the Pirates Alf Mason Voice, 16 episodes
1990 The Adventures of Don Coyote and Sancho Panda Voice, episode: "Pity the Poor Pirate"
1991 Matlock John Bosley Hackett Episode: "The Critic"
1990–1991 Twin Peaks Dougie Milford 3 episodes
1990–1991 TaleSpin Mr. Shere Khan, Zoo Director, Elevator Guard, "Scottie" Jock Voice, 11 episodes
1991 Absolute Strangers Weisfeld Television film
1991 Murphy Brown Dr. Wade Benoit Episode: "Q & A on FYI"
1991 Eerie, Indiana Sir Boris von Orloff Episode: "Scariest Home Videos"
1991 Dynasty: The Reunion Dr. Jobinet 2 episodes
1991 Darkwing Duck Grim Reaper Voice, episode: "Dead Duck"
1991 Night Court Joseph Schiavelli Episode: "Guess Who's Listening to Dinner?"
1991 Who's the Boss? Paul Murphy Episode: "Grandmommie Dearest"
1991 Sisters Charles Dickens Episode: "Eggnog"
1991 Adventures in Odyssey Fred J. Faustus Voice, episode: "The Knight Travellers"
1991–1993 The Legend of Prince Valiant Cynan, Baron Alric, Magistrate Voice, 5 episodes
1992 Jonah Voice, 1 episode
1992 Star Trek: The Next Generation Third Minister Campio Episode: "Cost of Living"
1992 Tom & Jerry Kids Voice, episode: "Penthouse Mouse/12 Angry Sheep/The Ant Attack"
1992–2003 Rugrats Dr. Werner Lipschitz, Doctor, Rich Man, Wombat President, Narrator, Manager, Man with Car, Max, Dream Santa, Barney, Scientist #2, General Voice, 10 episodes
1993 Sonic the Hedgehog Guardian Voice, episode: "Super Sonic"; uncredited
1993 The Little Mermaid Wish Star Voice, episode: "Wish Upon a Starfish"
1993 Fugitive Nights: Danger in the Desert Television film
1993 The Adventures of Brisco County, Jr. Judge Silot Gatt Episode: "Brisco for the Defense"
1993 Fugitive Nights: Danger in the Desert Television film
1993 2 Stupid Dogs The Chief Voice, 13 episodes
1993–1994 Mighty Max Virgil/Narrator, Norman's Dad, Witch Doctor Voice, 40 episodes
1993–1995 Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman Nigel St. John 7 episodes
1994 Picket Fences Chief Rabbi Episode: "Squatter's Rights"
1994 Duckman Voice, episode: "Ride the High School"
1994 Scooby-Doo in Arabian Nights Voice, television film
1994 Beethoven Watson Voice, episode: "Scent of a Mutt/Down on the Farm"
1994–1995 Skeleton Warriors Golden Skull Voice, 13 episodes
1994–2001 ReBoot Megabyte Voice, 26 episodes
1995 Aladdin Sorcerer Voice, episode: "The Book of Khartoum"
1995 Aaahh!!! Real Monsters Frederick, Chief Voice, episode: "Eau de Krumm/O'Lucky Monster"
1994–1995 Fantastic Four Galactus, Terrax, Nauseated Man on TV Voice, 5 episodes
1995 Gargoyles Anubis Voice, Episode: "Grief"
1995 The Ghosts of Gettysburg Narrator Voice, uncredited
1995–1996 The Twisted Tales of Felix the Cat Peeping Duck, Jaggo Doughnut, Mr.Wizard 3 episodes
1996 Russia's Last Tsar Voice, National Geographic special
1996 Siegfried & Roy: Masters of the Impossible Voice
1996 Captain Planet and the Planeteers Yeti Voice, episode: "Twelve Angry Animals"
1996 Animaniacs Narrator Voice, episode: "Gunga Dot"
1996 Superman: The Animated Series Sul-Van Voice, episode: "The Last Son of Krypton"
1996 The Burning Zone The Chairman Episode: "The Silent Tower"
1996 Bruno the Kid Jarlesburg Voice, episode: "The Adventure Begins"
1994–1996 Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Lord Dregg Voice, 17 episodes
1994–1996 The Tick Chairface Chippendale Voice, 7 episodes
1996 Spider-Man Baron Mordo Voice, 3 episodes
1995–1996 The Savage Dragon Overlord, Mindwarp, Reporter Voice, 15 episodes
1996 The Making of Disney's 'The Hunchback of Notre Dame' Himself, Voice of Claude Frollo
1996 Pinky and the Brain Egyptian Priest Voice, episode: "The Mummy"
1996–1999 Jumanji The Master of Jumanji Voice
1997 Puss in Boots Narrator Voice, television film
1996–1997 Mighty Ducks Wraith Voice, 21 episodes
1997 Adventures from the Book of Virtues King Darius Voice, episode: "Faith "
1997[30] Doomsday: What Can We Do? Narrator Voice, TV documentary
1997 Extreme Ghostbusters Maiikrob Voice, episode: "Moby Ghost"
1997 What If? Narrator Voice, TV documentary
1998 Hollywood & Vinyl Himself 1 episode
1998 Recess King Arthur, Fence, St. Peter Voice, episode: "The Lost Ball"
1998 Invasion America The Dragit Voice, 13 episodes
1999 Civil War Combat: America's Bloodiest Battles Narrator Voice, TV documentary, 2 episodes
1996–1999 Timon & Pumbaa Empress's Assistant, Jungle Inspector Voice, 2 episodes
1999 To Serve and Protect Police Pathologist
1999 Mickey Mouse Works Ostrich Voice, Episode #1.6
1999–2000 Johnny Bravo King Brad, Announcer Voice, 2 episodes
2000 UFOs: Then and Now? Narrator Voice, television film
2000 Buzz Lightyear of Star Command Dr. Animus Voice, 2 episodes
2000 The New Woody Woodpecker Show Günther's Guardian Voice, episode: "Be A Sport"
2001 Lloyd in Space Dr. Werner Von Brain Voice, episode: "Caution: Wormhole!"
2001 Providence Unnamed Episode: "Rule Number One"
2001 The Human Spinning-Top The Worst Enemy Voice
2001 The Legend of Tarzan German Poacher Voice, episode: "Tarzan and the Rift"
2001 ReBoot: My Two Bobs Megabyte Voice, television film
2001 The Gene Pool Renfeld Television film
2001–2002 House of Mouse Magic Mirror, Shere Khan, Ostrich Voice, 10 episodes
1992–2003 Rugrats Dr. Werner Lipschitz, Doctor, Rich Man, Wombat President, Narrator, Manager, Man with Car, Max, Dream Santa, Barney, Scientist #2, General Voice, 10 episodes
2003 Criss Angel: Supernatural Narrator, voice – official trailer Voice, television film
2003 Miss Spider's Sunny Patch Kids Spiderus Voice, television film
2003 Civil War Combat: Culp's Hill at Gettysburg Narrator Voice, documentary
2003 Civil War Combat: The Battle of Chickamauga Narrator Voice, documentary
2003 Nostradamus: 500 Years Later Nostradamus Voice, documentary
2004 UFO Files – UFOs: Then and Now? The Innocent Years Narrator Voice, 1 episode
2004 Teen Titans Narrator Voice, episode: "Transformation"
2004 Tom and Jerry – The Ultimate Classic Collection Unknown
1996–2004 Hey Arnold! Rex Smythe-Higgins, Voice in the Sky, Doctor Voice, 5 episodes
2005 Mickey's Around the World in 80 Days Ostrich
2005 Science of the Bible: Jesus, The Preacher Himself, narrator Voice, 1 episode
2005 H. H. Holmes: America's First Serial Killer Narrator Voice
2006 Me, Eloise Kevin Voice, episode: "Eloise in Springtime Part 1"
2007 Xyber 9: New Dawn Machestro Voice, 7 episodes
2004–2007 Miss Spider's Sunny Patch Friends Spiderus, Cloud King Voice, 17 episodes
Nominated—Annie Award for Best Voice Acting in a Feature Film
2007 The History Channel Presents: The Civil War Narrator (archival recordings) Voice

Video games[edit]

Year Title Role Notes
1992 King's Quest VI: Heir Today, Gone Tomorrow Captain Saladin, Gate, Arch Druid Voice
1996 Disney's Animated Storybook: The Hunchback of Notre Dame Judge Claude Frollo Voice
1996 Blood Omen: Legacy of Kain Mortanius, William the Just, Dark Entity Voice
1997 Warcraft Adventures: Lord of the Clans Drek'Thar Voice
1997 Fallout: A Post-Nuclear Role-Playing Game The Lieutenant Voice
1998 Reboot Megabyte Voice
1998 Titanic Explorer Capt. Smith, Sir Rufus Isaacs Voice
1998 Die by the Sword Rastegar, Grub Voice
1999 Legacy of Kain: Soul Reaver Elder God, Zephon Voice
1999 Planescape: Torment The Transcendent One Voice
1999 Y2K: The Game Mister Leopard Voice
2000 Forgotten Realms: Icewind Dale Kresselack Voice
2000 Sacrifice Mithras Voice
2001 The Jungle Book: Rhythm 'n Groove Shere Khan the Tiger Voice
2001 Dopey's Wild Mine Ride Magic Mirror Voice
2001 Soul Reaver 2 Elder God Voice
2001 Forgotten Realms: Baldur's Gate – Dark Alliance Xantam The Beholder, Ethon Voice
2001 Return to Castle Wolfenstein The Director Voice, Uncredited
2001 Star Trek: Armada II USS Caddebostan Captain Voice
2002 Draconus: Cult of the Wyrm Narrator Voice, Uncredited
2002 Hunter: The Reckoning Narrator Voice
2003 Freelancer Chancellor Florian Gustov Niemann Voice
2003 Star Trek: Elite Force II Archeopenda Voice
2003 Lionheart: Legacy of the Crusader Voice
2003 Armed & Dangerous King Voice
2003 Mace Griffin: Bounty Hunter Leader of the Rangers Voice
2003 Legacy of Kain: Defiance Elder God Voice
2004 Fallout: Brotherhood of Steel Attis, narrator Voice
2004 Champions of Norrath: Realms of EverQuest Innorruk Voice
2004 Galleon Areliano, narrator Voice
2004 X-Men Legends Magneto Voice
2004 The Bard's Tale Narrator Voice[31]

Theme parks[edit]

Year Title Role Notes
1992, 1998 Fantasmic! Magical Mirror, Judge Claude Frollo Voice

Audiobooks and audio plays[edit]


  • 2005: Time's Fool: A Mystery of Shakespeare by Leonard Tourney. Reader. Blackstone Audio.
  • 2006: The Castle of Otranto by Horace Walpole. Reader. Blackstone Audio.

Audio plays:

Radio serials:

  • 1967–1976: The Sound of Darkness. Writer, Actor (voice).
  • 1968–1972: Squad Cars. Actor, Announcer (voice).
  • 1969–1972: Taxi! Writer. Red Kowalski (voice).
  • 1971–1972: The Avengers. Announcer (voice), writer, Director.





Video Games


Award Year Category Film Result
Annie Awards[33]
2006 Voice Acting in a Television Production[34] Miss Spider's Sunny Patch Friends Nominated
Daytime Emmy Award Outstanding Performer in an Animated Program[35] Nominated


  1. ^ a b Behind The Voice Actors. "Tony Jay". Behind The Voice Actors. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
  2. ^ a b "Tony Jay—Obituary". Associated Press. 21 August 2006. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Nelson, Valerie J (20 August 2006). "Tony Jay, 73; Veteran Voice Actor in Film and Video Games". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  4. ^ a b "Voice actor Tony Jay dies at 73". United Press International. Retrieved 28 October 2017.
  5. ^ DeMott, Rick. "Emmy-Nominated Voice-Actor Tony Jay Passes Away". Animation World Network. Retrieved 28 October 2017.
  6. ^ "History of the site". Pinner High School. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h "Tony Jay – Writer, director". The Avengers Declassified. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d Nemy, Enid (19 September 1988). "Broadway". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Gross, Edward (November 1989). "To Reign in Hell". Starlog. p. 21. Archived from the original on 25 June 2016. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
  10. ^ In contrast to Jay's own recollection in a Starlog interview and his Los Angeles Times obituary, The New York Times of 19 September 1986 says that he moved to South Africa when he was 33.[1]
  11. ^ a b "Tony Jay: In Memorium, 1933–2006". Archived from the original on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  12. ^ a b Hayes, Alan. "The Radio Series – On the Air". Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  13. ^ Hayes, Alan. "The Radio Series – Introduction". The Avengers Declassified. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  14. ^ Hayes, Alan. "The Radio Series – Destination Sonovision". Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  15. ^ "Three Sisters, Billingham Forum c1976". Picture Stockton Archive. 26 March 2015. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  16. ^ "Classic Plays: 1976". Rob Wilton Theatricalia. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  17. ^ Amory, Mark (3 October 1981). "Small Changes". The Spectator. United Kingdom. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  18. ^ "The Deep Blue Sea Programme – Greenwich Cue Theater, 1981". Daily Craze. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  19. ^ Hammond, Mary (2016). Charles Dickens's Great Expectations: A Cultural Life, 1860–2012. Abingdon: Routledge. p. 219. ISBN 9781317168256.
  20. ^ "RSC Performances: The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby". The Shakespeare Birthplace Trust. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  21. ^ Drake, Sylvie (13 March 1986). "The Marathon 'Nicholas Nickleby' Is Bound for the Ahmanson". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  22. ^ "Stage View: A 'Nickleby' that Fulfills Our Great Expectations". The New York Times. 7 September 1986.
  23. ^ "The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  24. ^ "The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby". Playbill. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  25. ^ Gross, Edward (November 1989). "To Reign in Hell". Starlog. p. 72. Archived from the original on 5 November 2017. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
  26. ^ "Sir Ian McKellen". Crawley's Casting Calls. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  27. ^ a b c d Rouner, Jeff. "Tony Jay: Playlist for the Ultimate Voice-Over Villain". Houston Press. Retrieved 28 October 2017.
  28. ^ "Poets on Broadway – Earphones Award Winner". Audio File. AudioFile Magazine. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  29. ^ "Daytime Emmy nominated Tony Jay Loses Fight to Recover". Archived from the original on 7 September 2006. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
  30. ^ Various release dates are given: 1996 [2]; 1997 [3] [4] [5]; 1998 [6].
  31. ^ InXile Entertainment. The Bard’s Tale. InXile Entertainment. Scene: Ending credits, 2:10:10 in, Voice Talent.
  32. ^ "LBC – Ten years on". British Universities Film & Video Council. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  33. ^ The official Annie Awards website shows that Tony Jay was not nominated in 1996 for Voice Acting in the Field of Animation, despite many claims that he had. The 1996 nominees were Nancy Cartwright (winner), Jeff Bennett, Jim Cummings, Tress MacNeille, and Rob Paulsen.[7].
  34. ^ "33rd Annie Awards (2006)". Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  35. ^ "The National Television Academy Announces 33rd Annual Daytime Emmy Award Nominations". Retrieved 2 November 2017.

External links[edit]