Jump to content

Toothbrush moustache

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Charlie Chaplin (pictured in 1921 as the Tramp) thought the moustache gave him a comical appearance.

The toothbrush moustache is a style of moustache in which the sides are vertical (or nearly so), often approximating the width of the nose and visually resembling the bristles on a toothbrush. First becoming popular in the United States in the late 19th century, it later spread to Germany and elsewhere. Comedians such as Charlie Chaplin and Oliver Hardy popularized it, reaching its heyday during the interwar years. By the end of World War II, the association with Nazi leader Adolf Hitler made it unfashionable, leading to it being colloquially termed the 'Hitler moustache'.

After World War II, the toothbrush was worn by some notable individuals, including several Israeli politicians and American real-estate developer Fred Trump (who wore a split variant). Remaining strongly associated with Hitler over subsequent decades, it was used satirically in works of popular culture and political imagery, including motion pictures, comic books, and 1970s-era rock and roll. A number of other variants developed during the 20th century, such as one covering only the philtrum.

19th century–World War II[edit]

In the United States[edit]

The toothbrush originally became popular in the late 19th century, in the United States.[1] It was a neat, uniform, low-maintenance moustache that echoed the standardization and uniformity brought on by industrialization, in contrast to the more flamboyant styles typical of the 19th century such as the imperial, walrus, handlebar, horseshoe, and pencil moustaches.[1]

English comic actor Charlie Chaplin was one of the most famous wearers of the toothbrush style. Shortly after wearing a full moustache for his 1914 film debut (Making a Living for Southern California's Keystone Studios), he sported a prop toothbrush moustache for his first film as the Tramp, Mabel's Strange Predicament (though Kid Auto Races at Venice was the first released).[2][3][4] After selecting a wardrobe, he added a moustache after recalling that producer Mack Sennett was expecting him to be older; Chaplin felt that the toothbrush had a comical appearance and was small enough not to hide his expression.[a][6] Within a few years of the Tramp's debut, the look was being copied;[7] by 1920, Chaplin purportedly entered and lost a Chaplin look-alike contest, having omitted his signature moustache.[8] Chaplin incorporated the noted similarity between the Tramp and Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler[9][b] in his 1940 film The Great Dictator, playing both a Tramp-like Jewish barber and a parody of Hitler.[11] This was Chaplin's final appearance with the moustache.[12]

Prominent American animation producer Max Fleischer wore a toothbrush moustache c. 1919.[13][14] Comedian Oliver Hardy also adopted the moustache—using it at least as early as the 1921 film The Lucky Dog. American actor Fred Kelsey flaunted a toothbrush c. 1925–1939,[15][c] while in the mid-1930s bit-part player Brooks Benedict thickened his mid-mustache, evoking the toothbrush style (flanked by pencil-thin sides).[16] Although Groucho Marx wore a larger moustache, novelty Groucho glasses (sold c. 1940s)[17] often elicit the toothbrush. It has been occasionally claimed that American film producer Walt Disney donned a toothbrush,[18][19][20] but his nose-width moustache lacked the characteristic steep sides. Frank Churchill, composer for a number of Disney films, sometimes styled one.[21]

San Francisco mayor (and later California governor) James Rolph and Los Angeles mayor Frank L. Shaw sported toothbrushes in the 1920s and 1930s, as did Washington state governor Clarence D. Martin in the 1930s. The moustache appeared on some members of the German American Bund during a 1937 parade in New York City. A number of associates of American company Heinz were photographed wearing toothbrushes in 1940 (at a convention in Montreal, Quebec).[22] American real-estate developer Fred Trump, the father of U.S. president Donald Trump, sported a variant (exposing his lower philtrum) as early as 1940. Animation director Tex Avery applied a split variant to his spoof of Hitler in his 1942 film Blitz Wolf.

In Germany[edit]

The toothbrush moustache was introduced to Germany in the late 19th century by visiting Americans.[1] Previously, the most popular style was the imperial moustache, also known as the "Kaiser moustache", which was perfumed and turned up at the ends, as worn by German emperor Wilhelm II.[1][23] By 1907, enough Germans were wearing the toothbrush moustache to elicit notice by The New York Times under the headline "'TOOTHBRUSH' MUSTACHE; German Women Resent Its Usurpation of the [Kaiser moustache]".[1][24] The toothbrush was taken up by German automobile racer and folk hero Hans Koeppen in the famous 1908 New York to Paris Race, cementing its popularity among young gentry.[1][25] Koeppen was described as "Six-feet in height, slim, and athletic, with a toothbrush mustache characteristic of his class, he looks the ideal type of the young Prussian guardsman."[25] By the end of World War I, even some of the German royals were sporting the toothbrush; Crown Prince Wilhelm can be seen with a toothbrush moustache in a 1918 photograph that shows him about to be sent into exile.[1] German serial killer Peter Kürten (1883–1931) eventually reduced it to only the philtrum.[26][27]

Adolf Hitler in the early 1920s; his appearance was so defined by his moustache that it became unfashionable by the end of World War II.

There are dubious claims that Adolf Hitler began wearing the toothbrush prior to the early 1920s (when it was first reliably documented).[1] His sister-in-law, Bridget Hitler, tenuously claimed that he spent the winter of 1912–13 at her home in Liverpool, England,[1][28] during which time the two quarreled, mostly because she could not stand his Kaiser moustache; she reputedly persuaded him to cut it, resulting in him fashioning a toothbrush.[1][29] A 1914 photograph by Heinrich Hoffmann purports to show Hitler with a toothbrush, but this was probably doctored to serve as Nazi propaganda.[30][31] As evidenced by photographs, Hitler wore the Kaiser moustache as a soldier during WWI.[32] Author Alexander Moritz Frey, who served as a medic in the same regiment as Hitler, claimed that the latter donned the toothbrush in the trenches after he was ordered to trim his moustache to facilitate the wearing of a gas mask;[1][33][34] although Frey's story is unproven, Hitler indeed had a blinding encounter with poison gas during WWI—causing his hospitalization at the war's very end.[35][d] Other sources claim Hitler wore it as early as 1919.[37][38]

Hitler is generally thought to have incorporated the toothbrush as a trademark of his appearance during the early meetings of the Nazi Party (formed in 1920).[1][39] According to cultural historian Ron Rosenbaum, "there is no evidence (though some speculation)" that Hitler modeled his moustache on Charlie Chaplin's.[37][b] In 1923, Hitler's future publicist Ernst Hanfstaengl advised Hitler to lose the toothbrush, to which he replied, "If it is not the fashion now, it will be later because I wear it." Hanfstaengl subsequently adopted the style.[40][1] In 1932, Hitler wore the toothbrush narrower on bottom.[41] In 1933 (the year Hitler became Chancellor of Germany), the Nazis began to lambast Chaplin as "non-Aryan" in anti-Semitic propaganda, though Chaplin was not Jewish.[9] According to Hitler's bodyguard Rochus Misch, Hitler "loved" Chaplin films, a number of which he watched at his teahouse near the Berghof (built c. 1936).[42] By the height of World War II, Hitler's toothbrush moustache was such a defining feature of his appearance that it was assumed he would be unrecognizable without it, and that he could use this logic to evade capture by the Allies.[43] In her posthumous memoir, Hitler's secretary Christa Schroeder (d. 1984) claimed that Hitler said in the mid-1920s that the moustache offset his purportedly oversized nose;[44] in fact, his nose was only visibly engorged during the final months of WWII in Europe.[45]

Politician Anton Drexler, a mentor of Hitler, wore a notched version of the toothbrush. Friedrich Kellner, a Social Democrat who campaigned against Hitler, also wore it. Various notable Nazis sported versions, including Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler, politician Karl Holz, military officer Ernst Röhm and Hitler's chauffeur Julius Schreck. Near the end of World War II in Europe, the Soviet Union produced footage of a supposed body double of Hitler wearing the style[46]—variously invoked in Soviet-bolstered claims that Hitler somehow escaped.[e] Some Nazis in Chile were photographed wearing the moustache around the end of World War II.[f]

Other places[edit]

The toothbrush was quite popular in the Soviet Union in the early 20th century. A Russian-born, Chaplin-influenced clown named Karandash ('the pencil') had a version of it. During World War II, Karandash entertained Soviet troops by mocking the Axis powers.[48][49] Amongst other Soviet military displays, Commander Pavel Dybenko paired the style with his beard and Major General Hazi Aslanov wore a variant covering only the philtrum.[50]

English writer George Orwell wore a toothbrush during the 1920s before adapting his more iconic pencil moustache.[51] The toothbrush is worn by the sidekick of English author Agatha Christie's fictional detective Hercule Poirot.[52] Spanish general Francisco Franco (the dictator of Spain from 1939 to 1975) wore it throughout the 1930s. In a 1936 political cartoon, New Zealand artist David Low portrayed Soviet leader Joseph Stalin forging a toothbrush (along with a regular haircut) to mirror Hitler.[53] On a 1941 poster, Russian artist Dmitry Moor depicted Hitler with a split toothbrush variant.[54]

Fred Trump wearing a split variant (exposing the philtrum) c. 1950

Post–World War II[edit]

By the end of World War II, toothbrush moustaches had all but fallen out of fashion due to its strong association with Hitler,[1] but some notable people continued to wear it. American real-estate developer Fred Trump upkept his split variant until c. 1950, despite beginning to obfuscate his German ancestry during the war.[55][56][57][g] Several politicians of Israel (formed as a state in 1948) wore it, some for much of their careers. Austrian chancellor Julius Raab exhibited it in 1955 while negotiating for restored independence. Hitler's dentist, Hugo Blaschke (d. 1959),[66] wore a similar style—displaying an explicit toothbrush later in life.[67] Armenian Communist activist Anastas Mikoyan upkept one as late as 1962. French railway worker Jean-Marie Loret (b. 1918) donned a toothbrush to publicize his claim (c. 1980) of being Hitler's son.[68][69]

After the war, German artist Otto Dix finished his 1933 painting of the seven deadly sins by adding a split toothbrush to a mask worn by Envy.[70] The moustache was utilized in popular cartoons, e.g. Harry Hanan's pantomime comic Louie (1947),[71][72][73] which focuses on the everyday trials of a domestic loser.[74] It is worn by the father of the titular character of the British comic Dennis the Menace (1951).[75] The 1955 Warner Bros. cartoon The Hole Idea features characters with the moustache, and it also appears on a puppet in the 1958 Japanese animated film The White Snake Enchantress (which also features the toothbrush area–omitting Fu Manchu). Caricatures resembling outgrown nasal hair appear in Rocky and Bullwinkle (1959–1964), Osamu Tezuka's Astro Boy (c. 1960s), and The Pink Panther (1964–1980).[76][77] The early 1960s American animated sitcom The Jetsons features a character with the moustache—George Jetson's boss, Cosmo Spacely. It was worn by Spider-Man character J. Jonah Jameson, created by writer Stan Lee and artist Steve Ditko.[78] (Later in life, Lee trimmed his own moustache nearly down to toothbrush width to keep from tickling his wife.)[79]

The toothbrush appears (outside of France) on the cover of French composer Michel Legrand's debut album, I Love Paris (1954).[80] Soviet actor Yevgeny Morgunov wore a toothbrush in the 1967 comedy film Kidnapping, Caucasian Style. The live-action British sitcom On the Buses (1969–1973) features a comedic villain with it, while the British sketch comedy series Monty Python's Flying Circus (1969–1974) invoked it on occasion, most notably on a lunatic class of characters known as Gumbys, who shout stupid phrases and commonly clap bricks.[81] A version appears in 2014's Monty Python Live (Mostly), and in October 2019 (Python's 50th anniversary), a world record was attempted in London for the most people dressed as Gumbys.[82]

A number of rock and roll musicians dabbled with the moustache around the early 1970s. John Entwistle, bassist for English band the Who, wore a split moustache omitting the toothbrush area c. 1969.[83][84] In 1970, Keith Moon, drummer for the Who, donned the toothbrush for a sardonic photo shoot as a Nazi officer (with musician Vivian Stanshall).[85] Roy Loney, co-founder of American rock band Flamin' Groovies, flaunted a toothbrush on the cover of a 1971 live album.[86][87] Inspired by Chaplin, keyboardist Ron Mael of American band Sparks wore a toothbrush;[h][i] the band gained attention in 1974 with "This Town Ain't Big Enough for Both of Us", featured on British music television series Top of the Pops.[90] While watching this, John Lennon reputedly phoned his former Beatles bandmate Ringo Starr and said he was watching Hitler perform (with the lead singer of T. Rex, to boot).[91][j][k] The cover of the 1974 debut album by American art-rock band the Residents features a graffitied version of Meet the Beatles! with a toothbrush-moustachioed Lennon.

Zimbabwean president Robert Mugabe's philtrum-covering variant

Former Zimbabwean president Robert Mugabe wore a philtrum-only version from as early as 1976 to as late as 2016.

An antagonist wears a toothbrush in the 1977 Disney animated film The Rescuers. Amongst other spoofs of Hitler in his work, American Jewish comedian Mel Brooks donned the moustache (as Hitler) in the 1983 music video for "The Hitler Rap".[l][m] Between 1985 and 1989, the British children's television drama series Grange Hill featured an authoritarian teacher played by Michael Sheard (who also portrayed Hitler in several productions) wearing a toothbrush.[23]

In a 1992 home movie, Nirvana lead singer Kurt Cobain invoked a Hitler moustache (via fake eyelashes) while wearing a dress to mock a pejorative letter to the editor about his wife, Courtney Love. This was featured in the 2015 documentary Cobain: Montage of Heck and shared online to promote the film.[96][97][98]

A villainous character in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (2000) and its film adaptation wears the moustache.[99] It appears on a mad school principal in the animated series Whatever Happened to... Robot Jones?. In Mike Judge's 2006 comedy film Idiocracy, the society of a greatly dumbed-down future believes that Charlie Chaplin, not Hitler, led the Nazis. In 2009, English comedian Richard Herring wore the toothbrush for a weeklong stand-up show in a feeble attempt to "reclaim the toothbrush moustache for comedy [because] it was Chaplin's first, then Hitler ruined it."[100][23]

In May 2010, American basketball star Michael Jordan appeared in a Hanes commercial sporting a hybrid of the toothbrush and pencil moustache,[101] along with a soul patch. This prompted Jordan's friend Charles Barkley to say, "I don't know what the hell he was thinking and I don't know what Hanes was thinking. I mean it is just stupid. It is just bad, plain and simple."[102]

In 2014, a photograph of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and German Chancellor Angela Merkel provoked online amusement due to the former's pointing finger casting a Hitleresque shadow onto the latter's face.[103] Late that same year, Southern All Stars frontman Keisuke Kuwata briefly donned a toothbrush moustache during a televised performance, prompting online speculation as to the reason.[104]

Into the 21st century, the moustache remained a poignant symbol of satire and protest, maligning people in power perceived to be acting like Hitler.[105][106][107] Some facial-hair-themed websites attempted to reclaim it as acceptable to wear again—especially variations diverging from the strictly rectangular version made famous by Hitler—emphasizing that some notable individuals have worn it.[18][108] Nevertheless, the toothbrush continued to be widely derided as eliciting the association with Hitler.[109][110][n][o] Even shadows cast down by the nose are generally considered to sully portraits.[115] One moustache website, acknowledging efforts to reclaim it, concludes:[84]

I'm pretty sure Hitler ruined it forever! Bastard!

Other notable wearers[edit]

Europe[edit]

Nazi Germany[edit]

Soviet Union and successor states[edit]

State of Israel[edit]

Other regions[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ Chaplin said in 1933: "It all came about in an emergency. The cameraman said put on some funny make-up, and I hadn't the slightest idea what to do. I went to the dress department and decided I wanted everything to be a mass of contradictions. So I took a bowler hat, an abnormally tight jacket, an abnormally loose pair of trousers, and some dirty, raggedy shoes. This was who I wanted my character to be; raggedy but, at the same time, a gentleman. I didn't know how I was going to do the face, but it was going to be a sad, serious face. I wanted to hide that it was comic, so I took a little toothbrush mustache. ... It doesn't hide my expression, after all."[5]
  2. ^ a b Upon first seeing Hitler in newsreels, Chaplin assumed that his look alluded to the Tramp.[10]
  3. ^ Kelsey's guise was spoofed in the 1943 Tex Avery cartoon Who Killed Who?.
  4. ^ The History program The World Wars embellishes the gas-mask story by omitting the commanding officer; executive producer Stephen David claimed that Hitler actually "shaved the mustache while he was in the hospital".[36]
  5. ^ In an alleged sighting of his arrival in Argentina, Hitler was claimed to have shaved the toothbrush, with his unusually exposed philtrum lending his upper mouth area the appearance of bare buttocks.[47]
  6. ^ According to a purported 1954 photograph, the allegedly escaped Hitler ostensibly reclaimed his moustache in Colombia, northwestern South America.
  7. ^ In particular, although Fred Trump spoke in a German accent,[58] he denied that he spoke the language, claimed he was of Swedish origin and aligned himself with Jewish causes.[56][57] (He further claimed he was born in New Jersey, not New York.)[59] Donald Trump sustained Fred's heritage-related deceptions in The Art of the Deal (1987),[60] but as U.S. president, insisted that his father was born in Germany.[61][62] During his last year in office, Trump reputedly once uttered while disparaging the German Chancellor, "I know the fucking krauts." Pointing to his father's (toothbrush-free) portrait,[63] he avowed, "I was raised by the biggest kraut of them all,"[64] invoking an ethnic slur for a German soldier of either world war.[65]
  8. ^ Mael maintained a toothbrush throughout most of the 1970s and 1980s.[88][89]
  9. ^ Further, the 1982 Sparks song "Moustache" includes the lyrics: "And when I trimmed it very small / My Jewish friends would never call," referencing the association with Hitler. The band once had a booking to perform on a French television show cancelled due to Mael's moustache.[88] In later years, Mael wore a pencil-variant of the toothbrush.[89]
  10. ^ Before this occurrence, which took place during his so-called "lost weekend" with May Pang,[92] Lennon had demonstrated a fascination with Hitler,[93] e.g. requesting the dictator's inclusion on the cover of Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (1967).[94]
  11. ^ Intelligent Life editor Tim de Lisle gambols that "a whole generation ... saw Ron Mael's moustache, and ran out of the room, crying, 'Mum! Dad! Hitler's playing the piano on "Top of the Pops"!'"[90]
  12. ^ In Brooks's 1967 film The Producers, an actor (in an intentionally bad play) wears the moustache as the primary visual indicator that he is portraying Hitler.
  13. ^ A woman wears a toothbrush in one shot of the rap video, as an extension of her Nazi chic outfit.[95]
  14. ^ E.g., a participant in the January 6 U.S. Capitol attack had a toothbrush;[111] in 2021, tech company Amazon changed its app logo following complaints that part of the design—meant to look like tape on a box—resembled a Hitler moustache.[112] In 2022, professional wrestler Nash Carter was fired after a photo surfaced of him wearing a toothbrush and performing a Nazi salute.[113]
  15. ^ In an episode of the 2023 Scooby-Doo spin-off Velma, rain causes one of Fred's fake eyelashes to swim under his nose in a series of events making him resemble the Nazi dictator.[114]

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Cohen, Rich (November 2007). "Becoming Adolf". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on December 21, 2014 – via reprint in The Best American Essays 2008.
  2. ^ Kratz, Jessie (September 2, 2022). "Facial Hair Friday: Charlie Chaplin". Pieces of History. Retrieved April 10, 2023 – via U.S. National Archives.
  3. ^ Ressell, Brooke (January 12, 2023). "What Type Of Mustache Did Charlie Chaplin Wear? Controversial I 2023". OGLF. Retrieved April 10, 2023.
  4. ^ Walker, Brent E. (2013). Mack Sennett's Fun Factory: A History and Filmography of His Studio and His Keystone and Mack Sennett Comedies. McFarland & Company. pp. 21, 290. ISBN 978-0-7864-7711-1.
  5. ^ Chaplin, Charlie; Hayes, Kevin (2005). Charlie Chaplin: Interviews. University Press of Mississippi. p. 15. ISBN 978-1578067022.
  6. ^ Chaplin, Charles (1964). My Autobiography, p. 154. "I was undecided whether to look old or young, but remembering Sennett had expected me to be a much older man, I added a small mustache, which I reasoned, would add age without hiding my expression."
  7. ^ "When Charlie Chaplin Entered a Chaplin Look-Alike Contest and Came in 20th Place". Open Culture. June 21, 2016. Retrieved January 8, 2024.
  8. ^ Bose, Swapnil Dhruv (December 29, 2022). "Charlie Chaplin once entered a Chaplin lookalike contest". Far Out. Retrieved January 8, 2024.
  9. ^ a b Menand, Louis (November 13, 2023). "The War on Charlie Chaplin". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved November 15, 2023.
  10. ^ Gopnik, Adam (March 18, 2024). "The Forgotten History of Hitler's Establishment Enablers". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved March 21, 2024.
  11. ^ Brody, Richard (January 3, 2014). "Charlie Chaplin's Talking Pictures". The New Yorker. Retrieved April 10, 2023.
  12. ^ Ebert, Roger (September 27, 2007). "The Great Dictator movie review (1940)". Roger Ebert. Retrieved March 21, 2024.
  13. ^ Moving Picture World. Vol. 40. New York: Chalmers Publishing Company. June 1919. p. 1497.
  14. ^ Curland, Richard (August 6, 2016). "HISTORICALLY SPEAKING: The Hitler moustache was not always infamous". Norwich Bulletin. Retrieved July 14, 2022.
  15. ^ Heath, Dave Lord (September 29, 2020). "Fred Kelsey". LordHeath.com. Retrieved September 26, 2023.
  16. ^ Heath, Dave Lord (January 29, 2023). "Brooks Benedict". LordHeath.com. Retrieved September 26, 2023.
  17. ^ Giddins, Gary (June 18, 2000). "There Ain't No Sanity Claus". The New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 2022.
  18. ^ a b Barber, Anthony (April 27, 2022). "Toothbrush Mustache - How To Grow and Style". Beardoholic. Retrieved July 1, 2022.
  19. ^ Mayo, Jonathan; Craigie, Emma (April 9, 2015). Hitler's Last Day: Minute by Minute. Short Books. ISBN 978-1-78072-234-4.
  20. ^ "The Case of the Missing Mustache". D23. September 26, 2013. Retrieved July 4, 2022.
  21. ^ "Frank Churchill". D23. Retrieved April 23, 2024.
  22. ^ Poirier, Conrad (September 5, 1940). News. Heinz Convention (Negative film, black and white).
  23. ^ a b c Geoghegan, Tom (August 25, 2009). "Is wearing a 'Hitler' moustache a good idea?". BBC News Magazine. Retrieved June 29, 2022.
  24. ^ "'TOOTHBRUSH' MUSTACHE.; German Women Resent Its Usurpation of the 'Kaiserbart'". The New York Times. October 20, 1907. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  25. ^ a b "Germany Awaits Lieut. Hans Koeppen; From Emperor to Subaltern His Running of the Protos Car Has Aroused Enthusiasm". The New York Times. July 18, 1908. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  26. ^ "El 'vampiro' Peter Kürten: el asesino serial que bebía sangre humana". El Tiempo (in Spanish). November 17, 2021. Retrieved July 26, 2022.
  27. ^ "'Krwawy Peter'. Wstrząsająca historia Wampira z Düsseldorfu". Onet Kultura (in Polish). August 24, 2021. Retrieved July 26, 2022.
  28. ^ Hamann, Brigitte (2010) [1999]. Hitler's Vienna: A Portrait of the Tyrant As a Young Man. London: Tauris Parke Paperbacks. p. 198. ISBN 978-1848852778.
  29. ^ Hitler, Bridget (1979). The Memoirs of Bridget Hitler. London: Duckworth Books. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-7156-1356-6.
  30. ^ Kellerhoff, Sven Felix (October 14, 2010). "Berühmtes Hitler-Foto möglicherweise gefälscht". Die Welt (in German). Retrieved September 30, 2011.
  31. ^ "Famous Hitler photograph declared a fake". Sydney Morning Herald. October 20, 2010. Retrieved March 22, 2022.
  32. ^ "The Rise of Hitler". The History Place. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  33. ^ Paterson, Tony (May 6, 2007). "Hitler was ordered to trim his moustache". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  34. ^ Smith, David Gordon (April 30, 2007). "Eye-Witness Account of Hitler's WWI Years Found". Spiegel Online. Retrieved November 18, 2023.
  35. ^ "Adolf Hitler wounded in British gas attack | October 14, 1918". History. Retrieved November 27, 2023.
  36. ^ Molloy, Tim (August 5, 2014). "How Hitler Got That Mustache, and What Else We Learned From 'World Wars'". TheWrap. Retrieved November 27, 2023.
  37. ^ a b Rosenbaum, Ron (2000). The Secret Parts of Fortune: Three Decades of Intense Investigations and Edgy Enthusiasms. Random House. p. 495. ISBN 978-0-375-50338-2.
  38. ^ "The Opportunist". Hitler. Season 1. Episode 1. 2016. 22 minutes in. American Heroes Channel. Hitler, caught on camera here at a right-wing rally in May 1919 ...
  39. ^ An official document dated 1921 shows Hitler with a traditional moustache. A very early depiction of him with the toothbrush is a photograph from c. 1923.
  40. ^ "Hitler Facts: 10 little-known facts". Military History Matters. November 15, 2010. Retrieved April 29, 2023.
  41. ^ "Adolf Hitler In Military Uniform". Getty Images (in German). October 7, 2016. Retrieved December 2, 2023.
  42. ^ Misch, Rochus (2014) [2008]. Hitler's Last Witness: The Memoirs of Hitler's Bodyguard. London: Frontline Books. pp. 69–70. ISBN 9781848327498.
  43. ^ Wright, Andy (August 17, 2016). "The Wildly Misunderstood Photos of Hitler in Disguise". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved December 16, 2023.
  44. ^ Schroeder, Christa (2009) [1985]. He Was My Chief: The Memoirs of Adolf Hitler's Secretary. Translated by Brooks, Geoffrey. London: Frontline Books. pp. xii, 49. ISBN 978-1-84832-536-4.
  45. ^ Ullrich, Volker (2016). Hitler. Ascent, 1889–1939. London: The Bodley Head. pp. 382–383. ISBN 978-1-84792-286-1.
  46. ^ Petrova, Ada; Watson, Peter (1995). The Death of Hitler: The Full Story with New Evidence from Secret Russian Archives. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 89–90. ISBN 978-0-393-03914-6.
  47. ^ Stilwell, Blake (December 13, 2022). "The FBI had evidence Hitler might have escaped the Red Army and fled to Argentina". We Are The Mighty. Retrieved November 27, 2023.
  48. ^ "Московский Цирк на Цветном Бульваре". Circus Nikulin (in Russian). Archived from the original on February 10, 2007. Retrieved November 4, 2023.
  49. ^ "118 лет Карандашу: Главархив Москвы рассказывает о творчестве известного советского клоуна" [118 Anniversary of Karandash: Archives on Famous Soviet Clown] (in Russian). The official portal of the Moscow Mayor and Moscow Government. December 10, 2019. Archived from the original on August 14, 2020. Retrieved November 4, 2023.
  50. ^ File:Aslanov AA.jpg - Wikimedia Commons
  51. ^ "Exploring Burma Through George Orwell". NPR. July 19, 2005. Retrieved February 29, 2024.
  52. ^ "Great Moments of Poirot's Moustache". AgathaChristie.com. Retrieved February 29, 2024.
  53. ^ "It's Queer How You Remind Me Of Someone, Josef..." Alamy. Retrieved September 17, 2023.
  54. ^ "Everything in 'G', 1941, 51×70 cm by Dmitry Stakhievich Moore (Orlov): History, Analysis & Facts". Arthive. Retrieved April 16, 2024.
  55. ^ Blair, Gwenda (February 8, 2018). "Fred Trump Slays the King of Cooperative Housing". The Gotham Center for New York City History. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
  56. ^ a b Blair, Gwenda (2015) [2000]. The Trumps: Three Generations of Builders and a Presidential Candidate. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 159, 493. ISBN 978-1501139369.
  57. ^ a b Rozhon, Tracie (June 26, 1999). "Fred C. Trump, Postwar Master Builder of Housing for Middle Class, Dies at 93". The New York Times. John Walter. Retrieved July 3, 2022. He had a lot of Jewish tenants and it wasn't a good thing to be German in those days.
  58. ^ Barrett, Wayne (1992). Trump: The Deals and the Downfall. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 35, 44, 55. ISBN 978-0-06-016704-2.
  59. ^ Whitman, Alden (January 28, 1973). "A builder looks back—and moves forward". The New York Times. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
  60. ^ "Fact Check: Trump's dad was not born in Germany". CNN. April 3, 2019. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
  61. ^ Blake, Aaron (April 2, 2019). "Analysis | Trump wrongly claims his dad was born in Germany – for the third time". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
  62. ^ Riotta, Chris (April 3, 2019). "Donald Trump just claimed for fourth time that his father was born in Germany. He was wrong, again". The Independent. Retrieved September 3, 2022.
  63. ^ D'Antonio, Michael (January 23, 2019). "Trump's parents are still watching him". CNN. Retrieved October 10, 2023.
  64. ^ Leonnig, Carol; Rucker, Philip (2021). I Alone Can Fix It: Donald J. Trump's Catastrophic Final Year. New York: Penguin Press. p. 384. ISBN 978-0-593-29894-7.
  65. ^ "Kraut Definition & Meaning". Dictionary.com. Retrieved June 12, 2022.
  66. ^ Joachimsthaler, Anton (1999) [1995]. The Last Days of Hitler: The Legends, The Evidence, The Truth. Translated by Helmut Bölger. London: Brockhampton Press. p. 297. ISBN 978-1-86019-902-8.
  67. ^ "Blaschke, Hugo Johannes". WW2 Gravestone. Retrieved June 9, 2022.
  68. ^ Smith, Candace (February 21, 2012). "Did Hitler Have a Secret Son? Evidence Supports Alleged Son's Claims". ABC News. Retrieved September 7, 2022.
  69. ^ Maser, Werner (February 1978). "Adolf Hitler: Vater eines Sohnes ("Adolf Hitler: Father of a Son")". Zeit Geschichte (in German). pp. 173–202. Retrieved March 25, 2013.
  70. ^ "Otto Dix Paintings, Bio, Ideas". The Art Story. Retrieved March 10, 2024.
  71. ^ "Harry Hanan Louie Sunday Comic Strip Original Art Group of 2 (Press Features/Consolidated News Features, 1950s)". Heritage Auctions. Retrieved February 11, 2023. The little man with the toothbrush moustache and the flat hat (or cap) carries on with his silent misadventures ...
  72. ^ "The Press: Little Guy". Time. April 21, 1947. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved February 12, 2023.
  73. ^ "IOBA Standard: Volume 8(4) Addenda". Independent Online Booksellers Association. 2007. Archived from the original on May 1, 2012. Retrieved February 11, 2023.
  74. ^ Markstein, Donald D. (2007). "Louie". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Retrieved February 12, 2023.
  75. ^ "From the Archives: Dennis the Menace No. 1". Beano.com. March 11, 2021. Retrieved March 10, 2024.
  76. ^ Tezuka, Osamu (2002). Astro Boy: Volume 8. Milwaukie, OR: Dark Horse Comics. p. 80. ISBN 9781569717912.
  77. ^ "Zero, the Invisible Robot". Astro Boy. Season 1. Episode 7. 1963. Mushi Production.
  78. ^ Corvington, Joshua (July 17, 2023). "Marvel: Why J. Jonah Jameson is actually a better man than most people think, explained". Sportskeeda. Retrieved December 2, 2023.
  79. ^ Lee, Stan (September 2, 2014). "My Mustache! - Stan's Rants". MarvelousTV. Retrieved December 2, 2023 – via YouTube.
  80. ^ "Michel Legrand And His Orchestra - I Love Paris | Releases". Discogs. Retrieved February 29, 2024.
  81. ^ Landy, Marcia (2005). Monty Python's Flying Circus. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-8143-3651-9. OCLC 755623810.
  82. ^ "Gumby World Record 2019". Monty Python - Official Site. Retrieved May 2, 2023.
  83. ^ Coles, Leslie Ann (2016). Melody Makers: Should've Been There. 38 minutes in.
  84. ^ a b Davé, Anil (July 6, 2018). "Has Hitler Ruined Growing The Toothbrush Moustache Forever?". Twisted Moustache. Retrieved November 14, 2023. ... a reverse one ... grow a moustache and shave the middle where it would be
  85. ^ Epstein, Dan (September 7, 2020). "Keith Moon's 10 Wildest Pranks". Rolling Stone. Retrieved November 14, 2023.
  86. ^ "Historic Flamin' Groovies Live Date - Closing the Fillmore West 1971". No Depression. April 24, 2017. Retrieved October 30, 2023.
  87. ^ "'60s Rock Band 'Flamin' Groovies'". Getty Images. April 30, 2007. Retrieved October 30, 2023.
  88. ^ a b Trzcinski, Matthew (December 12, 2022). "John Lennon Said a 1970s Star Looked Like 'Hitler Playing a Piano'". Showbiz Cheat Sheet. Retrieved December 20, 2022.
  89. ^ a b McCormick, Neil (July 29, 2021). "The Sparks brothers, interview: 'I didn't grasp the impact of the Hitler business'". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved December 20, 2022.
  90. ^ a b Rees, Jasper (May 6, 2008). "Story of Their Lives: Sparks Will Fly". Intelligent Life. Archived from the original on December 11, 2014.
  91. ^ The Sparks Brothers. 2021. Marc Bolan's doing a song with Adolf Hitler on the television!"
  92. ^ Burlingame, Jeff (2010). John Lennon: "Imagine" (Library ed.). Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7660-3675-8.
  93. ^ Burks, Tosten (April 23, 2018). "John Lennon's Self-Portrait Depicting Himself as Hitler Sells For $54,000". Billboard. Retrieved October 6, 2023.
  94. ^ Harry, Bill (2017). It Was Fifty Years Ago Today! The Beatles: Sgt. Pepper & Beyond. Renoir Pictures. Event occurs at 49 min.
  95. ^ Event occurs at 2:20.
  96. ^ Hill, Logan (January 25, 2015). "8 Things We Learned from the Kurt Cobain Doc at Sundance". Esquire. Retrieved April 30, 2022.
  97. ^ Lockett, Dee (April 28, 2022). "Kurt Cobain Once Dressed Up As Hitler in a Dress to Defend Courtney Love Against Hate Mail". Vulture. Retrieved April 30, 2022.
  98. ^ Rossignol, Derrick (April 27, 2015). "Kurt Cobain + Courtney Love Mock Hate Mail in '92 Home Video". Diffuser.fm. Retrieved April 30, 2022.
  99. ^ Rowling, J. K. (2000). "Bagman and Crouch". Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. ... his narrow toothbrush moustache looked as though he trimmed it using a slide rule.
  100. ^ Herring, Richard (July 31, 2009). "'There isn't a "New Offensiveness"'". The Guardian. Retrieved April 9, 2022.
  101. ^ Frissore, Michael. "Michael Jordan's Hitler Moustache". Slurve. Archived from the original on April 25, 2012.
  102. ^ Kerby, Trey (June 9, 2010). "Charles Barkley says what we're all thinking about MJ's mustache". Yahoo! Sports. Archived from the original on August 4, 2014. Retrieved February 18, 2022.
  103. ^ Edelman, Adam (February 25, 2014). "Unfortunate lighting gives German chancellor a Hitler-style mustache in photo". New York Daily News. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  104. ^ Thompson, Nevin (January 6, 2015). "Why did this man wear a Hitler mustache on Japanese TV? No one really knows". Global Voices Online. Retrieved July 6, 2022 – via The World.
  105. ^ Heller, Steven; Anderson, Gail (2016). The Graphic Design Idea Book: Inspiration from 50 Masters. Quercus Publishing. p. 72. ISBN 978-1-78067-993-8.
  106. ^ Ziv, Stav (October 19, 2017). "Trump photo with Hitler mustache was an 'unfortunate incident,' local Ohio paper apologizes". Newsweek. Retrieved March 31, 2022.
  107. ^ TOI staff (February 28, 2021). "T-shirts of Biden with Hitler mustache on sale at CPAC conference". The Times of Israel. Retrieved July 7, 2022.
  108. ^ Reed, Joseph (May 18, 2018). "28 Hitler or Toothbrush Mustaches That Are Back In 2022". Beard Style. Retrieved July 1, 2022.
  109. ^ "Last Guy to Wear a Hitler Mustache in America | Stuff That Must Have Happened". Cracked.com. November 4, 2011. Retrieved November 18, 2023 – via YouTube. Your facial hair [style is worn] solely by clowns.
  110. ^ Rohrlich, Justin (July 15, 2023). "LAPD Cops Accused of Drawing Hitler Mustache on Suspect Awarded $13 Million". The Daily Beast. Retrieved July 25, 2023.
  111. ^ Cabral, Sam (September 23, 2022). "'Hitler moustache' Capitol rioter sentenced to four years". BBC News. Retrieved July 25, 2023.
  112. ^ Gartenberg, Chaim (March 1, 2021). "Amazon shaves app icon mustache that raised eyebrows". The Verge. Retrieved March 31, 2022.
  113. ^ Gibbons, Aidan (April 7, 2022). "Report: Nash Carter Released By WWE". Cultaholic Wrestling. Retrieved November 5, 2023.
  114. ^ Ham, Ally (January 13, 2023). "Velma – Season 1 Episode 2 'Candy Man' Recap & Review". The Review Geek. Retrieved February 10, 2023.
  115. ^ Walrond, Karen (February 14, 2013). "my top 10 tips for taking a decent self-portrait". Chookooloonks. Retrieved April 19, 2023.
  116. ^ "Ludwig von Mises". Mises Institute. July 28, 2014. Retrieved August 10, 2022.
  117. ^ Dreetz, Dieter; Gessner, Klaus; Sperling, Heinz (1988). Bewaffnete Kämpfe in Deutschland 1918-1923 (1. Aufl ed.). Berlin: Militärverlag der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik. pp. between 176/177. ISBN 3-327-00511-7. OCLC 20041510.
  118. ^ "Jean Sibelius at sibelius.fi". Retrieved August 8, 2022.
  119. ^ "Biography of Lieutenant-General Georgios Tsolakoglou - (Γεώργιος Τσολάκογλου) (1886 – 1948), Greece". Generals.dk. Retrieved July 25, 2022.
  120. ^ "Lot - DR. ERNST-ROBERT GRAWITZ". www.alexautographs.com. Retrieved August 8, 2022.
  121. ^ "Jakob Grimminger | Hitler Archive - Adolf Hitler Biography in Pictures". www.hitler-archive.com. Retrieved August 8, 2022.
  122. ^ "Franz Epp". Spartacus Educational. Retrieved July 25, 2023.
  123. ^ "Bogdan Kobulov: photo, nationality, biography". stuklopechat.com. Retrieved August 8, 2022.
  124. ^ "Prof. Dr. Hulusi Behcet and Behcet's disease". HulusiBehcet.net. Retrieved February 26, 2024.
  125. ^ Dáger, Guillermo Castro (June 14, 2017). "Abdalá Bucaram a la presidencia: A la tercera fue la vencida". El Universo (in Spanish). Retrieved April 22, 2024.