Cecil Antonio Richardson
5 June 1928
Shipley, West Yorkshire, England
|Died||14 November 1991 (aged 63)|
Los Angeles, California, US
(m. 1962; div. 1967)
|Children||3, including Natasha and Joely|
Cecil Antonio Richardson (5 June 1928 – 14 November 1991) was an English theatre and film director and producer whose career spanned five decades. In 1964, he won the Academy Award for Best Director for the film Tom Jones.
Richardson was born in Shipley, West Riding of Yorkshire in 1928 to Clarence Albert Richardson, a chemist, and his wife, Elsie Evans (née Campion). He was Head Boy at Ashville College, Harrogate and attended Wadham College, University of Oxford. His Oxford contemporaries included Rupert Murdoch, Margaret Thatcher, Kenneth Tynan, Lindsay Anderson and Gavin Lambert. He had the unprecedented distinction of being the President of both the Oxford University Dramatic Society and the Experimental Theatre Club (the ETC), in addition to being the theatre critic for the university magazine Isis. Those he cast in his student productions included Shirley Williams (as Cordelia), John Schlesinger, Nigel Davenport and Robert Robinson.
In 1955, in his directing debut, Richardson produced Jean Giraudoux's The Apollo of Bellac for television with Denholm Elliott and Natasha Parry in the main roles. Around the same time he began to be active in Britain's Free Cinema movement, co-directing the non-fiction short Momma Don't Allow (also 1955) with Karel Reisz.
Part of the British "New Wave" of directors, he was involved in the formation of the English Stage Company, along with his close friend George Goetschius and George Devine. He directed John Osborne's play Look Back in Anger at the Royal Court Theatre, and in the same period he directed Shakespeare in Stratford-upon-Avon. Then in 1957 he directed Laurence Olivier as Archie Rice in Osborne's next play The Entertainer, again for the Royal Court.
In 1959, Richardson co-founded Woodfall Film Productions with John Osborne and producer Harry Saltzman, and, as Woodfall's debut, directed the film version of Look Back in Anger (1959), his first feature film. The Entertainer (1960), A Taste of Honey (1961), and The Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner (1962), based on the novel by Alan Sillitoe, also were produced there.
Many of Richardson's films, such as A Taste of Honey and The Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner, were part of the acclaimed kitchen sink realism movement popular in Britain at the time, and several of his films continue to be held as cornerstones of the movement.
His next film was The Loved One (1965), in which he worked with established stars, including John Gielgud, Rod Steiger and Robert Morse, and worked in Hollywood both on location and on the sound stage. In his autobiography, he confesses that he did not share the general admiration of Haskell Wexler, who worked on The Loved One as both director of photography and a producer.
Among stars that Richardson directed were Jeanne Moreau, Orson Welles, Rob Lowe, Milton Berle, Trevor Howard, David Hemmings, Nicol Williamson, Tom Courtenay, Lynn Redgrave, Marianne Faithfull, Richard Burton, Jodie Foster, Anthony Hopkins, Mick Jagger, Katharine Hepburn, Seth Green, Tommy Lee Jones and Judi Dench. His musical composers included Antoine Duhamel, John Addison and Shel Silverstein. His screenwriters were Jean Genet, Christopher Isherwood, Terry Southern, Marguerite Duras, Edward Bond (adapting Vladimir Nabokov) and Edward Albee. Richardson and Osborne eventually fell out during production of the film Charge of the Light Brigade (1968). The basic issue was Osborne's unwillingness to go through the rewrite process, more arduous in film than it is in the theatre. Richardson had a different version. In his autobiography (p. 195), he writes that Osborne was angry at being replaced in a small role by Laurence Harvey to whom the producers had obligations. Osborne took literary revenge by creating a fictionalised and pseudonymous Richardson – a domineering and arrogant character whom everyone hated – in his play The Hotel in Amsterdam.
Richardson's work was stylistically varied. Mademoiselle (1966) was shot noir-style on location in rural France with a static camera, monochrome film stock and no music. The Charge of the Light Brigade (1968) was part epic and part animated feature. Ned Kelly (1970) was what might be called an Aussie-western. Laughter in the Dark (1969) and A Delicate Balance (1973) were psycho-dramas. Joseph Andrews (1977), based on another novel by Henry Fielding, was a return to the mood of Tom Jones.
In 1970, Richardson was set to direct a film about Vaslav Nijinsky with a script by Edward Albee. It was to have starred Rudolf Nureyev as Nijinsky, Claude Jade as Romola and Paul Scofield as Diaghilev, but producer Harry Saltzman cancelled the project during pre-production.
In 1974, he travelled to Los Angeles to work on a script (never produced) with Sam Shepard, and took up residence there. Later that year, he began work on Mahogany (1975), starring Diana Ross, but was fired by Motown head Berry Gordy shortly after production began, owing to creative differences.
He wrote and directed the comedy-drama The Hotel New Hampshire (1984), based on John Irving's novel of the same name and starring Jodie Foster, Beau Bridges and Rob Lowe. Although it was a box-office failure, the film received a positive critical reception.
Richardson made four more major films before his death. His last, Blue Sky (1994), was not released for nearly three years after he died. Jessica Lange won a Best Actress Oscar for her performance in the film.
Richardson was married to English actress Vanessa Redgrave from 1962 to 1967. The couple had two daughters, Natasha (1963–2009) and Joely Richardson (born 1965), then he left Redgrave for French actress and singer Jeanne Moreau. In 1972, he had a relationship with Grizelda Grimond, who was a secretary for Richardson's former business partner Oscar Lewenstein, and daughter of British politician Jo Grimond. Grizelda Grimond gave birth to his daughter, Katharine Grimond, on 8 January 1973.
|1955||Momma Don't Allow||Yes||No||Yes||Short film; co-directed with Karel Reisz|
|1959||Look Back in Anger||Yes||No||No|
|Saturday Night and Sunday Morning||No||Yes||No|
|A Taste of Honey||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|1962||The Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner||Yes||Yes||No|
|1963||Tom Jones||Yes||Yes||No||Won Best Picture and Best Director Oscars|
|1964||Girl with Green Eyes||No||Yes||No|
|1965||The Loved One||Yes||No||No|
|1967||Red and Blue||Yes||No||No||Short film developed for the anthology Red White and Zero; directed with Peter Brook and Karel Reisz|
|The Sailor from Gibraltar||Yes||No||Yes|
|1968||The Charge of the Light Brigade||Yes||No||No|
|1969||Laughter in the Dark||Yes||No||No|
|1973||A Delicate Balance||Yes||No||No|
|1975||Mahogany||Yes||No||No||Uncredited; replaced by Berry Gordy|
|1984||The Hotel New Hampshire||Yes||No||Yes|
|1990||Women & Men: Stories of Seduction||Yes||No||No||Anthology film; directed with Frederic Raphael and Ken Russell|
|1952||The Sound of Stillness||No||Yes||TV Movie|
|Happy and Glorious||No||Yes||Six Episodes|
|1953||Wednesday Theatre||Yes||Yes||Episodes: "Curtain Down"; "Box for One"|
|1954||Parliament of Science||Yes||Yes||TV Movie|
|1955||You Know What People Are||Yes||Yes||Six Episodes|
|It Should Happen to a Dog||Yes||Yes||TV Movie|
|Appointment with Drama||Yes||Yes||Episodes: "The Rivals"; "The Birthday Present"; "Absence of Mind"; "The Apollo of Bellac"|
|Mr. Kettle and Mrs. Moon||Yes||No||TV Movie|
|BBC Sunday-Night Theatre||Yes||Yes||Episodes: "Markheim"; "The Makepeace Story #1: The Ruthless Destiny"; "The Makepeace Story #2: A New Generation"; "The Makepeace Story #3: Family Business"|
|1956||Tales from Soho||No||Yes||Six Episodes|
|The Gambler||Yes||Yes||TV Movie|
|ITV Play of the Week||Yes||No||Episode: Look Back in Anger|
|1957||Theatre Night||Yes||No||Episode: The Member of the Wedding|
|1960||BBC Sunday-Night Play||Yes||Yes||Episode: A Subject of Scandal and Concern|
|1978||A Death in Canaan||Yes||No||TV Movie|
|1986||Penalty Phase||Yes||No||TV Movie|
|1988||Beryl Markham: A Shadow on the Sun||Yes||No||TV Movie|
|1990||The Phantom of the Opera||Yes||No||Two Episodes|
sources: Adler; Little & McLaughlin; Richardson
|1954||The Changeling||Wyndham's||London||1 performance|
|1955||The Country Wife||Theatre Royal Stratford East||London||3 weeks|
|Mr Kettle & Mrs Moon||Duchess||London|
|1956||The Mulberry Bush||Royal Court||London|
|The Crucible||Royal Court||London|
|Look Back in Anger||Royal Court||London||151 performances|
|Cards of Identity||Royal Court||London|
|1957||Look Back in Anger||John Golden, Lyceum||New York||1 year|
|The Member of the Wedding||Royal Court||London|
|The Entertainer||Royal Court||London||4 weeks|
|The Apollo of Bellac||Royal Court||London|
|The Chairs||Royal Court||London|
|The Entertainer||Palace||London||6 months|
|The Making of Moo||Royal Court||London|
|Requiem for a Nun||Royal Court||London|
|1958||The Entertainer||Royale||New York|
|The Chairs & The Lesson||Phoenix||New York||17 performances|
|Flesh to a Tiger||Royal Court||London|
|Pericles||Shakespeare Memorial Theatre||Stratford-on-Avon|
|1959||Othello||Shakespeare Memorial Theatre||Stratford-on-Avon|
|Orpheus Descending||Royal Court||London|
|Look After Lulu!||Royal Court||London||45 performances|
|1960||A Taste of Honey||Los Angeles|
|Booth, Lyceum||New York||376 performances|
|1961||The Changeling||Royal Court||London|
|Luther||Royal Court||London||28 performances|
|1962||A Midsummer Night's Dream||Royal Court||London||29 performances|
|1963||Natural Affection||Booth||New York||31 performances|
|Luther||Lunt-Fontanne, St. James||New York||6 months|
|Semi-Detached||Music Box||New York||12 performances|
|Arturo Ui||Lunt-Fontanne||New York||8 performances|
|1964||The Milk Train Doesn't Stop Here Anymore||Brooks Atkinson||New York||5 performances|
|The Seagull||Queen's Theatre||London|
|St Joan of the Stockyards||Queen's Theatre||London||3 weeks|
|Lunt-Fontanne||New York||52 performances|
|1972||The Threepenny Opera||Prince of Wales||London|
|1972||I, Claudius||Queen's Theatre||London|
|Anthony and Cleopatra||Bankside Globe Playhouse||London|
|1976||The Lady from the Sea||Circle in the Square Theatre||New York|
|1979||As You Like It||Center Theatre||Long Beach|
|1984||Dreamhouse||L.A. Stage Co.||Hollywood|
- Richardson, Tony (1993). Long Distance Runner – A memoir. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-16852-3.
- Heilpern, John (2006). John Osborne: A Patriot for Us. London: Chatto & Windus. ISBN 978-0-7011-6780-6.
- Little, Ruth & McLaughlin, Emily (2007). The Royal Court Theatre Inside Out. Oberon Books. ISBN 978-1-84002-763-1.
- Adler, Tim (2012). The House of Redgrave. London: Aurum. ISBN 978-1-84513-623-9.
- Richardson, pp 1–5
- Richardson, p.45
- Adler, p.26
- David Parkinson, 'Richardson, Cecil Antonio [Tony] (1928–1991)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004
- "Giraudoux Play on Television 'The Apollo of Bellac'", The Times, 13 August 1955
- "Momma Don't Allow (1956)". BFI. Archived from the original on 9 August 2016.
- "Tony Richardson & The Kitchen Sink". Make A Noise!. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
- "10 essential films from the 'Kitchen sink realism' movement". faroutmagazine.co.uk. 2 May 2021. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
- "Tony Richardson; Leading Film Director for 30 Years". Los Angeles Times. 15 November 1991. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
- Crowther, Bosley (12 October 1965). "Screen: A Searing Look at the Funeral Profession:Waugh's 'Loved One' Adapted to Film". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
- Richardson, p. 163
- Until dismissed by Richardson for repeatedly failing to show up on set as contracted (Richardson, pp. 212–3)
- Heilpern, pp.346–51
- Richardson, p. 242.
- "Blue Sky: the 1990s nuclear drama that won Jessica Lange her second Oscar". BFI. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
- "John Quine". The Daily Telegraph. London. 12 June 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
- "Cold War 'superspy' George Blake, who escaped from a UK jail and became a Russian hero, dies at 98". Independent.ie. 26 December 2020. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
On the night of October 25, 1966, the trio (financed by Oscar-winning movie director Tony Richardson)
- needs substantiation
- Richardson, p.233
- Hattenstone, Simon (13 June 2016). "Vanessa Redgrave on why she was ready to die: 'Trying to live was getting too tiring'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2 July 2023.
- Nikkhah, Roya (21 May 2011). "Joely Richardson breaks silence over family scandal claims". The Telegraph. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
- "The Tumultuous Tony Richardson". Legacy. 14 November 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
- Richardson was fired by the author J.B. Priestley, who took over directing himself
- As Asst. to George Devine
- Starring Paul Robeson
- Also Nottingham, Paris, Amsterdam, Edinburgh Festival
- Starring Tallulah Bankhead
- Also toured