Dental caries—Dental caries is known as a cavity or tooth decay. Bacteria in the mouth use foods that contain sugar or starch to produce acids which eat away at the tooth’s structure causing destruction to the enamel of the teeth. Meanwhile, the minerals in saliva (calcium and phosphate) together with fluoride are repairing the enamel. Dental caries is a chronic disease that can be prevented and show strongly in 6- to 11-year-old children and 12- to 19-year-old adolescents. 9 out of 10 adults are affected with some type of tooth decay. Prevention includes good oral hygiene that consists of brushing twice daily, flossing, eating nutritious meals and limiting snacking, and visiting the dentist on a regular basis. Fluoride treatments benefit the teeth by strengthening while sealants help chewing surfaces to not decay. Severe cases can lead to tooth extraction and dentures.
Dental abscess—A dental abscess is a collection of pus that accumulates in teeth or gums as a result of bacterial infection giving rise to a severe throbbing pain at the site of the abscess. It is caused by consuming sugary or starchy food and poor dental hygiene and is treated by a dentist draining the pus and possibly removing an infected tooth.
^Towle, Ian; Irish, Joel D.; Groote, Isabelle De (2017). "Behavioral inferences from the high levels of dental chipping in Homo naledi". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 164 (1): 184–192. doi:10.1002/ajpa.23250. ISSN1096-8644. PMID28542710.