Salvadora persica

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Salvadora persica
Salvadora persica.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Brassicales
Family: Salvadoraceae
Genus: Salvadora
Species: S. persica
Binomial name
Salvadora persica

Salvadora persica (Arak, Galenia asiatica, Meswak, Peelu, Pīlu, Salvadora indica, or toothbrush tree, mustard tree, mustard bush), is a species of Salvadora.[1][2] Salvadora persica has antiurolithiatic properties.[3] Used for centuries as a natural toothbrush, its fibrous branches have been promoted by the World Health Organization for oral hygiene use.[citation needed] Research suggests that it contains a number of medically beneficial properties including abrasives, antiseptics, astringent, detergents, enzyme inhibitors, and fluoride.[4][5][5][6][7][8]


Native to: Algeria, Angola, Botswana, Cameroon, Chad, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kenya, Libya, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe[9] Also occurs in Namibia.[10]


Salvadora persica is a small tree or shrub with a crooked trunk, seldom more than one foot in diameter. Its bark is scabrous and cracked, whitish with pendulous extremities. The root bark of the tree is similar to sand, and the inner surfaces are an even lighter shade of brown. It has a pleasant fragrance, of cress or mustard, as well as a warm and pungent taste. The leaves break with a fine crisp crackle when trodden on. The tree grows to a maximum height of three meters.[11] In Pakistan, these ancient, majestic and sturdy trees are more closely associated with graveyards, like the cypress tree in English culture.[12]

History and use[edit]

Salvadora persica is a popular teeth cleaning stick throughout the Arabian Peninsula, as well as the wider Muslim world.[13] Also commonly referred to as miswak, it is often mentioned that the Islamic Prophet Muhammad recommended its use. He is quoted in various Hadith advising the use of the siwak.[14] Use of the stick dates back to the Babylonians some 7000 years ago. They were also used by the Greeks, Romans, Jews and the Egyptians.

The fresh leaves can be eaten as part of a salad and are used in traditional medicine for cough, asthma, scurvy, rheumatism, piles and other diseases.[11] The flowers are small and fragrant and are used as a stimulant and are mildly purgative.[11] The berries are small and barely noticeable; they are eaten both fresh and dried.[11]

In Namibia the mustard bush is used as a drought-resistant fodder plant for cattle. The Topnaar people that still live on the Kuiseb River use it to feed their goats. The plant's seeds can be used to extract a detergent oil.[10]

As of 2009, Botanic Gardens Conservation International has a total of eight Salvadora persica plants in conservation.[15]

Scientific analysis[edit]

According to chemical and phytochemical analysis of Salvadora persica, there was an occurrence of carbohydrates and/or trimethylamine; an alkaloid which may effectively be salvadorine; chlorides; sulfur; terpenes; vitamin C; glycosides; large amounts of fluoride and silica; small amounts of tannins, saponins, flavonoids and sterols.[16][17]

See also[edit]



  1. ^ "Salvadora persica". World Agroforestry Centre. Retrieved 2009-02-16. 
  2. ^ "Salvadora persica". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved 2009-02-16. 
  3. ^ Geetha K, Manavalan R, Venkappayya D.,"Control of urinary risk factors of stone formation by Salvadora persica in experimental hyperoxaluria." Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2010 Nov;32(9):623-9
  4. ^ "Miswak Stick: The All Natural Toothbrush". 
  5. ^ a b "Miswak Stick: The All Natural Toothbrush". 
  6. ^ Batwa, Mohammed; Jan Bergström; Sarah Batwa; Meshari F. Al-Otaibi (2006). "Significance of chewing sticks (miswak) in oral hygiene from a pharmacological view-point.". Saudi Dental Journal. 18 (3): 125–133. Retrieved 2009-02-16. 
  7. ^ Araya, Yoseph (2008-04-15). "Contribution of Trees for Oral Hygiene in East Africa". Ethnobotanical Leaflets. 11: 38–44. Retrieved 2009-02-16. 
  8. ^ Spina, Mary (1994-04-28). "Toothbrushes - the Miswak Tree" (TXT). University at Buffalo Reporter. 25 (26). Retrieved 2009-02-16. 
  9. ^
  10. ^ a b Rothauge, Axel (25 February 2014). "Staying afloat during a drought". The Namibian. 
  11. ^ a b c d Ra'ed I. Al Sadhan, Khalid Almas (1999). "Miswak (chewing Stick): A Cultural And Scientific Heritage.". Saudi Dental Journal. 11 (2): 80–88. 
  12. ^ S. Abid Hussain, Associate Professor of English, Govt.Degree College No.1, Dera Ismail Khan/Pakistan
  13. ^ National Institute of Industrial Research (2003). Herbs Cultivation & Their Utilization. Delhi: Asia Pacific Business Press. pp. chapter 2. ISBN 978-81-7833-064-8. 
  14. ^ IslamKotob, Muslims and Science, (Islamic Books), p.30.
  15. ^ "Botanic Gardens Conservation International - PlantSearch database|". 
  16. ^ Akhtar, M.S.; M. Ajmal (April 1981). "Significance of chewing-sticks (miswaks) in oral hygiene from a pharmacological view-point". Journal Pakistan Medical Association. 31 (4): 89–95. PMID 6785501. 
  17. ^ Ahmed, Salah; Soaad Esmaeil Essawy El-Gengaihi; Mohamed El-Sayed Ibrahim; Ewald Schnug (2008). "Preliminary phytochemical and propagation trial with Salvadora persica L." (PDF). Agriculture and Forestry Research. 1/2 (58): 135–138. Retrieved 2009-02-16. 

External links[edit]