Aulin studied music at the Royal College of Music in Stockholm (1877-1883) and then in the Conservatory of Berlin (1884-1886) with Émile Sauret and Philipp Scharwenka. From 1889 to 1892 Aulin served as concertmaster of the Royal Swedish Opera in Stockholm. He went on to conduct the principal symphony orchestras of Stockholm and Gothenburg. In 1887 he formed the Aulin Quartet, the first full-time professional quartet in Sweden. It gained an excellent reputation. It disbanded in 1912. Along with Wilhelm Stenhammar, Aulin spearheaded a revival in interest in the work of Franz Berwald, and as soloist he premiered some of Stenhammar's works for violin and orchestra.