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Torbat-e Heydarieh

Coordinates: 35°17′24″N 59°13′01″E / 35.29000°N 59.21694°E / 35.29000; 59.21694
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Torbat-e Heydarieh
Persian: تربت حيدريه
Torbat-e Heydarieh.
the Capital of Persian Red Gold or the Capital of Red Gold of Iran or the Saffron City
Torbat-e Heydarieh is located in Iran
Torbat-e Heydarieh
Torbat-e Heydarieh
Coordinates: 35°17′24″N 59°13′01″E / 35.29000°N 59.21694°E / 35.29000; 59.21694[1]
ProvinceRazavi Khorasan
CountyTorbat-e Heydarieh
 • Urban
Time zoneUTC+3:30 (IRST)
Torbat-e Heydarieh at GEOnet Names Server
A room in Tabasi Caravanserai - Photo by Jalal Mirzaei
A room in Tabasi Caravanserai - Photo by Jalal Mirzaei

Torbat-e Heydarieh (Persian: تربت حيدريه)[a] is a city in the Central District of Torbat-e Heydarieh County, Razavi Khorasan province, Iran, serving as capital of both the county and the district.[4] The closest major city to Torbat is Mashhad, 157 km away.



The name Torbat in Persian means Burial place, thus the name of the city means Burial Place of Heydar named after Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar a Sufi mystic whose tomb lies in the heart of the city.

In ancient times this city was known as Zaveh and in the 19th century it was known as Torbat-e Ishaq Khan or Torbat-e Isa Khan after Ishaq Khan Qaraei the powerful chief of the local Qarai Turks who ruled as a semi-autonomous governor of Torbat-e Heydarieh from 1775 to 1816.[citation needed] It derives its present name from the turbet or tomb of a holy man named Kutb ed din Haidar, the founder of the ascetic sect of dervishes known as the Haidaris. He died c. 1230 and is buried in a large domed building a short distance outside the town.[5]



Following the Mongol invasion of Iran,[6] the people of Zaveh (Old Torbat) were the first victims of the Mongol invasion. At the same time, Qutbuddin Haidar, a famous sixth-century mystic who had long resided in the city of Zaveh, died. Torbat-e Heydarieh became a city after the Safavid period.[7] In fact, the city flourished about two hundred years ago, during the reign of Ishaq Khan Qaraei,[8] one of the Khans and political figures of the Qajar era. Ishaq Khan renovated and developed the city and it created such a massive change in the city that this city has become known as Ishaq Khan Torbat for a long time. Prior to World War II, the British and Russian consulates were located in Torbat-e Heydarieh[citation needed], in the Bagh-e-Soltani area of the city, indicating the city's political and economic importance at the time.





The people of Torbat Heydariyeh speak Persian and Khorasani dialect. The dialect of the people of Torbat Heydariyeh is very close to the dialect of other cities of Khorasan, especially the dialect of Mashhad. Books of poems with Torbati accent such as Samandar Khan Salar written by Ali Akbar Abbasi Fahandari and also Torbati shout by Mohammad Ghahraman have been written.[9]



At the time of the 2006 National Census, the city's population was 119,360 in 31,869 households.[10] The following census in 2011 counted 131,150 people in 37,807 households.[11] The 2016 census measured the population of the city as 140,019 people in 43,029 households.[2] Torbat-e Heydarieh is ranked fourth in the province. The total population of Torbat Heydariyeh County is 224,626 people.[2] Until 1372, the city of Torbat Heydariyeh had the second largest population in the province of Greater Khorasan after Mashhad, which was divided into five cities, making its population rank reduced.[citation needed]





The city is located in the center of Razavi Khorasan province in Iran. This city is famous for its Zafaran (Saffron) fields. Torbat-e Heydarieh is the world's largest Saffron (or Zafaran in Persian) producer[citation needed] hence the nickname "Capital of the Red Gold of Iran" has been given to it.


Climate data for Torbat-e Heydarieh (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 6.0
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −4.2
Average precipitation mm (inches) 41.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 177 181 205 248 311 358 377 369 320 285 221 179 3,231
Source: World Meteorological Organization[12]



Torbat Heydariyeh has two industrial towns and the most important industrial production units of the city include Torbat Heydariyeh Sugar Factory, Zarmehr Gold, Zarrin Tile, Kaolin Factory, also products such as milk and dairies, flour, cumin and cotton gin, animal feed and silk works are also produced in Torbat.[13]

Universities and higher education centers


Torbat Heydariyeh in recent years as a university hub in Khorasan Razavi, has good higher education facilities. Torbat Heydariyeh Higher Education Centers are:

Islamic Azad University Torbat Heydarieh[14]

Torbat Heydariyeh University[15]

Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences[16]


Notable people


See also


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  1. ^ Also romanized as Torbat-e Ḩeydarīyeh; also known as Torbat, Torbat-e Heydari, Torbate Heydari, Turbat-i-Haidari, and Turbet-i-Haidari[3]


  1. ^ OpenStreetMap contributors (9 May 2023). "Torbat-e Heydarieh, Torbat-e Heydarieh County" (Map). OpenStreetMap (in Persian). Retrieved 9 May 2023.
  2. ^ a b c "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1395 (2016)". AMAR (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 09. Archived from the original (Excel) on 2 April 2022. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  3. ^ Torbat-e Heydarieh can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3087658" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
  4. ^ Habibi, Hassan (21 June 1369). "Approval of the organization and chain of citizenship of the elements and units of the divisions of Khorasan province, centered in Mashhad". Lamtakam (in Persian). Ministry of Interior, Defense Political Commission of the Government Council. Archived from the original on 27 December 2023. Retrieved 27 December 2023.
  5. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Turbet i Haidari". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 411.
  6. ^ "The Mongol Invasion of Eastern Persia 1220-1223 | History Today". www.historytoday.com. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  7. ^ "History of Iran: Safavid Empire 1502 - 1736". www.iranchamber.com. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  8. ^ "شهرداری تربت حیدریه - شهرداری تربت حیدریه". 10 December 2018. Archived from the original on 10 December 2018. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  9. ^ "You are being redirected..." www.ettelaat.com. Retrieved 19 January 2022.
  10. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". AMAR (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 09. Archived from the original (Excel) on 20 September 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  11. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1390 (2011)". Syracuse University (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 09. Archived from the original (Excel) on 20 January 2023. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  12. ^ "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1981–2010". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
  13. ^ "User contributions for Hogo-2020 - Wikipedia". en.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  14. ^ "Islamic Azad University Torbat e Heydarieh - | Admission | Tuition | University". www.unipage.net. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  15. ^ niafam.com. "University of Torbat-e Heydarieh (UTH)". opatel.tums.ac.ir. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  16. ^ "Torbat Heydarieh University of Medical Sciences".