Different Toophan variants excluding Qa'em.
|Place of origin||Iran|
|Used by|| Iran
|Wars||2006 Lebanon War
Syrian Civil War
1.16 m (probe folded)1.45 m (probe extended)
|Warhead weight||3.6 kg|
|Wire-guidance. Laser guidance for later variants|
Toophan (Persian: موشک طوفان, meaning "Typhoon" in Persian) is a series of Iranian anti-tank missiles. Toophan 1 is a reverse-engineered copy of the US military BGM-71 TOW missile. The Toophan-1's payload is a 3.6 kg high-explosive anti-tank warhead that can penetrate up to 550mm of steel armor. The range is 3,850m, the top speed 310 m/s. The manufacturer is the Aerospace Industries Organization of Iran, which has produced the missile since 2000. Several other variants are also built with more penetration power.
Iran was among the earliest countries to import the TOW missile, as far back as 1971. Extensive repair and assembly facilities were set up at the Iran Electronics Industries (IEI) by the Texas-based Emerson Energy Systems, as well as Hughes Missile Systems, to repair TOW and FGM-77A Dragon missiles.
In May 1975, negotiations between Iran and Hughes Missile Systems on co-production of TOW and AGM-65 Maverick missiles stalled over disagreements in the pricing structure. Hughes set the royalty and initial investment costs for Iran at $20 million for the TOW and $25 million for the Maverick. The subsequent Iranian Revolution in 1979 ended all plans for such co-production.
Basic variant. Has a penetration of 550 mm rolled homogeneous armour (RHA), length of 116 cm and weight of 18.5 kg. Its range is claimed to be 3.5 km.
An upgraded variant using a much more powerful tandem warhead that can penetrate 760 mm of armor after disabling ERA by its small 40 mm frontal warhead. Missile weight has been increased to 19.1 kg and length to 145 cm. As with Toofan 1 it has a range of 3.5 km.
Unveiled alongside Toofan 5, Qa'em is essentially a Toofan variant for use against Helicopters. Iranian state media claim that it is to have a laser guidance system resistant to enemy jamming.
- Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran
- Iranian military industry
- Equipment of the Iranian Army
- Missile Chronology. Retrieved on August 14, 2011.
- Mikhail Barabanov, scientific editor of Arms Export (2006-08-23). "Hezbollah’s Examination". Kommersant. Retrieved 2014-01-08.
- "Index - The First Military Reference Forum Site in Iran". military.ir.
- Jane's Defence Weekly, Another ATGW for Iran
- Army Reconn article on Iranian copies of DRAGON and TOW