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Type Anti-tank missile
Place of origin Iran
Service history
Wars 2006 Lebanon War
Syrian Civil War[1]
Iraqi Civil War (2014-present),[2] Yemeni Civil War (2015-present)[3]
Saudi-led intervention in Yemen (2015-present)
Conflict in Najran, Jizan and Asir

1.16 m (probe folded)

1.45 m (probe extended)
Diameter 0.152 m

Warhead weight 3.6 kg

Wingspan 0.46 m
3,850 m
Speed 310 m/s
Wire-guidance. Laser guidance for later variants

Toophan (Persian: توفان‎, meaning "Storm" in Persian) is a series of Iranian anti-tank missiles. Toophan 1 is a reverse-engineered copy of the US military BGM-71 TOW missile. The Toophan-1's payload is a 3.6 kg high-explosive anti-tank warhead that can penetrate up to 550mm of steel armor. The range is 3,850m, the top speed 310 m/s. The manufacturer is the Aerospace Industries Organization of Iran, which has produced the missile since 2000.[4] Several other variants are also built with more penetration power.

Operational history[edit]

Iran was among the earliest countries to import the TOW missile, as far back as 1971. Extensive repair and assembly facilities were set up at the Iran Electronics Industries (IEI) by the Texas-based Emerson Energy Systems, as well as Hughes Missile Systems, to repair TOW and FGM-77A Dragon missiles.

In May 1975, negotiations between Iran and Hughes Missile Systems on co-production of TOW and AGM-65 Maverick missiles stalled over disagreements in the pricing structure. Hughes set the royalty and initial investment costs for Iran at $20 million for the TOW and $25 million for the Maverick. The subsequent Iranian Revolution in 1979 ended all plans for such co-production.

Hezbollah reportedly used Toophan missiles against Israeli Merkava tanks during the 2006 Lebanon War.[5]

Iran has continued to develop the Toophan and in December 2016 demonstrated the missile against naval targets.[6]


Variant Range Penetration Length Weight Notes
Toofan 1 3.5 km 550 mm 116 cm 18.5 kg [7]
Toofan 2 3.5 km 760 mm 145 cm 19.1 kg tandem warhead; disables ERA by its small 40 mm frontal warhead[8]
Toofan 2B 3.5 km 900 mm 145 cm 19.1 kg upgraded Toofan 2 with heavier warhead[9][10]
Toofan 5 3.5 km 900 mm 145 cm 19.1 kg variant with laser guidance and additional four small fins in front of the missile[11][12][13]
Qa'em anti-helicopter variant unveiled alongside Toophan 5; laser guidance system resistant to enemy jamming[14][15]


Map with Toophan operators in blue

See also[edit]


External links[edit]